Search results for: leaf spring
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 300

Search results for: leaf spring

300 A Comparative Study of Standard, Casted and Riveted Eye Design of a Mono Leaf Spring Using CAE Tools

Authors: Gian Bhushan, Vinkel Arora, M.L. Aggarwal

Abstract:

The objective of the present study is to determine better eye end design of a mono leaf spring used in light motor vehicle. A conventional 65Si7 spring steel leaf spring model with standard eye, casted and riveted eye end are considered. The CAD model of the leaf springs is prepared in CATIA and analyzed using ANSYS. The standard eye, casted and riveted eye leaf springs are subjected to similar loading conditions. The CAE analysis of the leaf spring is performed for various parameters like deflection and Von- Mises stress. Mass reduction of 62.9% is achieved in case of riveted eye mono leaf spring as compared to standard eye mono leaf spring for the same loading conditions.

Keywords: CAE, Leaf Spring, 65Si7 spring steel.

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299 Design and Analysis of Universal Multifunctional Leaf Spring Main Landing Gear for Light Aircraft

Authors: Meiyuan Zheng, Jingwu He, Yuexi Xiong

Abstract:

A universal multi-function leaf spring main landing gear was designed for light aircraft. The main landing gear combined with the leaf spring, skidding, and wheels enables it to have a good takeoff and landing performance on various grounds such as the hard, snow, grass and sand grounds. Firstly, the characteristics of different landing sites were studied in this paper in order to analyze the load of the main landing gear on different types of grounds. Based on this analysis, the structural design optimization along with the strength and stiffness characteristics of the main landing gear has been done, which enables it to have good takeoff and landing performance on different types of grounds given the relevant regulations and standards. Additionally, the impact of the skidding on the aircraft during the flight was also taken into consideration. Finally, a universal multi-function leaf spring type of the main landing gear suitable for light aircraft has been developed.

Keywords: Landing gear, multi-function, leaf spring, skidding.

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298 Investigation on the Feasibility of Composite Coil Spring for Automotive Applications

Authors: D. Abdul Budan, T.S. Manjunatha

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates the feasibility of replacing the metal coil spring with the composite coil spring. Three different types of springs were made using glass fiber, carbon fiber and combination of glass fiber and carbon fiber. The objective of the study is to reduce the weight of the spring. According to the experimental results the spring rate of the carbon fiber spring is 34% more than the glass fiber spring and 45% more than the glass fiber/carbon fiber spring. The weight of the carbon fiber spring is 18% less than the glass fiber spring, 15% less than the Glass fiber/carbon fiber spring and 80% less than the steel spring.

Keywords: Carbon fiber, Glass fiber, Helical composite spring, spring rate.

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297 Failure Analysis of a Medium Duty Vehicle Leaf Spring

Authors: Gül Çevik

Abstract:

This paper summarizes the work conducted to assess the root cause of the failure of a medium commercial vehicle leaf spring failed in service. Macro- and micro-fractographic analyses by scanning electron microscope as well as material verification tests were conducted in order to understand the failure mechanisms and root cause of the failure. Findings from the fractographic analyses indicated that failure mechanism is fatigue. Crack initiation was identified to have occurred from a point on the top surface near to the front face and to the left side. Two other crack initiation points were also observed, however, these cracks did not propagate. The propagation mode of the fatigue crack revealed that the cyclic loads resulting in crack initiation and propagation were unidirectional bending. Fractographic analyses have also showed that the root cause of the fatigue crack initiation and propagation was loading the part above design stress. Material properties of the part were also verified by chemical composition analysis, microstructural analysis by optical microscopy and hardness tests.

Keywords: Leaf spring, failure analysis, fatigue, fractography.

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296 The Impact of Crop Rotation and N Fertilization on the Leaf Area Index, Leaf Disease and Yield of Winter Wheat

Authors: E. Vári, K. Máriás

Abstract:

The research focused on the effects of previous cropping and fertilizers on the LAI, rhythm of the dry matter, leaf disease intensity and amount of yield. Long term field experiments’ results proved that the previous crop fundamentally determines size, rate and dynamics of the dry matter formation in the spring time vegetation period. The LAI index and crop results of winter wheat can be influenced mainly by raising the fertilizer amount. N fertilization has an outstanding role in the changes in leaf area index (LAI), weight of dry matter and yield of winter wheat. According to our results, the interaction effect of leaf area index, weight of dry matter and fertilization resulted in the maximum yield in biculture and triculture.

Keywords: Crop rotation, Leaf Area Index, leaf disease of winter wheat.

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295 Some Morphological Characteristics of Perennial Ryegrass Genotypes and Correlations among Their Characteristics

Authors: A. Özköse, A. Tamkoç

Abstract:

The present study involved analysis of certain characteristics of the perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) genotypes collected from the natural flora of Ankara, and explores a correlation among them. In order to evaluate the plants for breeding purpose as per Turkey's environmental conditions, the perennial ryegrass plants were collected from natural pasture of Ankara in 2004 and were utilized for the study. Seeds of the collected plants were sown in pots and seedlings were prepared in a greenhouse. In 2005, the seedlings were transplanted at 50 × 50 cm2 intervals in Randomized Complete Blocks Design in an experimental field. In 2007 and 2008, data were recorded from the observations and measurements of 568 perennial ryegrasses. The plant characteristics, which were investigated, included re-growth time in spring, color, density, growth habit, tendency to form inflorescence, time of inflorescence, plant height, length of upper internode, spike length, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area, leaf shape, number of spikelets per spike, seed yield per spike and 1000 grain weight and the correlation analyses were made using this data. Correlation coefficients were estimated between all paired combinations of the studied traits. The yield components exhibited varying trends of association among themselves. Seed yield per spike showed significant and positive association with the number of spikelets per spike, 1000 grain weight, plant height, length of upper internode, spike length, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area and color, but significant and negative association with the growth habit and re-growth time in spring.

Keywords: Correlation, morphological traits, Lolium perenne.

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294 Technological Value of Selected Spring Wheat Cultivars Depending on the Sowing Date

Authors: Marta Wyzińska, Jerzy Grabiński, Alicja Sułek

Abstract:

The grain quality is a decisive factor in its use. In Poland, spring wheat is characterized by more favorable quality parameters in relation to the winter form of this species. In the present study, the effects of three different sowing dates (autumn, delayed autumn, and spring) and cultivar (Tybalt, Cytra, Bombona, Monsun, and Parabola) on the selected technological value parameters of spring wheat over three years were studied. The field trials were carried out in two locations (Bezek, Czesławice) in the Lubelskie Vivodeship, Poland. It was found that the falling number of spring wheat grains from autumn sowing dates was at a similar level to wheat sown in spring. The amount of wet gluten in the grain was variable in years, and its quality was better in wheat sown in spring. Sedimentation index was dependent upon on the cultivar.

Keywords: Sowing term, spring wheat, technological value, quality.

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293 A Variable Stiffness Approach to Vibration Control

Authors: S. A. Alotaibi, M. A. Al-Ajmi

Abstract:

This work introduces a new concept for controlling the mechanical vibrations via variable stiffness coil spring. The concept relies on fitting a screw though the spring to change the number of active spring coils. A prototype has been built and tested with promising results toward an innovation in the field of vibration control.

Keywords: Variable stiffness, coil spring, vibration control.

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292 Image-Based (RBG) Technique for Estimating Phosphorus Levels of Crops

Authors: M. M. Ali, Ahmed Al-Ani, Derek Eamus, Daniel K. Y. Tan

Abstract:

In this glasshouse study, we developed a new imagebased non-destructive technique for detecting leaf P status of different crops such as cotton, tomato and lettuce. The plants were grown on a nutrient solution containing different P concentrations, e.g. 0%, 50% and 100% of recommended P concentration (P0 = no P, L; P1 = 2.5 mL 10 L-1 of P and P2 = 5 mL 10 L-1 of P). After 7 weeks of treatment, the plants were harvested and data on leaf P contents were collected using the standard destructive laboratory method and at the same time leaf images were collected by a handheld crop image sensor. We calculated leaf area, leaf perimeter and RGB (red, green and blue) values of these images. These data were further used in linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to estimate leaf P contents, which successfully classified these plants on the basis of leaf P contents. The data indicated that P deficiency in crop plants can be predicted using leaf image and morphological data. Our proposed nondestructive imaging method is precise in estimating P requirements of different crop species.

Keywords: Image-based techniques, leaf area, leaf P contents, linear discriminant analysis.

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291 Identifying Karst Pattern to Prevent Bell Spring from Being Submerged in Daryan Dam Reservoir

Authors: H. Shafaattalab Dehghani, H. R. Zarei

Abstract:

The large karstic Bell spring with a discharge ranging between 250 and 5300 lit/ sec is one of the most important springs of Kermanshah Province. This spring supplies drinking water of Nodsheh City and its surrounding villages. The spring is located in the reservoir of Daryan Dam and its mouth would be submerged after impounding under a water column of about 110 m height. This paper has aimed to render an account of the karstification pattern around the spring under consideration with the intention of preventing Bell Spring from being submerged in Daryan Dam Reservoir. The studies comprise engineering geology and hydrogeology investigations. Some geotechnical activities included in these studies include geophysical studies, drilling, excavation of exploratory gallery and shaft and diving. The results depict that Bell is a single-conduit siphon spring with 4 m diameter and 85 m height that 32 m of the conduit is located below the spring outlet. To survive the spring, it was decided to plug the outlet and convey the water to upper elevations under the natural pressure of the aquifer. After plugging, water was successfully conveyed to elevation 837 meter above sea level (about 120 m from the outlet) under the natural pressure of the aquifer. This signifies the accuracy of the studies done and proper recognition of the karstification pattern of Bell Spring. This is a unique experience in karst problems in Iran.

Keywords: Bell spring, karst, Daryan Dam, submerged.

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290 Statistical Estimation of Spring-back Degree Using Texture Database

Authors: Takashi Sakai, Shinsaku Kikuta, Jun-ichi Koyama

Abstract:

Using a texture database, a statistical estimation of spring-back was conducted in this study on the basis of statistical analysis. Both spring-back in bending deformation and experimental data related to the crystal orientation show significant dispersion. Therefore, a probabilistic statistical approach was established for the proper quantification of these values. Correlation was examined among the parameters F(x) of spring-back, F(x) of the buildup fraction to three orientations after 92° bending, and F(x) at an as-received part on the basis of the three-parameter Weibull distribution. Consequent spring-back estimation using a texture database yielded excellent estimates compared with experimental values.

Keywords: Bending, Spring-back, Database, Crystallographic Orientation, Texture, SEM-EBSD, Weibull distribution, Statistical analysis.

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289 The Green Synthesis AgNPs from Basil Leaf Extract

Authors: W. Wonsawat

Abstract:

Bioreduction of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver ions (Ag+) using water extract of Thai basil leaf was successfully carried out. The basil leaf extract provided a reducing agent and stabilizing agent for a synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles received from cut and uncut basil leaf was compared. The resulting silver nanoparticles are characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The maximum intensities of silver nanoparticle from cut and uncut basil leaf were 410 and 420, respectively. The techniques involved are simple, eco-friendly and rapid.

Keywords: Basil leaves, Silver Nanoparticles, Green Synthesis, Plant Extract.

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288 Low Power Consuming Electromagnetic Actuators for Pulsed Pilot Stages

Authors: M. Honarpardaz, Z. Zhang, J. Derkx, A. Trangärd, J. Larsson

Abstract:

Pilot stages are one of the most common positioners and regulators in industry. In this paper, we present two novel concepts for pilot stages with low power consumption to regulate a pneumatic device. Pilot 1, first concept, is designed based on a conventional frame core electro-magnetic actuator and a leaf spring to control the air flow and pilot 2 has an axisymmetric actuator and spring made of non-oriented electrical steel. Concepts are simulated in a system modeling tool to study their dynamic behavior. Both concepts are prototyped and tested. Experimental results are comprehensively analyzed and compared. The most promising concept that consumes less than 8 mW is highlighted and presented.

Keywords: Electro-magnetic actuator, multidisciplinary system, low power consumption, pilot stage.

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287 Useful Lifetime Prediction of Chevron Rubber Spring for Railway Vehicle

Authors: Chang Su Woo, Hyun Sung Park

Abstract:

Useful lifetime evaluation of chevron rubber spring was very important in design procedure to assure the safety and reliability. It is, therefore, necessary to establish a suitable criterion for the replacement period of chevron rubber spring. In this study, we performed characteristic analysis and useful lifetime prediction of chevron rubber spring. Rubber material coefficient was obtained by curve fittings of uniaxial tension equibiaxial tension and pure shear test. Computer simulation was executed to predict and evaluate the load capacity and stiffness for chevron rubber spring. In order to useful lifetime prediction of rubber material, we carried out the compression set with heat aging test in an oven at the temperature ranging from 50°C to 100°C during a period 180 days. By using the Arrhenius plot, several useful lifetime prediction equations for rubber material was proposed.

Keywords: Chevron rubber spring, material coefficient, finite element analysis, useful lifetime prediction.

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286 Chemical and Hydro-Geologic Analysis of Ikogosi Warm Spring Water in Nigeria

Authors: Akinola Ikudayisi, Folasade Adeyemo, Josiah Adeyemo

Abstract:

This study focuses on the hydro-geology and chemical constituents analysis of Ikogosi Warm Spring waters in South West Nigeria. Ikogosi warm spring is a global tourist attraction because it has both warm and cold spring sources. Water samples from the cold spring, warm spring and the meeting point were collected, analyzed and the result shows close similarity in temperature, hydrogen iron concentration (pH), alkalinity, hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Iron, total dissolved solid and heavy metals. The measured parameters in the water samples are within World Health Organisation standards for fresh water. The study of the geology of the warm spring reveals that the study area is underlain by a group of slightly migmatised to non-migmatised paraschists and meta-igneous rocks. Also, concentration levels of selected heavy metals, (Copper, Cadmium, Zinc, Arsenic and Cromium) were determined in the water (ppm) samples. Chromium had the highest concentration value of 1.52ppm (an average of 49.67%) and Cadmium had the lowest concentration with value of 0.15ppm (an average of 4.89%). Comparison of these results showed that, their mean levels are within the standard values obtained in Nigeria. It can be concluded that both warm and spring water are safe for drinking.

Keywords: Cold spring, Ikogosi, melting point, warm spring, water samples.

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285 Effect of Selenite and Selenate Uptake by Maize Plants on Specific Leaf Area

Authors: F. Garousi, Sz. Veres, É. Bódi, Sz. Várallyay, B. Kovács

Abstract:

Specific leaf area (SLA; cm2leaf g-1leaf) the ratio of leaf area to leaf dry mass is a key ecophysiological parameter influencing leaf physiology, photosynthesis, and whole plant carbon gain and also can be used as a rapid and diagnostic tool. In this study, two species of soluble inorganic selenium forms, selenite (Se^IV) and selenate (Se^VI) at different concentrations were investigated on maize plants that were growing in nutrient solutions during 2 weeks and at the end of the experiment, amounts of SLA for first and second leaves of maize were measured. In accordance with the results we observed that our regarded Se concentrations in both forms of Se^IV and Se^VI were not effective on maize plants’ SLA significantly although high level of 3 mg.kg-1 Se^IV had negative affect on growth of the samples that had been treated by it but about Se^VI samples we did not observe this state and our different considered Se^VI concentrations were not toxic for maize plants.

Keywords: Maize, Sodium selenate, sodium selenite, specific leaf area.

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284 Comparative Micro-Morphology, Anatomy and Architecture of Leaf of Physalis

Authors: Chockpisit Thepsithar, Aree Thongpukdee

Abstract:

Two species of Physalis, P.angulataL. and P. peruviana L. were used as models for comparative study to understand the values of micro-morphological, -anatomical and architectural characteristics of leaf for taxonomic purposes and possibly breeding and commercial applications. Both speciespossess amphistomaticleaves with 1-layer epidermis, 3-4-layer spongy mesophyll andbicollateral bundle midrib. Palisade parenchyma cells of P. angulatawere almost twice longer (65-75 μm) than the other one. Type of stomata was similar as anomocyticbut stomatal index(SI) at adaxial surface and abaxial surface of P. angulata were less than of P. peruvianaas 3.57, 4.00 and6.25, 6.66 respectively. Some leaf architectural characteristics such as leaf shape, order of venationalsoprovided information of taxonomic significance

Keywords: Physalis, Solanaceae, micromorphology, anatomy, leaf architecture.

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283 The Leaves of a Tree

Authors: Zhu Jiaming, Yu Mengna

Abstract:

In this article, models based on quantitative analysis, physical geometry and regression analysis are established, by using analytic hierarchy process analysis, fuzzy cluster analysis, fuzzy photographic and data fitting. The reasons of various leaf shapes among different species and the differences between the leaf shapes on same tree have been solved by using software, such as Eviews, VB and Matlab. We also successfully estimate the leaf mass of a tree and the correlation with the tree profile.

Keywords: Leaf shape; Mass; Fuzzy cluster; Regression analysis; Eviews; Matlab

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282 Physical and Mental Treatment of Tōji and Local Touristic Strategy in Beppu

Authors: Miho Tsukamoto

Abstract:

Beppu hot spring provides medical treatment as well as comfort visitors and mental easiness for many years. This paper studies hot spring in Beppu and Tōji, medical treatment in hot spring, and investigates how people’s visit to Beppu has changed with Tōji, and how Beppu Tourism Office tries to regain visitors in Beppu. In this paper, firstly, hot spring history in Beppu will be explained especially focusing on Beppu Hattou (eight major hot springs) and Jigoku Meguri (eight major hell hot spring tours). Secondly, Tōji, a long-residential hot spring with the purpose of medical treatment along with the information about chemical efficacy of hot springs will be analyzed. Then, finally, the change of the long-stay type to short-stay Onsen programs with the combination of multiplex tourism resources will be focused along with the decrease of Onsen or hot spring visitors. It is concluded that Tōji is not only physically and mentally cure people but also bring people mental easiness and release them from their stressful life. All in all, it can be concluded that because Onsen is involved in people’s life in Beppu and keep local people united in the community. Tōji’s attraction is shown when local people try to create the new type of Onsen program so as to keep their traditional way of Tōji.

Keywords: Hot spring, Tōji, Treatment.

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281 A Compact Quasi-Zero Stiffness Vibration Isolator Using Flexure-Based Spring Mechanisms Capable of Tunable Stiffness

Authors: Thanh-Phong Dao, Shyh-Chour Huang

Abstract:

This study presents a quasi-zero stiffness (QZS) vibration isolator using flexure-based spring mechanisms which afford both negative and positive stiffness elements, which enable self-adjustment. The QZS property of the isolator is achieved at the equilibrium position. A nonlinear mathematical model is then developed, based on the pre-compression of the flexure-based spring mechanisms. The dynamics are further analyzed using the Harmonic Balance method. The vibration attention efficiency is illustrated using displacement transmissibility, which is then compared with the corresponding linear isolator. The effects of parameters on performance are also investigated by numerical solutions. The flexure-based spring mechanisms are subsequently designed using the concept of compliant mechanisms, with evaluation by ANSYS software, and simulations of the QZS isolator.

Keywords: Vibration isolator, quasi-zero stiffness, flexure-based spring mechanisms, compliant mechanism.

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280 Population Trend of Canola Aphid, Lipaphis Erysimi (Kalt.) (Homoptera: Aphididae) and its Associated Natural Enemies in Different Brassica Lines along with the Effect of Gamma Radiation on Their Population

Authors: Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi, Rahib Zada, Imtiaz Ali Khan, Iqbal Munir, Sadur-Rehman, Hazrat Jabir Alam Khan

Abstract:

Studies regarding the determination of population trend of Lipaphis erysimi (kalt.) and its associated natural enemies in different Brassica lines along with the effect of gamma radiation on their population were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, Malakandher, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University Peshawar during spring 2006. Three different Brassica lines F6B3, F6B6 and F6B7 were used, which were replicated four times in Randomized Complete Block Design. The data revealed that aphid infestation invariably stated in all three varieties during last week of February 2006 (1st observation). The peak population of 4.39 aphids leaf-1 was s recorded during 2nd week of March and lowest population of 1.02 aphids leaf-1 was recorded during 5th week of March. The species of lady bird beetle (Coccinella septempunctata) and Syrphid fly (Syrphus balteatus) first appeared on 24th February with a mean number of 0.40 lady bird beetle leaf-1 and 0.87 Syrphid fly leaf-1, respectively. At the time when aphid population started to increase the peak population of C. septempunctata (0.70 lady bird beetle leaf- 1) and S. balteatus (1.04 syrphid fly leaf-1) was recorded on the 2nd week of March. Chrysoperla carnea appeared in the 1st week of March and their peak population was recorded during the 3rd week of March with mean population of 1.46 C. carnea leaf-1. Among all the Brassica lines, F6B7 showed comparatively more resistance as compared to F6B3 F6B6. F6B3 showed least resistance against L. erysimi, which was found to be the most susceptible cultivar. F6B7 was also found superior in terms of natural enemies. Maximum number of all natural enemies was recorded on this variety followed by F6B6. Lowest number of natural enemies was recorded in F6B3. No significant effect was recorded for the effect of gamma radiation on the population of aphids, natural enemies and on the varieties.

Keywords: Canola aphid, Lipaphis erysimi, natural enemies, brassica lines, gamma radiation.

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279 Study of the Appropriate Factors for Laminated Bamboo Bending by Design of Experiments

Authors: Vanchai Laemlaksakul, Sompoap Talabgaew

Abstract:

This research studied the appropriate factors and conditions for laminated bamboo bending by Design of Experiments (DOE). The interested factors affecting the spring back in laminates bamboo were (1) time, (2) thickness, and (3) frequency. This experiment tested the specimen by using high frequency machine and measured its spring back immediately and next 24 hours for comparing the spring back ratio. Results from the experiments showed that significant factors having major influence to bending of laminates bamboo were thickness and frequency. The appropriate conditions of thickness and frequency were 4 mm. and 1.5 respectively.

Keywords: Bamboo, bending, spring back, design of experiments.

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278 Biological Control of Tomato Wilt Fungi Using Leaf Extracts of Bitter Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina)

Authors: Terna T. Paul, Agbara D. Onwoke

Abstract:

The antifungal potential of ethanolic leaf extracts of Vernonia amygdalina in the biological control of some common tomato wilt fungi was investigated. The experiment was set up in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with eight treatments and three replicates. 5 mm diameter agar discs of 7 days old cultures of Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii were obtained using a sterile 5 mm diameter cork borer and cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) inoculated with 5 ml of various concentrations of V. amygdalina ethanolic leaf extracts in petri dishes, and incubated for 10 days at 28 0C. The highest radial growth inhibitions of F. oxysporum (34.98%) and S. rolfsii (31.05%) were recorded 48 hours post-inoculation, both at 75% extract concentration. The leaf extracts of V. amygdalina used in the study exhibited significant inhibition of radial growth of the test organisms (P ≤ 0.05) and could be applied in the biological control of fungal wilt pathogens of tomato as a means of enhancing tomato yield and productivity.

Keywords: Biological control, fungi, leaf extracts, tomato wilt, V. amygdalina.

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277 Correlation between the Sowing Date and the Yield of Maize on Chernozem Soil, in Connection with the Leaf Area Index and the Photosynthesis

Authors: E. Bene

Abstract:

Our sowing date experiment took place in the Demonstration Garden of Institution of Plant Sciences, Centre for Agricultural Sciences of University of Debrecen, in 2012-2014. The paper contains data of test year 2014. Our purpose, besides several other examinations, was to observe how sowing date influences the leaf area index and the activity of photosynthesis of maize hybrids, and how those factors affect fruiting. In the experiment we monitored the change of the leaf area index and the photosynthesis of hybrids with four different growing seasons. The results obtained confirm that not only the environmental and agricultural factors in the growing season have effect on the yield, but also other factors like the leaf area index and the photosynthesis are determinative parameters, and all those factors together, modifying the effects of each other, develop average yields.

Keywords: Sowing date, hybrid, leaf area index, photosynthetic capacity.

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276 Robust Control Design and Analysis Using SCILAB for a Mass-Spring-Damper System

Authors: Yoonsoo Kim

Abstract:

This paper introduces an open-source software package SCILAB [1], an alternative of MATLAB [2], which can be used for robust control design and analysis of a typical mass-spring-damper (MSD) system. Using the previously published ideas in [3,4], this popular mechanical system is considered to provide another example of usefulness of SCILAB for advanced control design.

Keywords: Robust Control, SCILAB, Mass-Spring-Damper(MSD).

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275 Optimization of Process Parameters Affecting on Spring-Back in V-Bending Process for High Strength Low Alloy Steel HSLA 420 Using FEA (HyperForm) and Taguchi Technique

Authors: Navajyoti Panda, R. S. Pawar

Abstract:

In this study, process parameters like punch angle, die opening, grain direction, and pre-bend condition of the strip for deep draw of high strength low alloy steel HSLA 420 are investigated. The finite element method (FEM) in association with the Taguchi and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques are carried out to investigate the degree of importance of process parameters in V-bending process for HSLA 420&ST12 grade material. From results, it is observed that punch angle had a major influence on the spring-back. Die opening also showed very significant role on spring back. On the other hand, it is revealed that grain direction had the least impact on spring back; however, if strip from flat sheet is taken, then it is less prone to spring back as compared to the strip from sheet metal coil. HyperForm software is used for FEM simulation and experiments are designed using Taguchi method. Percentage contribution of the parameters is obtained through the ANOVA techniques.

Keywords: Bending, V-bending, FEM, spring-back, Taguchi, HyperForm, profile projector, HSLA 420 & St12 materials.

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274 Growth and Mineral Content of Mokara chark kuan Pink Orchid as Affected by Allelopathic Lantana camara Weed

Authors: M. Nashriyah, A. R. Shamsiah, M. Salmah, S. Misman, M. N. Maizatul Akmam, M. Y. Jamaliah, M. Mazleha

Abstract:

Growth and mineral nutrient elemental content were studied in Mokara chark kuan pink terrestrial orchid and wild Lantana camara weed agroecosystem. The treated subplots were encircled with L. camara plants and sprayed weekly with L. camara 10% leaf aqueous extract. Allelopathic interactions were possible through extensive invading root of L. camara plants into the treated orchid subplots and weekly L. camara leaf aqueous extract sprayings. Orchid growth was not significantly different in between the control and treated plots, but chlorosis and yellowish patches of leaves were observed in control orchid leaves. Nitrogen content in L. camara leaf was significantly higher than in orchid leaf, the order of importance of mineral nutrient contents in L. camara leaf was K>Mg>Na>N. In treated orchid leaf, the order of importance was N>K>Mg>Na. Orchid leaf N content from the treated plot was higher than control, but Mg and Na contents were almost similar.

Keywords: Growth, Lantana camara, mineral nutrient elements, Mokara chark kuan pink orchid.

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273 Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Weis–Fogh Type Ship-s Propulsion Mechanism Having Elastic Wing

Authors: K. D. Ro, J. T. Park, J. H. Kim

Abstract:

This experiment was conducted in attempt of improving hydrodynamic efficiency of the propulsion mechanism by installing a spring to the wing so that the opening angle of the wing in one stroke can be changed automatically, compared to the existing method of fixed maximum opening angle in Weis-Fogh type ship propulsion mechanism. Average thrust coefficient was almost fixed with all velocity ratio with the prototype, but with the spring type, thrust coefficient increased sharply as velocity ratio increased. Average propulsive efficiency was larger with bigger opening angle in the prototype, but in the spring type, the one with smaller spring coefficient had larger value. In the range over 1.0 in velocity ratio where big thrust can be generated, spring type had more than twice of propulsive efficiency increase compared to the prototype.

Keywords: Hydraulic Machine, Propulsion Mechanism, FluidForce, Elastic Wing.

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272 Comparative Study on the Antioxidant Activity of Leaf Extract and Carotenoids Extract from Ipomoea batatas var. Oren (Sweetpotato) Leaves

Authors: Seow-Mun Hue, Amru Nasrulhaq Boyce, Chandran Somasundram

Abstract:

Ipomoea batatas (Sweetpotato) is currently ranked sixth in the total world food production and are planted mainly for their storage roots. The present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the antioxidant properties of the leaf and carotenoids extract from the Ipomoea batatas var. Oren leaves. Total flavonoids in the leaf extract was 144.6 ± 40.5 μg/g compared to 114.86 ± 4.35 μg/g catechin equivalent in the carotenoids extract. Total polyphenols in the leaf extracts (3.470 ± 0.024 GAE g/100g DW) was slightly higher compared to carotenoids extract (2.994 ± 0.078 GAE g/100g DW). The carotenoids extract marked a higher radical scavenging capacity with the IC50= 491.86 μg/ml compared to leaf extract (IC50= 545.39 μg/ml). Concentration-dependent reducing activity was observed for both extracts. Thus, the carotenoids extraction process retained most of the antioxidant capacity from the leaves and can be made into potential natural yellow dye with antioxidant property.

Keywords: antioxidants, carotenoids extract, Ipomoea batatas, sweetpotato leaves

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271 A Consideration on the Offset Frontal Impact Modeling Using Spring-Mass Model

Authors: Jaemoon Lim

Abstract:

To construct the lumped spring-mass model considering the occupants for the offset frontal crash, the SISAME software and the NHTSA test data were used. The data on 56 kph 40% offset frontal vehicle to deformable barrier crash test of a MY2007 Mazda 6 4-door sedan were obtained from NHTSA test database. The overall behaviors of B-pillar and engine of simulation models agreed very well with the test data. The trends of accelerations at the driver and passenger head were similar but big differences in peak values. The differences of peak values caused the large errors of the HIC36 and 3 ms chest g’s. To predict well the behaviors of dummies, the spring-mass model for the offset frontal crash needs to be improved.

Keywords: Chest g’s, HIC36, lumped spring-mass model, offset frontal impact, SISAME.

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