Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1580

Search results for: mesoporous materials

1580 High Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells Fabricated under Ambient Conditions with Mesoporous TiO2/In2O3 Scaffold

Authors: A. Apostolopoulou, D. Sygkridou, A. N. Kalarakis, E. Stathatos

Abstract:

Mesoscopic perovskite solar cells (mp-PSCs) with mesoporous bilayer were fabricated under ambient conditions. The bilayer was formed by capping the mesoporous TiO2 layer with a layer of In2O3. CH3NH3I3-xClx mixed halide perovskite was prepared through the one-step method and was used as the light absorber. The mp-PSCs with the composite TiO2/In2O3 mesoporous layer exhibited optimized electrical parameters, compared with the PSCs that employed only a TiO2 mesoporous layer, with a current density of 23.86 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage of 0.863 V, fill factor of 0.6 and a power conversion efficiency of 11.2%. These results indicate that the formation of a proper semiconductor capping layer over the basic TiO2 mesoporous layer can facilitate the electron transfer, suppress the recombination and subsequently lead to higher charge collection efficiency.

Keywords: Ambient conditions, high efficiency solar cells, mesoscopic perovskite solar cells, TiO2/In2O3 bilayer.

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1579 Preparation of Nanocrystalline Mesoporous ThO2 via Surfactant Assisted Sol-gel Procedure

Authors: N. Mohseni, S. Janitabar, S. J. Ahmadi, M. Roshanzamir, M. Thaghizadeh

Abstract:

In this research, thorium dioxide mesoporous nanocrystalline powder was synthesized through the sol-gel method using hydrated thorium nitrate and ammonium hydroxide as starting materials and Triton X100 as surfactant. ThO2 gel was characterized by thermogravimetric (TGA), and prepared ThO2 powder was subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer-Emett-Teller (BET) analyses studies. Detailed analyses show that prepared powder consisted of phase with the space group Fm3m of thoria and its crystalline size was 12.6 nm. The thoria possesses 16.7 m2/g surface area and the pore volume and size calculated to be 0.0423 cc/g and 1.947 nm, respectively.

Keywords: Thoria, sol-gel, mesoporous, nanocrystalline.

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1578 Developing Cu-Mesoporous TiO2 Cooperated with Ozone Assistance and Online- Regeneration System for Acid Odor Removal in All Weather

Authors: Yuchih Lin, Chung-Liang Chang, Hong-Yi Cao, Sheng-Hsuan Hsiao

Abstract:

Cu-mesoporous TiO2 is developed for removal acid odor cooperated with ozone assistance and online- regeneration system with/without UV irradiation (all weather) in study. The results showed that Cu-mesoporous TiO2 present the desirable adsorption efficiency of acid odor without UV irradiation, due to the larger surface area, pore sizeand the additional absorption ability provided by Cu. In the photocatalysis process, the material structure also benefits Cu-mesoporous TiO2 to perform the more outstanding efficiency on degrading acid odor. Cu also postponed the recombination of electron-hole pairs excited from TiO2 to enhance photodegradation ability. Cu-mesoporous TiO2 could gain the conspicuous increase on photocatalysis ability from ozone assistance, but without any benefit on adsorption. In addition, the online regeneration procedure could process the used Cu-mesoporous TiO2 to reinstate the adsorption ability and maintain the photodegradtion performance, depended on scrubbing, desorping acid odor and reducing Cu to metal state.

Keywords: mesoporous material, photocatalyst, adsorption, regeneration usage, photocatalytic ozonation

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1577 Adsorption Kinetics of Alcohols over MCM-41 Materials

Authors: Farouq Twaiq, Mustafa Nasser, Siham Al-Hajri, Mansoor Al-Hasani

Abstract:

Adsorption of methanol and ethanol over mesoporous siliceous material are studied in the current paper. The pure mesoporous silica is prepared using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as silica source and dodecylamine as template at low pH. The prepared material was characterized using nitrogen adsorption,nX-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption kinetics of methanol and ethanol from aqueous solution were studied over the prepared mesoporous silica material. The percent removal of alcohol was calculated per unit mass of adsorbent used. The 1st order model is found to be in agreement with both adsorbates while the 2nd order model fit the adsorption of methanol only.

Keywords: Adsorption, Kinetics, Mesoprous silica, Methanol

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1576 Kinetics and Thermodynamics Adsorption of Phenolic Compounds on Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Mesoporous Material

Authors: Makhlouf Mourad, Messabih Sidi Mohamed, Bouchher Omar, Houali Farida, Benrachedi Khaled

Abstract:

Mesoporous materials are very commonly used as adsorbent materials for removing phenolic compounds. However, the adsorption mechanism of these compounds is still poorly controlled. However, understanding the interactions mesoporous materials/adsorbed molecules is very important in order to optimize the processes of liquid phase adsorption. The difficulty of synthesis is to keep an orderly and cubic pore structure and achieve a homogeneous surface modification. The grafting of Si(CH3)3 was chosen, to transform hydrophilic surfaces hydrophobic surfaces. The aim of this work is to study the kinetics and thermodynamics of two volatile organic compounds VOC phenol (PhOH) and P hydroxy benzoic acid (4AHB) on a mesoporous material of type MCM-48 grafted with an organosilane of the Trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) type, the material thus grafted or functionalized (hereinafter referred to as MCM-48-G). In a first step, the kinetic and thermodynamic study of the adsorption isotherms of each of the VOCs in mono-solution was carried out. In a second step, a similar study was carried out on a mixture of these two compounds. Kinetic models (pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order) were used to determine kinetic adsorption parameters. The thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption isotherms were determined by the adsorption models (Langmuir, Freundlich). The comparative study of adsorption of PhOH and 4AHB proved that MCM-48-G had a high adsorption capacity for PhOH and 4AHB; this may be related to the hydrophobicity created by the organic function of TMCS in MCM-48-G. The adsorption results for the two compounds using the Freundlich and Langmuir models show that the adsorption of 4AHB was higher than PhOH. The values ​​obtained by the adsorption thermodynamics show that the adsorption interactions for our sample with the phenol and 4AHB are of a physical nature. The adsorption of our VOCs on the MCM-48 (G) is a spontaneous and exothermic process.

Keywords: Adsorption, kinetics, isotherm, mesoporous materials, TMCS, phenol, P-hydroxy benzoic acid.

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1575 Synthesis, Characterization and PL Properties of Cds Nanoparticles Confined within a Functionalized SBA-15 Mesoprous

Authors: Azam Anaraki Firooz, Ali Reza Mahjoub, Reza Donyaei Ziba

Abstract:

A simple and dexterous in situ method was introduced to load CdS nanocrystals into organofunctionalized mesoporous, which used an ion-exchange method. The products were extensively characterized by combined spectroscopic methods. X- ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) demonstrated both the maintenance of pore symmetry (space group p6mm) of SBA-15 and the presence of CdS nanocrystals with uniform sizes of about 6 - 8 nm inside the functionalized SBA-15 channels. These mesoporous silica-supported CdS composites showed room temperature photoluminescence properties with a blue shift, indicating the quantum size effect of nanocrystalline CdS.

Keywords: Semiconductors, luminescence, mesoporous material, CdS.

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1574 Mesoporous Material Nanofibers by Electrospinning

Authors: Sh. Sohrabnezhad, A. Jafarzadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, MCM-41 mesoporous material nanofibers were synthesized by an electrospinning technique. The nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as a silica source and fiber forming source, respectively. TEM and SEM images showed synthesis of MCM-41 nanofibers with a diameter of 200 nm. The pore diameter and surface area of calcined MCM-41 nanofibers was 2.2 nm and 970 m2/g, respectively. The morphology of the MCM-41 nanofibers depended on spinning voltages.

Keywords: Electrospinning, electron microscopy, fiber technology, porous materials, X-ray techniques.

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1573 Adsorption of Acetone Vapors by SBA-16 and MCM-48 Synthesized from Rice Husk Ash

Authors: Wanting Zeng, Hsunling Bai

Abstract:

Silica was extracted from agriculture waste rice husk ash (RHA) and was used as the silica source for synthesis of RMCM-48 and RSBA-16. An alkali fusion process was utilized to separate silicate supernatant and the sediment effectively. The CTAB/Si and F127/Si molar ratio was employed to control the structure properties of the obtained RMCM-48 and RSBA-16 materials. The N2 adsorption-desorption results showed the micro-mesoporous RSBA-16 possessed high specific surface areas (662-1001 m2/g). All the obtained RSBA-16 materials were applied as the adsorbents for acetone adsorption. And the breakthrough tests clearly revealed that the RSBA-16(0.004) materials could achieve the highest acetone adsorption capacity of 181 mg/g under 1000 ppmv acetone vapor concentration at 25oC, which was also superior to ZSM-5 (71mg/g) and MCM-41 (157mg/g) under same test conditions. This can help to reduce the solid waste and the high adsorption performance of the obtained materials could consider as potential adsorbents for acetone adsorption.

Keywords: Acetone, adsorption, micro-mesoporous material, rice husk ash (RHA), RSBA-16.

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1572 Deoxygenation of Beef Fat over Pd Supported Mesoporous TiO2 Catalyst Prepared by Single-Step Sol-Gel Process with Surfactant Template

Authors: Tossaporn Jindarat, Siriporn Jongpatiwut, Somchai Osuwan, Suchada Butnark

Abstract:

Deoxygenation of beef fat for the production of hydrogenated biodiesel is investigated in a high pressure continuous flow fixed bed reactor over palladium-supported mesoporous titania catalyst synthesized via a combined single-step sol-gel process with surfactant-assisted templating method (SATM). The catalyst possessed a mesoporous charactheristic with high surface area and narrow pore size distribution. The main products of all Pd/TiO2 catalysts are n-heptadecane (n-C17) and n-pentadecane (n-C15) resulting from decarbonylation reaction. Pd/TiO2 catalyst synthesized via a combined single-step sol-gel process with SATM (SSSG) gave higher activity and selectivity to the desired products when compared to IWI/SG-TiO2 and IWI/P25-TiO2, respectively. SSSG catalyst gave the average conversion up to 80-90 % and 80 % for the selectivity in diesel range hydrocarbons. This result may cause by the higher surface area and the ability in dispersion of palladium ion in mesoporous of TiO2 during sol-gel process.

Keywords: Beef fat, Deoxygenation, Hydrogenated biodiesel, Pd/TiO2

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1571 Removal of Ciprofloxazin and Carbamazepine by Adsorption on Functionalized Mesoporous Silicates

Authors: Patiparn Punyapalakul, Thitikamon Sitthisorn

Abstract:

Ciprofloxacin (CIP) and Carbamazepine (CBZ), nonbiodegradable pharmaceutical residues, were become emerging pollutants in several aquatic environments. The objectives of this research were to study the possibility to recover these pharmaceuticals residues from pharmaceutical wastewater by increasing the selective adsorption on synthesized functionalized porous silicate, comparing with powdered activated carbon (PAC). Hexagonal mesoporous silicate (HMS), functionalized HMSs (3- aminopropyltriethoxy, 3- mercaptopropyltrimethoxy and noctyldimethyl) were synthesized and characterized physico-chemical characteristics. Obtained adsorption kinetics and isotherms showed that 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxy functional groups grafted on HMS provided highest CIP and CBZ adsorption capacities; however, it was still lower than that of PAC. The kinetic results were compatible with pseudo-second order. The hydrophobicity and hydrogen bonding might play a key role on the adsorption. Furthermore, the capacities were affected by varying pH values due to the strength of hydrogen bonding between targeted compounds and adsorbents. Electrostatic interaction might not affect the adsorption capacities.

Keywords: Adsorption, Carbamazepine, Ciprofloxazin, Mesoporous Silicates, Surface functional groups

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1570 Investigation of Mesoporous Silicon Carbonization Process

Authors: N. I. Kargin, G. K. Safaraliev, A. S. Gusev, A. O. Sultanov, N. V. Siglovaya, S. M. Ryndya, A. A. Timofeev

Abstract:

In this paper, an experimental and theoretical study of the processes of mesoporous silicon carbonization during the formation of buffer layers for the subsequent epitaxy of 3C-SiC films and related wide-band-gap semiconductors is performed. Experimental samples were obtained by the method of chemical vapor deposition and investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Analytic expressions were obtained for the effective diffusion factor and carbon atoms diffusion length in a porous system. The proposed model takes into account the processes of Knudsen diffusion, coagulation and overgrowing of pores during the formation of a silicon carbide layer.

Keywords: Silicon carbide, porous silicon, carbonization, electrochemical etching, diffusion.

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1569 Adsorption of Phenol and 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid onto Functional Materials

Authors: Mourad Makhlouf, Omar Bouchher, Messabih Sidi Mohamed, Benrachedi Khaled

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate the removal of two organic pollutants; 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-hydroxybenzoic acid) and phenol from synthetic wastewater by the adsorption on mesoporous materials. In this context, the aim of this work is to study the adsorption of organic compounds phenol and 4AHB on MCM-41 and FSM-16 non-grafted (NG) and other grafted (G) by trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The results of phenol and 4AHB adsorption in aqueous solution show that the adsorption capacity tends to increase after grafting in relation to the increase in hydrophobicity. The materials are distinguished by a higher adsorption capacity to the other NG materials. The difference in the phenol is 14.43% (MCM-41), 14.55% (FSM-16), and 16.72% (MCM-41), 13.57% (FSM-16) in the 4AHB. Our adsorption results show that the grafted materials by TMCS are good adsorbent at 25 °C.

Keywords: MCM-41, FSM-16, TMCS, phenol, 4AHB.

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1568 Preparation, Characterisation, and Measurement of the in vitro Cytotoxicity of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Loaded with Cytotoxic Pt(II) Oxadiazoline Complexes

Authors: G. Wagner, R. Herrmann

Abstract:

Cytotoxic platinum compounds play a major role in the chemotherapy of a large number of human cancers. However, due to the severe side effects for the patient and other problems associated with their use, there is a need for the development of more efficient drugs and new methods for their selective delivery to the tumours. One way to achieve the latter could be in the use of nanoparticular substrates that can adsorb or chemically bind the drug. In the cell, the drug is supposed to be slowly released, either by physical desorption or by dissolution of the particle framework. Ideally, the cytotoxic properties of the platinum drug unfold only then, in the cancer cell and over a longer period of time due to the gradual release. In this paper, we report on our first steps in this direction. The binding properties of a series of cytotoxic Pt(II) oxadiazoline compounds to mesoporous silica particles has been studied by NMR and UV/vis spectroscopy. High loadings were achieved when the Pt(II) compound was relatively polar, and has been dissolved in a relatively nonpolar solvent before the silica was added. Typically, 6-10 hours were required for complete equilibration, suggesting the adsorption did not only occur to the outer surface but also to the interior of the pores. The untreated and Pt(II) loaded particles were characterised by C, H, N combustion analysis, BET/BJH nitrogen sorption, electron microscopy (REM and TEM) and EDX. With the latter methods we were able to demonstrate the homogenous distribution of the Pt(II) compound on and in the silica particles, and no Pt(II) bulk precipitate had formed. The in vitro cytotoxicity in a human cancer cell line (HeLa) has been determined for one of the new platinum compounds adsorbed to mesoporous silica particles of different size, and compared with the corresponding compound in solution. The IC50 data are similar in all cases, suggesting that the release of the Pt(II) compound was relatively fast and possibly occurred before the particles reached the cells. Overall, the platinum drug is chemically stable on silica and retained its activity upon prolonged storage.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, mesoporous silica, nanoparticles platinum compounds.

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1567 Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO/Mesoporous Silica Nanocomposite

Authors: K. Sowri Babu, P. Srinath, N. Rajeswara Rao, K. Venugopal Reddy

Abstract:

The effect of gamma ray irradiation on morphology and optical properties of ZnO/Mesoporous silica (MPS) nanocomposite was studied. The ZnO/MPS nanocomposite was irradiated with gamma rays of doses 30, 60, and 90 kGy and dose-rate of irradiation was 0.15 kGy/hour. Irradiated samples are characterized with FE-SEM, FT-IR, UV-vis, and Photoluminescence (PL) spectrometers. SEM pictures showed that morphology changed from spherical to flake like morphology. UV-vis analysis showed that the band gap increased with increase of gamma ray irradiation dose. This enhancement of the band gap is assigned to the depletion of oxygen vacancies with irradiation. The intensity of PL peak decreased gradually with increase of gamma ray irradiation dose. The decrease in PL intensity is attributed to the decrease of oxygen vacancies at the interface due to poor interface and improper passivation between ZnO/MPS.

Keywords: ZnO nanoparticles, photoluminescence, porous silicon, nanocomposites.

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1566 Kinetics of Palm Oil Cracking in Batch Reactor

Authors: Farouq Twaiq, Ishaq Al-Anbari, Mustafa Nasser

Abstract:

The kinetics of palm oil catalytic cracking over aluminum containing mesoporous silica Al-MCM-41 (5% Al) was investigated in a batch autoclave reactor at the temperatures range of 573 – 673 K. The catalyst was prepared by using sol-gel technique and has been characterized by nitrogen adsorption and x-ray diffraction methods. Surface area of 1276 m2/g with average pore diameter of 2.54 nm and pore volume of 0.811 cm3/g was obtained. The experimental catalytic cracking runs were conducted using 50 g of oil and 1 g of catalyst. The reaction pressure was recorded at different time intervals and the data were analyzed using Levenberg- Marquardt (LM) algorithm using polymath software. The results show that the reaction order was found to be -1.5 and activation energy of 3200 J/gmol.

Keywords: Batch Reactor, Catalytic Cracking, Kinetics, Palm Oil.

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1565 Uranium Adsorption Using a Composite Material Based on Platelet SBA-15 Supported Tin Salt Tungstomolybdophosphoric Acid

Authors: H. Aghayan, F. A. Hashemi, R. Yavari, S. Zolghadri

Abstract:

In this work, a new composite adsorbent based on a mesoporous silica SBA-15 with platelet morphology and tin salt of tungstomolybdophosphoric (TWMP) acid was synthesized and applied for uranium adsorption from aqueous solution. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transfer infra-red, and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, and then, effect of various parameters such as concentration of metal ions and contact time on adsorption behavior was examined. The experimental result showed that the adsorption process was explained by the Langmuir isotherm model very well, and predominant reaction mechanism is physisorption. Kinetic data of adsorption suggest that the adsorption process can be described by the pseudo second-order reaction rate model.

Keywords: Platelet SBA-15, tungstomolybdophosphoric acid, adsorption, uranium ion.

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1564 Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Size Prepared by Photoreduction Method on Optical Absorption Spectra of TiO2/Ag/N719 Dye Composite Films

Authors: C. Photiphitak, P. Rakkwamsuk, P. Muthitamongkol, C. Sae-Kung, C. Thanachayanont

Abstract:

TiO2/Ag composite films were prepared by incorporating Ag in the pores of mesoporous TiO2 films using a photoreduction method. The Ag nanoparticle sizes were in a range of 3.66-38.56 nm. The TiO2/Ag composite films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscropy (TEM). The TiO2 films and TiO2/Ag composite films were immersed in a 0.3 mM N719 dye solution and characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The TiO2/Ag/N719 composite film showed that an optimal size of Ag nanoparticles was 19.12 nm and, hence, gave the maximum optical absorption spectra. The improved absorption was due to surface plasmon resonance induced by the Ag nanoparticles to enhance the absorption coefficient of the dye.

Keywords: Silver nanoparticle, TiO2/Ag composite films, Optical properties, surface plasmon resonance

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1563 Preparation and Characterization of MoO3/Al2O3 Catalyst for Oxidative Desulfurization of Diesel using H2O2: Effect of Drying Method and Mo Loading

Authors: Azam Akbari, Mohammadreza Omidkhah, Jafar Toufighi Darian

Abstract:

The mesoporous MoO3/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method aiming to investigate the effect of drying method and molybdenum content on the catalyst property and performance towards the oxidation of benzothiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 4,6-dimethyle dibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) with H2O2 for deep oxidative desulfurization of diesel fuel. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, BET, BJH and SEM method. The catalyst with 10wt.% and 15wt.% Mo content represent same optimum performance for DBT and 4,6-DMDBT removal, but a catalyst with 10wt.% Mo has higher efficiency than 15wt.% Mo for BT conversion. The SEM images show that use of rotary evaporator in drying step reaches a more homogenous impregnation. The oxidation reactivity of different sulfur compounds was studied which followed the order of DBT>4,6-DMDBT>>BT.

Keywords: desulfurization, oxidation, MoO3/Al2O3 catalyst

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1562 Lightweight Materials Obtained by Utilization of Agricultural Waste

Authors: Bogdan Bogdanov, Irena Markovska, Yancho Hristov, Dimitar Georgiev

Abstract:

Lightweight ceramic materials in the form of bricks and blocks are widely used in modern construction. They may be obtained by adding of rice husk, rye straw, etc, as porous forming materials. Rice husk is a major by-product of the rice milling industry. Its utilization as a valuable product has always been a problem. Various technologies for utilization of rice husk through biological and thermochemical conversion are being developed. The purpose of this work is to develop lightweight ceramic materials with clay matrix and filler of rice husk and examine their main physicomechanical properties. The results obtained allow to suppose that the materials synthesized on the basis of waste materials can be used as lightweight materials for construction purpose.

Keywords: lightweight ceramic materials, properties, agro-waste

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1561 Hydrogenation of CO2 to Methanol over Copper-Zinc Oxide-Based Catalyst

Authors: S. F. H. Tasfy, N. A. M. Zabidi, M. S. Shaharun

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide is highly thermochemical stable molecules where it is very difficult to activate the molecule and achieve higher catalytic conversion into alcohols or other hydrocarbon compounds. In this paper, series of the bimetallic Cu/ZnO-based catalyst supported by SBA-15 were systematically prepared via impregnation technique with different Cu: Zn ratio for hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), temperature programmed desorption, reduction, oxidation and pulse chemisorption (TPDRO), and surface area determination was also performed. All catalysts were tested with respect to the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol in microactivity fixed-bed reactor at 250oC, 2.25 MPa, and H2/CO2 ratio of 3. The results demonstrate that the catalytic structure, activity, and methanol selectivity was strongly affected by the ratio between Cu: Zn, Where higher catalytic activity of 14 % and methanol selectivity of 92 % was obtained over Cu/ZnO-SBA-15 catalyst with Cu:Zn ratio of 7:3 wt. %. Comparing with the single catalyst, the synergetic between Cu and Zn provides additional active sites to adsorb more H2 and CO2 and accelerate the CO2 conversion, resulting in higher methanol production under mild reaction conditions.

Keywords: Hydrogenation of carbon dioxide, methanol synthesis, Cu/ZnO-based catalyst, mesoporous silica (SBA-15), and metal ratio.

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1560 Development of a Nano-Alumina-Zirconia Composite Catalyst as an Active Thin Film in Biodiesel Production

Authors: N. Marzban, J. K. Heydarzadeh M. Pourmohammadbagher, M. H. Hatami, A. Samia

Abstract:

A nano-alumina-zirconia composite catalyst was synthesized by a simple aqueous sol-gel method using AlCl3.6H2O and ZrCl4 as precursors. Thermal decomposition of the precursor and subsequent formation of γ-Al2O3 and t-Zr were investigated by thermal analysis. XRD analysis showed that γ-Al2O3 and t-ZrO2 phases were formed at 700 °C. FT-IR analysis also indicated that the phase transition to γ-Al2O3 occurred in corroboration with X-ray studies. TEM analysis of the calcined powder revealed that spherical particles were in the range of 8-12 nm. The nano-alumina-zirconia composite particles were mesoporous and uniformly distributed in their crystalline phase. In order to measure the catalytic activity, esterification reaction was carried out. Biodiesel, as a renewable fuel, was formed in a continuous packed column reactor. Free fatty acid (FFA) was esterified with ethanol in a heterogeneous catalytic reactor. It was found that the synthesized γ-Al2O3/ZrO2 composite had the potential to be used as a heterogeneous base catalyst for biodiesel production processes.

Keywords: Nano-alumina-zirconia, composite catalyst, thin film, biodiesel.

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1559 Adsorption of Lead(II) and Cadmium(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption on Activated Carbon Prepared from Cashew Nut Shells

Authors: S. Tangjuank, N. Insuk , J. Tontrakoon , V. Udeye

Abstract:

Cashew nut shells were converted into activated carbon powders using KOH activation plus CO2 gasification at 1027 K. The increase both of impregnation ratio and activation time, there was swiftly the development of mesoporous structure with increasing of mesopore volume ratio from 20-28% and 27-45% for activated carbon with ratio of KOH per char equal to 1 and 4, respectively. Activated carbon derived from KOH/char ratio equal to 1 and CO2 gasification time from 20 to 150 minutes were exhibited the BET surface area increasing from 222 to 627 m2.g-1. And those were derived from KOH/char ratio of 4 with activation time from 20 to 150 minutes exhibited high BET surface area from 682 to 1026 m2.g-1. The adsorption of Lead(II) and Cadmium(II) ion was investigated. This adsorbent exhibited excellent adsorption for Lead(II) and Cadmium(II) ion. Maximum adsorption presented at 99.61% at pH 6.5 and 98.87% at optimum conditions. The experimental data was calculated from Freundlich isotherm and Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum capacity of Pb2+ and Cd2+ ions was found to be 28.90 m2.g-1 and 14.29 m2.g-1, respectively.

Keywords: Activated carbon, cashew nut shell, heavy metals, adsorption.

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1558 Fabrication and Characterization of CdS Nanoparticles Annealed by using Different Radiations

Authors: Aneeqa Sabah, Saadat Anwar Siddiqi, Salamat Ali

Abstract:

The systematic manipulations of shapes and sizes of inorganic compounds greatly benefit the various application fields including optics, magnetic, electronics, catalysis and medicine. However shape control has been much more difficult to achieve. Hence exploration of novel method for the preparation of differently shaped nanoparticles is challenging research area. II-VI group of semiconductor cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanostructure with different morphologies (such as, acicular like, mesoporous, spherical shapes) and of crystallite sizes vary from 11 to 16 nm were successfully synthesized by chemical aqueous precipitation of Cd2+ ions with homogeneously released S2- ions from decomposition of cadmium sulphate (CdSO4) and thioacetamide (CH3CSNH2) by annealing at different radiations (microwave, ultrasonic and sunlight) with matter and systematic research has been done for various factors affecting the controlled growth rate of CdS nanoparticles. The obtained nanomaterials have been characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravometric (DSC-TGA) analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result indicates that on increasing the reaction time particle size increases but on increasing the molar ratios grain size decreases.

Keywords: CdS nanoparticles, Morphology, Oxidation, Radiations

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1557 Testing of Materials for Rapid Prototyping Fused Deposition Modelling Technology

Authors: L. Novakova-Marcincinova, J. Novak-Marcincin

Abstract:

Paper presents knowledge about types of test in area of materials properties of selected methods of rapid prototyping technologies. In today used rapid prototyping technologies for production of models and final parts are used materials in initial state as solid, liquid or powder material structure. In solid state are used various forms such as pellets, wire or laminates. Basic range materials include paper, nylon, wax, resins, metals and ceramics. In Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) rapid prototyping technology are mainly used as basic materials ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene), polyamide, polycarbonate, polyethylene and polypropylene. For advanced FDM applications are used special materials as silicon nitrate, PZT (Piezoceramic Material - Lead Zirconate Titanate), aluminium oxide, hydroxypatite and stainless steel.

Keywords: Rapid prototyping, materials, testing of materials.

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1556 Performance Enhancement of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by MgO Coating on TiO2 Electrodes

Authors: C. Photiphitak, P. Rakkwamsuk, P. Muthitamongkol, C. Thanachayanont

Abstract:

TiO2/MgO composite films were prepared by coating the magnesium acetate solution in the pores of mesoporous TiO2 films using a dip coating method. Concentrations of magnesium acetate solution were varied in a range of 1x10-4 – 1x10-1 M. The TiO2/MgO composite films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscropy (TEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS) , transient voltage decay and I-V test. The TiO2 films and TiO2/MgO composite films were immersed in a 0.3 mM N719 dye solution. The Dye-sensitized solar cells with the TiO2/MgO/N719 structure showed an optimal concentration of magnesium acetate solution of 1x10-3 M resulting in the MgO film estimated thickness of 0.0963 nm and giving the maximum efficiency of 4.85%. The improved efficiency of dyesensitized solar cell was due to the magnesium oxide film as the wide band gap coating decays the electron back transfer to the triiodide electrolyte and reduce charge recombination.

Keywords: Magnesium oxide thin film, TiO2/MgO composite films, Electrochemical Impedance Spectrum, Transient voltage decay

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1555 Material Analysis for Temple Painting Conservation in Taiwan

Authors: Chen-Fu Wang, Lin-Ya Kung

Abstract:

For traditional painting materials, the artisan used to combine the pigments with different binders to create colors. As time goes by, the materials used for painting evolved from natural to chemical materials. The vast variety of ingredients used in chemical materials has complicated restoration work; it makes conservation work more difficult. Conservation work also becomes harder when the materials cannot be easily identified; therefore, it is essential that we take a more scientific approach to assist in conservation work. Paintings materials are high molecular weight polymer, and their analysis is very complicated as well other contamination such as smoke and dirt can also interfere with the analysis of the material. The current methods of composition analysis of painting materials include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), mass spectrometer, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), each of which has its own limitation. In this study, FT-IR was used to analyze the components of the paint coating. We have taken the most commonly seen materials as samples and deteriorated it. The aged information was then used for the database to exam the temple painting materials. By observing the FT-IR changes over time, we can tell all of the painting materials will be deteriorated by the UV light, but only the speed of its degradation had some difference. From the deterioration experiment, the acrylic resin resists better than the others. After collecting the painting materials aging information on FT-IR, we performed some test on the paintings on the temples. It was found that most of the artisan used tune-oil for painting materials, and some other paintings used chemical materials. This method is now working successfully on identifying the painting materials. However, the method is destructive and high cost. In the future, we will work on the how to know the painting materials more efficiently.

Keywords: Temple painting, painting material, conservation, FT-IR.

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1554 Polymer Industrial Floors - The Possibility of Using Secondary Raw Materials from Solar Panels

Authors: J. Kosikova, B. Vacenovska, M. Vyhnankova

Abstract:

The paper reports on the subject of recycling and further use of secondary raw materials obtained from solar panels, which is becoming a very up to date topic in recent years. Recycling these panels is very difficult and complex, and the use of resulting secondary raw materials is still not fully resolved. Within the research carried out at the Brno University of Technology, new polymer materials used for industrial floors are being developed. Secondary raw materials are incorporated into these polymers as fillers. One of the tested filler materials was glass obtained from solar panels. The following text describes procedures and results of the tests that were performed on these materials, confirming the possibility of the use of solar panel glass in industrial polymer flooring systems.

Keywords: Fillers, industrial floors, recycling, secondary raw material, solar panel.

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1553 Study of Hydrothermal Behavior of Thermal Insulating Materials Based On Natural Fibers

Authors: J. Zach, J. Hroudova, J. Brozovsky

Abstract:

Thermal insulation materials based on natural fibers represent a very promising area of materials based on natural easy renewable row sources. These materials may be in terms of the properties of most competing synthetic insulations, but show somewhat higher moisture sensitivity and thermal insulation properties are strongly influenced by the density and orientation of fibers. The paper described the problem of hygrothermal behavior of thermal insulation materials based on natural plant and animal fibers. This is especially the dependence of the thermal properties of these materials on the type of fiber, bulk density, temperature, moisture and the fiber orientation.

Keywords: Thermal insulating materials, hemp fibers, sheep wool fibers, thermal conductivity, moisture.

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1552 Lightweight Materials for Building Finishing

Authors: Sarka Keprdova, Nikol Zizkova

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the presentation of results which were obtained as a part of the project FR-TI 3/742: “System of Lightweight Materials for Finishing of Buildings with Waste Raw Materials”. Attention was paid to the light weighting of polymermodified mortars applicable as adhesives, screeds and repair mortars. In terms of repair mortars, they were ones intended for the sanitation of aerated concrete.

Keywords: Additives, light aggregates, lightweight materials, lightweight mortars, polymer-modified mortars.

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1551 Beliefs in Auspicious Materials of Shop Entrepreneurs in Maung Hat Yai, Thailand

Authors: Punya Tepsing

Abstract:

This research aimed to study the beliefs in auspicious materials of entrepreneurs in Muang Hat Yai. The data were collected via documentary research and field work including interviews, observations shops in Hat Yai which used auspicious materials to bring lucks to the shops. The results were as follows. The beliefs in auspicious materials that the entrepreneurs had were of three areas: 1) The auspicious materials could correct the improperness of the shop location, for example, the shop situated opposite a branch road, a shrine, or a bank. The owner usually corrected it by putting Chinese auspicious materials in front of or in the shop, for example, a lion holding a sword in his mouth, or a mirror, etc. 2) The auspicious materials could bring in more income. The owner of the shop usually put the auspicious materials such as a cat beckoning and a bamboo fish trap believed to trap money in front of or inside the shop. 3) The auspicious materials like turtles, paired fish and a monster holding the moon in his mouth could solve life problems including health, family, and safety problems. The use of these auspicious materials showed the blending of the beliefs of the Chinese shop entrepreneurs with the Thai folk beliefs. What is interesting is that Hat Yai is located near the three southern border provinces which are the unrest area and this may cause the number of tourists to decline. This prompted them to build a mechanism in adjusting themselves both to save their lives and to increase the number of customers. Auspicious materials can make them feel more confident.

Keywords: Belief, auspicious materials, shop, entrepreneur, Maung Hat Yai.

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