Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1614

Search results for: lightweight materials

1614 Lightweight Materials for Building Finishing

Authors: Sarka Keprdova, Nikol Zizkova

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the presentation of results which were obtained as a part of the project FR-TI 3/742: “System of Lightweight Materials for Finishing of Buildings with Waste Raw Materials”. Attention was paid to the light weighting of polymermodified mortars applicable as adhesives, screeds and repair mortars. In terms of repair mortars, they were ones intended for the sanitation of aerated concrete.

Keywords: Additives, light aggregates, lightweight materials, lightweight mortars, polymer-modified mortars.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2644
1613 Lightweight Materials Obtained by Utilization of Agricultural Waste

Authors: Bogdan Bogdanov, Irena Markovska, Yancho Hristov, Dimitar Georgiev

Abstract:

Lightweight ceramic materials in the form of bricks and blocks are widely used in modern construction. They may be obtained by adding of rice husk, rye straw, etc, as porous forming materials. Rice husk is a major by-product of the rice milling industry. Its utilization as a valuable product has always been a problem. Various technologies for utilization of rice husk through biological and thermochemical conversion are being developed. The purpose of this work is to develop lightweight ceramic materials with clay matrix and filler of rice husk and examine their main physicomechanical properties. The results obtained allow to suppose that the materials synthesized on the basis of waste materials can be used as lightweight materials for construction purpose.

Keywords: lightweight ceramic materials, properties, agro-waste

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1704
1612 Structural Behavior of Lightweight Concrete Made With Scoria Aggregates and Mineral Admixtures

Authors: M. Shannag, A. Charif, S. Naser, F. Faisal, A. Karim

Abstract:

Structural lightweight concrete is used primarily to reduce the dead-load weight in concrete members such as floors in high-rise buildings and bridge decks. With given materials, it is generally desired to have the highest possible strength/unit weight ratio with the lowest cost of concrete. The work presented herein is part of an ongoing research project that investigates the properties of concrete mixes containing locally available Scoria lightweight aggregates and mineral admixtures. Properties considered included: workability, unit weight, compressive strength, and splitting tensile strength. Test results indicated that developing structural lightweight concretes (SLWC) using locally available Scoria lightweight aggregates and specific blends of silica fume and fly ash seems to be feasible. The stress-strain diagrams plotted for the structural LWC mixes developed in this investigation were comparable to a typical stress-strain diagram for normal weight concrete with relatively larger strain capacity at failure in case of LWC.

Keywords: Lightweight Concrete, Scoria, Stress, Strain, Silica fume, Fly Ash.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3266
1611 On the Construction of Lightweight Circulant Maximum Distance Separable Matrices

Authors: Qinyi Mei, Li-Ping Wang

Abstract:

MDS matrices are of great significance in the design of block ciphers and hash functions. In the present paper, we investigate the problem of constructing MDS matrices which are both lightweight and low-latency. We propose a new method of constructing lightweight MDS matrices using circulant matrices which can be implemented efficiently in hardware. Furthermore, we provide circulant MDS matrices with as few bit XOR operations as possible for the classical dimensions 4 × 4, 8 × 8 over the space of linear transformations over finite field F42 . In contrast to previous constructions of MDS matrices, our constructions have achieved fewer XORs.

Keywords: Linear diffusion layer, circulant matrix, lightweight, MDS matrix.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 607
1610 Development of Palm Kernel Shell Lightweight Masonry Mortar

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole

Abstract:

There need to construct building walls with lightweight masonry bricks/blocks and mortar to reduce the weight and cost of cooling/heating of buildings in hot/cold climates is growing partly due to legislations on energy use and global warming. In this paper, the development of Palm Kernel Shell masonry mortar (PKSMM) prepared with Portland cement and crushed PKS fine aggregate (an agricultural waste) is demonstrated. We show that PKSMM can be used as a lightweight mortar for the construction of lightweight masonry walls with good thermal insulation efficiency than the natural river sand commonly used for masonry mortar production.

Keywords: Building walls, fine aggregate, lightweight masonry mortar, palm kernel shell, wall thermal insulation efficacy.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 732
1609 Using Waste Marbles in Self Compacting Lightweight Concrete

Authors: Z. Funda Türkmenoğlu, Mehmet Türkmenoglu, Demet Yavuz,

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of waste marbles as aggregate material on workability and hardened concrete characteristics of self compacting lightweight concrete are investigated. For this purpose, self compacting light weight concrete are produced by waste marble aggregates are replaced with fine aggregate at 5%, 7.5%, and 10% ratios. Fresh concrete properties, slump flow, T50 time, V funnel, compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity of self compacting lightweight concrete are determined. It is concluded from the test results that using waste marbles as aggregate material by replacement with fine aggregate slightly affects fresh and hardened concrete characteristics of self compacting lightweight concretes.

Keywords: Hardened concrete characteristics, self compacting lightweight concrete, waste marble, workability.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1002
1608 Feasibility of a Biopolymer as Lightweight Aggregate in Perlite Concrete

Authors: Ali A. Sayadi, Thomas R. Neitzert, G. Charles Clifton

Abstract:

Lightweight concrete is being used in the construction industry as a building material in its own right. Ultra-lightweight concrete can be applied as a filler and support material for the manufacturing of composite building materials. This paper is about the development of a stable and reproducible ultra-lightweight concrete with the inclusion of poly-lactic acid (PLA) beads and assessing the feasibility of PLA as a lightweight aggregate that will deliver advantages such as a more eco-friendly concrete and a non-petroleum polymer aggregate. In total, sixty-three samples were prepared and the effectiveness of mineral admixture, curing conditions, water-cement ratio, PLA ratio, EPS ratio and perlite ratio on compressive strength of perlite concrete are studied. The results show that PLA particles are sensitive to alkali environment of cement paste and considerably shrank and lost their strength. A higher compressive strength and a lower density was observed when expanded polystyrene (EPS) particles replaced PLA beads. In addition, a set of equations is proposed to estimate the water-cement ratio, cement content and compressive strength of perlite concrete.

Keywords: Perlite concrete, poly-lactic acid, expanded polystyrene, concrete.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1912
1607 Behaviour of Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregate Concrete Exposed to High Temperatures

Authors: Lenka Bodnárová, Rudolf Hela, Michala Hubertová, Iveta Nováková

Abstract:

This paper is concerning the issues of behaviour of lightweight expanded clay aggregates concrete exposed to high temperature. Lightweight aggregates from expanded clay are produced by firing of row material up to temperature 1050°C. Lightweight aggregates have suitable properties in terms of volume stability, when exposed to temperatures up to 1050°C, which could indicate their suitability for construction applications with higher risk of fire. The test samples were exposed to heat by using the standard temperature-time curve ISO 834. Negative changes in resulting mechanical properties, such as compressive strength, tensile strength, and flexural strength were evaluated. Also visual evaluation of the specimen was performed. On specimen exposed to excessive heat, an explosive spalling could be observed, due to evaporation of considerable amount of unbounded water from the inner structure of the concrete.

Keywords: Expanded clay aggregate, explosive spalling, high temperature, lightweight concrete, temperature-time curve ISO 834.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3249
1606 Round Addition Differential Fault Analysis on Lightweight Block Ciphers with On-the-Fly Key Scheduling

Authors: Hideki Yoshikawa, Masahiro Kaminaga, Arimitsu Shikoda, Toshinori Suzuki

Abstract:

Round addition differential fault analysis using operation skipping for lightweight block ciphers with on-the-fly key scheduling is presented. For 64-bit KLEIN, it is shown that only a pair of correct and faulty ciphertexts can be used to derive the secret master key. For PRESENT, one correct ciphertext and two faulty ciphertexts are required to reconstruct the secret key. Furthermore, secret key extraction is demonstrated for the LBlock Feistel-type lightweight block cipher.

Keywords: Differential Fault Analysis (DFA), round addition, block cipher, on-the-fly key schedule.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1554
1605 Lightweight Mirrors for Space X-Ray Telescopes

Authors: M. Mika, L. Pina, M. Landova, L. Sveda, R. Havlikova, V. Marsikova, R. Hudec, A. Inneman

Abstract:

Future astronomical projects on large space x-ray imaging telescopes require novel substrates and technologies for the construction of their reflecting mirrors. The mirrors must be lightweight and precisely shaped to achieve large collecting area with high angular resolution. The new materials and technologies must be cost-effective. Currently, the most promising materials are glass or silicon foils. We focused on precise shaping these foils by thermal forming process. We studied free and forced slumping in the temperature region of hot plastic deformation and compared the shapes obtained by the different slumping processes. We measured the shapes and the surface quality of the foils. In the experiments, we varied both heat-treatment temperature and time following our experiment design. The obtained data and relations we can use for modeling and optimizing the thermal forming procedure.

Keywords: Glass, silicon, thermal forming, x-ray

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1153
1604 Effect of Adding Sawdust on Mechanical- Physical Properties of Ceramic Bricks to Obtain Lightweight Building Material

Authors: Bachir Chemani, Halima Chemani

Abstract:

This paper studies the application of a variety of sawdust materials in the production of lightweight insulating bricks. First, the mineralogical and chemical composition of clays was determined. Next, ceramic bricks were fabricated with different quantities of materials (3–6 and 9 wt. % for sawdust, 65 wt. % for grey clay, 24–27 and 30 wt. % for yellow clay and 2 wt% of tuff). These bricks were fired at 800 and 950 °C. The effect of adding this sawdust on the technological behaviour of the brick was assessed by drying and firing shrinkage, water absorption, porosity, bulk density and compressive strength. The results have shown that the optimum sintering temperature is 950 °C. Below this temperature, at 950 °C, increased open porosity was observed, which decreased the compressive strength of the bricks. Based on the results obtained, the optimum amounts of waste were 9 wt. % sawdust of eucalyptus, 24 wt. % shaping moisture and 1.6 particle size diameter. These percentages produced bricks whose mechanical properties were suitable for use as secondary raw materials in ceramic brick production.

Keywords: Clay brick, Porosity, Sawdust.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3826
1603 Utilizing Fly Ash Cenosphere and Aerogel for Lightweight Thermal Insulating Cement-Based Composites

Authors: Asad Hanif, Pavithra Parthasarathy, Zongjin Li

Abstract:

Thermal insulating composites help to reduce the total power consumption in a building by creating a barrier between external and internal environment. Such composites can be used in the roofing tiles or wall panels for exterior surfaces. This study purposes to develop lightweight cement-based composites for thermal insulating applications. Waste materials like silica fume (an industrial by-product) and fly ash cenosphere (FAC) (hollow micro-spherical shells obtained as a waste residue from coal fired power plants) were used as partial replacement of cement and lightweight filler, respectively. Moreover, aerogel, a nano-porous material made of silica, was also used in different dosages for improved thermal insulating behavior, while poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers were added for enhanced toughness. The raw materials including binders and fillers were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis techniques in which various physical and chemical properties of the raw materials were evaluated like specific surface area, chemical composition (oxide form), and pore size distribution (if any). Ultra-lightweight cementitious composites were developed by varying the amounts of FAC and aerogel with 28-day unit weight ranging from 1551.28 kg/m3 to 1027.85 kg/m3. Excellent mechanical and thermal insulating properties of the resulting composites were obtained ranging from 53.62 MPa to 8.66 MPa compressive strength, 9.77 MPa to 3.98 MPa flexural strength, and 0.3025 W/m-K to 0.2009 W/m-K as thermal conductivity coefficient (QTM-500). The composites were also tested for peak temperature difference between outer and inner surfaces when subjected to heating (in a specially designed experimental set-up) by a 275W infrared lamp. The temperature difference up to 16.78 oC was achieved, which indicated outstanding properties of the developed composites to act as a thermal barrier for building envelopes. Microstructural studies were carried out by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) for characterizing the inner structure of the composite specimen. Also, the hydration products were quantified using the surface area mapping and line scale technique in EDS. The microstructural analyses indicated excellent bonding of FAC and aerogel in the cementitious system. Also, selective reactivity of FAC was ascertained from the SEM imagery where the partially consumed FAC shells were observed. All in all, the lightweight fillers, FAC, and aerogel helped to produce the lightweight composites due to their physical characteristics, while exceptional mechanical properties, owing to FAC partial reactivity, were achieved.

Keywords: Sustainable development, fly ash cenosphere, aerogel, lightweight, cement, composite.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1742
1602 Influential Effect of Self-Healing Treatment on Water Absorption and Electrical Resistance of Normal and Light Weight Aggregate Concretes

Authors: B. Tayebani, N. Hosseinibalam, D. Mostofinejad

Abstract:

Interest in using bacteria in cement materials due to its positive influences has been increased. Cement materials such as mortar and concrete basically suffer from higher porosity and water absorption compared to other building materials such as steel materials. Because of the negative side-effects of certain chemical techniques, biological methods have been proposed as a desired and environmentally friendly strategy for reducing concrete porosity and diminishing water absorption. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the influence of Sporosarcina pasteurii bacteria on the behaviour of two types of concretes (light weight aggregate concrete and normal weight concrete). The resistance of specimens to water penetration by testing water absorption and evaluating the electrical resistance of those concretes was examined and compared. As a conclusion, 20% increase in electrical resistance and 10% reduction in water absorption of lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) and for normal concrete the results show 7% decrease in water absorption and almost 10% increase in electrical resistance.

Keywords: Bacteria, biological method, normal weight concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete, water absorption, electrical resistance.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 557
1601 Research and Development of Lightweight Repair Mortars with Focus on Their Resistance to High Temperatures

Authors: Tomáš Melichar, Jiří Bydžovský, Vít Černý

Abstract:

In this article our research focused on study of basic physical and mechanical parameters of polymer-cement repair materials is presented. Namely the influence of applied aggregates in combination with active admixture is specially considered. New formulas which were exposed in ambient with temperature even to 1000°C were suggested. Subsequently densities and strength characteristics including their changes were evaluated. Selected samples were analyzed using electron microscope. The positive influence of porous aggregates based on sintered ash was definitely demonstrated. Further it was found than in terms of thermal resistance the effective micro silica amount represents 5% to 7.5% of cement weight.

Keywords: Aggregate, ash, high, lightweight, microsilica, mortar, polymer-cement, repair, temperature.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1732
1600 High Strain Rate Characteristics of the Advanced Blast Energy Absorbers

Authors: Martina Drdlová, Michal Frank, Jaroslav Buchar, Josef Krátký

Abstract:

The main aim of the presented experiments is to improve behaviour of sandwich structures under dynamic loading, such as crash or explosion. Several cellular materials are widely used as core of the sandwich structures and their properties influence the response of the entire element under impact load. To optimize their performance requires the characterisation of the core material behaviour at high strain rates and identification of the underlying mechanism. This work presents the study of high strain-rate characteristics of a specific porous lightweight blast energy absorbing foam using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) technique adapted to perform tests on low strength materials. Two different velocities, 15 and 30 m.s-1 were used to determine the strain sensitivity of the material. Foams were designed using two types of porous lightweight spherical raw materials with diameters of 30- 100 *m, combined with polymer matrix. Cylindrical specimens with diameter of 15 mm and length of 7 mm were prepared and loaded using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus to assess the relation between the composition of the material and its shock wave attenuation capacity.

Keywords: Blast, foam, microsphere, resin.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2224
1599 Pose-Dependency of Machine Tool Structures: Appearance, Consequences, and Challenges for Lightweight Large-Scale Machines

Authors: S. Apprich, F. Wulle, A. Lechler, A. Pott, A. Verl

Abstract:

Large-scale machine tools for the manufacturing of large work pieces, e.g. blades, casings or gears for wind turbines, feature pose-dependent dynamic behavior. Small structural damping coefficients lead to long decay times for structural vibrations that have negative impacts on the production process. Typically, these vibrations are handled by increasing the stiffness of the structure by adding mass. This is counterproductive to the needs of sustainable manufacturing as it leads to higher resource consumption both in material and in energy. Recent research activities have led to higher resource efficiency by radical mass reduction that is based on controlintegrated active vibration avoidance and damping methods. These control methods depend on information describing the dynamic behavior of the controlled machine tools in order to tune the avoidance or reduction method parameters according to the current state of the machine. This paper presents the appearance, consequences and challenges of the pose-dependent dynamic behavior of lightweight large-scale machine tool structures in production. It starts with the theoretical introduction of the challenges of lightweight machine tool structures resulting from reduced stiffness. The statement of the pose-dependent dynamic behavior is corroborated by the results of the experimental modal analysis of a lightweight test structure. Afterwards, the consequences of the pose-dependent dynamic behavior of lightweight machine tool structures for the use of active control and vibration reduction methods are explained. Based on the state of the art of pose-dependent dynamic machine tool models and the modal investigation of an FE-model of the lightweight test structure, the criteria for a pose-dependent model for use in vibration reduction are derived. The description of the approach for a general posedependent model of the dynamic behavior of large lightweight machine tools that provides the necessary input to the aforementioned vibration avoidance and reduction methods to properly tackle machine vibrations is the outlook of the paper.

Keywords: Dynamic behavior, lightweight, machine tool, pose-dependency.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1691
1598 Thermal Insulating Silicate Materials Suitable for Thermal Insulation and Rehabilitation Structures

Authors: J. Hroudova, M. Sedlmajer, J. Zach

Abstract:

Problems insulation of building structures is often closely connected with the problem of moisture remediation. In the case of historic buildings or if only part of the redevelopment of envelope of structures, it is not possible to apply the classical external thermal insulation composite systems. This application is mostly effective thermal insulation plasters with high porosity and controlled capillary properties which assures improvement of thermal properties construction, its diffusion openness towards the external environment and suitable treatment capillary properties of preventing the penetration of liquid moisture and salts thereof toward the outer surface of the structure. With respect to the current trend of reducing the energy consumption of building structures and reduce the production of CO2 is necessary to develop capillary-active materials characterized by their low density, low thermal conductivity while maintaining good mechanical properties. The aim of researchers at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, Brno University of Technology is the development and study of hygrothermal behaviour of optimal materials for thermal insulation and rehabilitation of building structures with the possible use of alternative, less energy demanding binders in comparison with conventional, frequently used binder, which represents cement. The paper describes the evaluation of research activities aimed at the development of thermal insulation and repair materials using lightweight aggregate and alternative binders such as metakaolin and finely ground fly ash.

Keywords: Thermal insulating plasters, rehabilitation materials, thermal conductivity, lightweight aggregate, alternative binders.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1804
1597 Modelling of Composite Steel and Concrete Beam with the Lightweight Concrete Slab

Authors: V. Přivřelová

Abstract:

Well-designed composite steel and concrete structures highlight the good material properties and lower the deficiencies of steel and concrete, in particular they make use of high tensile strength of steel and high stiffness of concrete. The most common composite steel and concrete structure is a simply supported beam, which concrete slab transferring the slab load to a beam is connected to the steel cross-section. The aim of this paper is to find the most adequate numerical model of a simply supported composite beam with the cross-sectional and material parameters based on the results of a processed parametric study and numerical analysis. The paper also evaluates the suitability of using compact concrete with the lightweight aggregates for composite steel and concrete beams. The most adequate numerical model will be used in the resent future to compare the results of laboratory tests.

Keywords: Composite beams, high-performance concrete, highstrength steel, lightweight concrete slab, modeling.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2224
1596 Influence of Silica Fume on High Strength Lightweight Concrete

Authors: H. Katkhuda, B. Hanayneh, N. Shatarat

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is to determine the isolated effect of silica fume on tensile, compressive and flexure strengths on high strength lightweight concrete. Many experiments were carried out by replacing cement with different percentages of silica fume at different constant water-binder ratio keeping other mix design variables constant. The silica fume was replaced by 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% for a water-binder ratios ranging from 0.26 to 0.42. For all mixes, split tensile, compressive and flexure strengths were determined at 28 days. The results showed that the tensile, compressive and flexure strengths increased with silica fume incorporation but the optimum replacement percentage is not constant because it depends on the water–cementitious material (w/cm) ratio of the mix. Based on the results, a relationship between split tensile, compressive and flexure strengths of silica fume concrete was developed using statistical methods.

Keywords: Silica fume, Lightweight, High strength concrete, and Strength.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3449
1595 Large-Scale Production of High-Performance Fiber-Metal-Laminates by Prepreg-Press-Technology

Authors: Christian Lauter, Corin Reuter, Shuang Wu, Thomas Troester

Abstract:

Lightweight construction became more and more important over the last decades in several applications, e.g. in the automotive or aircraft sector. This is the result of economic and ecological constraints on the one hand and increasing safety and comfort requirements on the other hand. In the field of lightweight design, different approaches are used due to specific requirements towards the technical systems. The use of endless carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) offers the largest weight saving potential of sometimes more than 50% compared to conventional metal-constructions. However, there are very limited industrial applications because of the cost-intensive manufacturing of the fibers and production technologies. Other disadvantages of pure CFRP-structures affect the quality control or the damage resistance. One approach to meet these challenges is hybrid materials. This means CFRP and sheet metal are combined on a material level. Therefore, new opportunities for innovative process routes are realizable. Hybrid lightweight design results in lower costs due to an optimized material utilization and the possibility to integrate the structures in already existing production processes of automobile manufacturers. In recent and current research, the advantages of two-layered hybrid materials have been pointed out, i.e. the possibility to realize structures with tailored mechanical properties or to divide the curing cycle of the epoxy resin into two steps. Current research work at the Chair for Automotive Lightweight Design (LiA) at the Paderborn University focusses on production processes for fiber-metal-laminates. The aim of this work is the development and qualification of a large-scale production process for high-performance fiber-metal-laminates (FML) for industrial applications in the automotive or aircraft sector. Therefore, the prepreg-press-technology is used, in which pre-impregnated carbon fibers and sheet metals are formed and cured in a closed, heated mold. The investigations focus e.g. on the realization of short process chains and cycle times, on the reduction of time-consuming manual process steps, and the reduction of material costs. This paper gives an overview over the considerable steps of the production process in the beginning. Afterwards experimental results are discussed. This part concentrates on the influence of different process parameters on the mechanical properties, the laminate quality and the identification of process limits. Concluding the advantages of this technology compared to conventional FML-production-processes and other lightweight design approaches are carried out.

Keywords: Composite material, Fiber metal laminate, Lightweight construction, Prepreg press technology, Large-series production.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1396
1594 Lightweight Robotic Material Handling in Photovoltaic Module Manufacturing-Silicon Wafer and Thin Film Technologies

Authors: N. Asadi, M. Jackson

Abstract:

Today, the central role of industrial robots in automation in general and in material handling in particular is crystal clear. Based on the current status of Photovoltaics and by focusing on lightweight material handling, PV industry has turned into a potential candidate for introducing a fresh “pick and place" robot technology. Thus, to examine the industry needs in this regard, firstly the best suited applications for such robotic automation,and then the essential prerequisites in PV industry should be identified. The objective of this paper is to present holistic views on the industry trends, general automation status and existing challenges facing lightweight robotic material handling in PV Silicon Wafer and Thin Film technologies. The results of this study show that currently no uniform pick and place solution prevails among PV Silicon Wafer manufacturers and the industry calls for a new robot solution to satisfy its needs in new directions.

Keywords: Automation, Material handling, Photovoltaic, Robot.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1649
1593 Development of Thermal Insulation Materials Based On Silicate Using Non-Traditional Binders and Fillers

Authors: J. Hroudova, J. Zach, L. Vodova

Abstract:

When insulation and rehabilitation of structures is important to use quality building materials with high utility value. One potentially interesting and promising groups of construction materials in this area are advanced, thermally insulating plaster silicate based. With the present trend reduction of energy consumption of building structures and reducing CO2 emissions to be developed capillary-active materials that are characterized by their low density, low thermal conductivity while maintaining good mechanical properties.

The paper describes the results of research activities aimed at the development of thermal insulating and rehabilitation material ongoing at the Technical University in Brno, Faculty of Civil Engineering. The achieved results of this development will be the basis for subsequent experimental analysis of the influence of thermal and moisture loads developed on these materials.

Keywords: Insulation materials, rehabilitation materials, lightweight aggregate, fly ash, slag, hemp fibers, glass fibers, metakaolin.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2143
1592 Experimental Determination of Shear Strength Properties of Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregates Using Direct Shear and Triaxial Tests

Authors: Mahsa Shafaei Bajestani, Mahmoud Yazdani, Aliakbar Golshani

Abstract:

Artificial lightweight aggregates have a wide range of applications in industry and engineering. Nowadays, the usage of this material in geotechnical activities, especially as backfill in retaining walls has been growing due to the specific characteristics which make it a competent alternative to the conventional geotechnical materials. In practice, a material with lower weight but higher shear strength parameters would be ideal as backfill behind retaining walls because of the important roles that these parameters play in decreasing the overall active lateral earth pressure. In this study, two types of Light Expanded Clay Aggregates (LECA) produced in the Leca factory are investigated. LECA is made in a rotary kiln by heating natural clay at different temperatures up to 1200 °C making quasi-spherical aggregates with different sizes ranged from 0 to 25 mm. The loose bulk density of these aggregates is between 300 and 700 kN/m3. The purpose of this research is to determine the stress-strain behavior, shear strength parameters, and the energy absorption of LECA materials. Direct shear tests were conducted at five normal stresses of 25, 50, 75, 100, and 200 kPa. In addition, conventional triaxial compression tests were operated at confining pressures of 50, 100, and 200 kPa to examine stress-strain behavior. The experimental results show a high internal angle of friction and even a considerable amount of nominal cohesion despite the granular structure of LECA. These desirable properties along with the intrinsic low density of these aggregates make LECA as a very proper material in geotechnical applications. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that lightweight aggregates may have high energy absorption that is excellent alternative material in seismic isolations.

Keywords: Expanded clay, direct shear test, triaxial test, shear properties, energy absorption.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 859
1591 Changes in the Properties of Composites Caused by Chemical Treatment of Hemp Hurds

Authors: N. Stevulova, I. Schwarzova

Abstract:

The possibility of using industrial hemp as a source of natural fibers for purpose of construction, mainly for the preparation of lightweight composites based on hemp hurds is described. In this article, an overview of measurement results of important technical parameters (compressive strength, density, thermal conductivity) of composites based on organic filler - chemically modified hemp hurds in three solutions (EDTA, NaOH and Ca(OH)2) and inorganic binder MgO-cement after 7, 28, 60, 90 and 180 days of hardening is given. The results of long-term water storage of 28 days hardened composites at room temperature were investigated. Changes in the properties of composites caused by chemical treatment of hemp material are discussed.

Keywords: Hemp hurds, chemical modification, lightweight composites, testing material properties.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1996
1590 Experimental Study of Different Types of Concrete in Uniaxial Compression Test

Authors: Khashayar Jafari, Mostafa Jafarian Abyaneh, Vahab Toufigh

Abstract:

Polymer concrete (PC) is a distinct concrete with superior characteristics in comparison to ordinary cement concrete. It has become well-known for its applications in thin overlays, floors and precast components. In this investigation, the mechanical properties of PC with different epoxy resin contents, ordinary cement concrete (OCC) and lightweight concrete (LC) have been studied under uniaxial compression test. The study involves five types of concrete, with each type being tested four times. Their complete elastic-plastic behavior was compared with each other through the measurement of volumetric strain during the tests. According to the results, PC showed higher strength, ductility and energy absorption with respect to OCC and LC.

Keywords: Polymer concrete, ordinary cement concrete, lightweight concrete, uniaxial compression test, volumetric strain.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 837
1589 Influence of Driving Strategy on Power and Fuel Consumption of Lightweight PEM Fuel Cell Vehicle Powertrain

Authors: Suhadiyana Hanapi, Alhassan Salami Tijani, W. A. N Wan Mohamed

Abstract:

In this paper, a prototype PEM fuel cell vehicle integrated with a 1 kW air-blowing proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack as a main power sources has been developed for a lightweight cruising vehicle. The test vehicle is equipped with a PEM fuel cell system that provides electric power to a brushed DC motor. This vehicle was designed to compete with industrial lightweight vehicle with the target of consuming least amount of energy and high performance. Individual variations in driving style have a significant impact on vehicle energy efficiency and it is well established from the literature. The primary aim of this study was to assesses the power and fuel consumption of a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle operating at three difference driving technique (i.e. 25 km/h constant speed, 22-28 km/h speed range, 20-30 km/h speed range). The goal is to develop the best driving strategy to maximize performance and minimize fuel consumption for the vehicle system. The relationship between power demand and hydrogen consumption has also been discussed. All the techniques can be evaluated and compared on broadly similar terms. Automatic intelligent controller for driving prototype fuel cell vehicle on different obstacle while maintaining all systems at maximum efficiency was used. The result showed that 25 km/h constant speed was identified for optimal driving with less fuel consumption.

Keywords: Prototype fuel cell electric vehicles, energy efficient, control/driving technique, fuel economy.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1727
1588 Mutual Authentication for Sensor-to-Sensor Communications in IoT Infrastructure

Authors: Shadi Janbabaei, Hossein Gharaee Garakani, Naser Mohammadzadeh

Abstract:

Internet of things is a new concept that its emergence has caused ubiquity of sensors in human life, so that at any time, all data are collected, processed and transmitted by these sensors. In order to establish a secure connection, the first challenge is authentication between sensors. However, this challenge also requires some features so that the authentication is done properly. Anonymity, untraceability, and being lightweight are among the issues that need to be considered. In this paper, we have evaluated the authentication protocols and have analyzed the security vulnerabilities found in them. Then an improved light weight authentication protocol for sensor-to-sensor communications is presented which uses the hash function and logical operators. The analysis of protocol shows that security requirements have been met and the protocol is resistant against various attacks. In the end, by decreasing the number of computational cost functions, it is argued that the protocol is lighter than before.

Keywords: Anonymity, authentication, Internet of Things, lightweight, untraceablity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 471
1587 SeCloudBPMN: A Lightweight Extension for BPMN Considering Security Threats in the Cloud

Authors: Somayeh Sobati Moghadam

Abstract:

Business processes are crucial for organizations and help businesses to evaluate and optimize their performance and processes against current and future-state business goals. Outsourcing business processes to the cloud becomes popular due to a wide varsity of benefits and cost-saving. However, cloud outsourcing raises enterprise data security concerns, which must be incorporated in Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN). This paper, presents SeCloudBPMN, a lightweight extension for BPMN which extends the BPMN to explicitly support the security threats in the cloud as an outsourcing environment. SeCloudBPMN helps business’s security experts to outsource business processes to the cloud considering different threats from inside and outside the cloud. In this way, appropriate security countermeasures could be considered to preserve data security in business processes outsourcing to the cloud.

Keywords: BPMN, security threats, cloud computing, graphical representation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 486
1586 Fire Spread Simulation Tool for Cruise Vessels

Authors: Erik Hedin, Lars Strandén, Johannes Lundsten

Abstract:

In 2002 an amendment to SOLAS opened for lightweight material constructions in vessels if the same fire safety as in steel constructions could be obtained. FISPAT (FIreSPread Analysis Tool) is a computer application that simulates fire spread and fault injection in cruise vessels and identifies fire sensitive areas. It was developed to analyze cruise vessel designs and provides a method to evaluate network layout and safety of cruise vessels. It allows fast, reliable and deterministic exhaustive simulations and presents the result in a graphical vessel model. By performing the analysis iteratively while altering the cruise vessel design it can be used along with fire chamber experiments to show that the lightweight design can be as safe as a steel construction and that SOLAS regulations are fulfilled.

Keywords: Fire spread, network, safety, simulation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1129
1585 Lightweight High-Pressure Ratio Centrifugal Compressor for Vehicles-Investigation of Pipe Diffuser Designs by Means of CFD

Authors: Eleni Ioannou, Pascal Nucara, Keith Pullen

Abstract:

The subject of this paper is the investigation of the best efficiency design of a compressor diffuser applied in new lightweight, ultra efficient micro-gas turbine engines for vehicles. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results are obtained utilizing steady state simulations for a wedge and an ”oval” type pipe diffuser in an effort to identify the beneficial effects of the pipe diffuser design. The basic flow features are presented with particular focus on the optimization of the pipe diffuser leading to higher efficiencies for the compressor stage. The optimised pipe diffuser is designed to exploit the 3D freedom enabled by Selective Laser Melting, hence purposely involves an investigation of geometric characteristics that do not follow the traditional diffuser concept.

Keywords: CFD, centrifugal compressor, micro-gas turbine, pipe diffuser, SLM, wedge diffuser.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1607