Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30127
Biological Control of Tomato Wilt Fungi Using Leaf Extracts of Bitter Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina)

Authors: Terna T. Paul, Agbara D. Onwoke

Abstract:

The antifungal potential of ethanolic leaf extracts of Vernonia amygdalina in the biological control of some common tomato wilt fungi was investigated. The experiment was set up in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with eight treatments and three replicates. 5 mm diameter agar discs of 7 days old cultures of Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotium rolfsii were obtained using a sterile 5 mm diameter cork borer and cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) inoculated with 5 ml of various concentrations of V. amygdalina ethanolic leaf extracts in petri dishes, and incubated for 10 days at 28 0C. The highest radial growth inhibitions of F. oxysporum (34.98%) and S. rolfsii (31.05%) were recorded 48 hours post-inoculation, both at 75% extract concentration. The leaf extracts of V. amygdalina used in the study exhibited significant inhibition of radial growth of the test organisms (P ≤ 0.05) and could be applied in the biological control of fungal wilt pathogens of tomato as a means of enhancing tomato yield and productivity.

Keywords: Biological control, fungi, leaf extracts, tomato wilt, V. amygdalina.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1314612

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 705

References:


[1] S. Knapp, “Solanum section Geminata”, Fl Neotrop, vol. 84, 2002, pp. 1-405.
[2] P. Pritesh and R.B. Subramanian, “PCR based method for testing Fusarium wilt resistance of Tomato”, African Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, vol. 3, no. 5, 2011, pp. 222.
[3] W.C. John, N.C.J. Anyanwu, and T. Ayisa, “Evaluation of the Effects of the Extract of Vernonia amygdalina on Fungi Associated with Infected Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Jos North Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria”, Annual Research and Review in Biology, vol. 9, no. 4, 2016, pp. 1-8.
[4] M.M. Waiganjo, N.M. Wabule, D. Nyongesa, J.M. Kibaki, I. Onyango, S.B. Webukhulu and N.M. Muthoka, “Tomato production in Kiriyanga District, Kenya. A baseline survey report. KARI/IPM-CRSP Collaborative project, 2006.
[5] A. Agarwa and A.V. Rao, “Tomato lycopene and its role in human health and chronic Wilt Disease”, International Resource Journal of Microbiology, vol. 3, No. 1, 2000, pp. 14-23.
[6] A.V. Rao, and S. Agarwal, “Bioavailability and in vivo antioxidant properties of lycopene from tomato products and their possible role in the prevention of cancer”, Nutr. Cancer, vol. 31, 1998, 199-203.
[7] M.S. Lenucci, D. Cadinu, M. Taurino, G. Piro and G. Dalessandro, “Antioxidant composition in cherry and high-pigment tomato cultivars”, J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 54, 2006, pp. 2606-2613.
[8] R. Borguini, and E. Torres, “Tomatoes and tomato products as dietary sources of antioxidants”, Food Rev. Intern., vol. 25, 2009, pp. 313–325.
[9] Z. Kotkov, J. Lachman, A. Hejtmnkov and K. Hejtmnkov, “Determination of antioxidant activity and antioxidant content in tomato varieties and evaluation of mutual interactions between antioxidants”, LWT - Food Sci. & Technol., vol. 44, 2011, pp. 1703-1710.
[10] D. Mardi, B. Janet, and W. Paul, Organic Greenhouse Tomato Production. Fayetteville, 2002.
[11] I.D. Erinle, Tomato Diseases in the Northern States of Nigeria. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria: Extension Bulletin 11, Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services, 1986.
[12] A.R. El-Shanshoury, S.M. Abu El-Sououd, O.A. Awadella, and N.B. El-Bandy, “Effect of Streptomyces corchorusii, Strptomyces mutabilis, Pendimethalin and Metricuzin on the control of bacterial and Fusarium wilt of tomato”. Can. J. Bot., vol. 74, 1996, pp. 1016-1022.
[13] M.S. El-Abyad, M.A. El-Sayed, A.R. El-Shanshoury, and S.M. El-Sabbagh, “Towards the biological control of fungal and bacterial diseases of tomato using antagonistic Streptomyces spp”, Plant and Soil, vol. 149, 1993, pp. 185-195.
[14] F. Suarez-Estrella, M.C. Varga-Garcia, M.J. Lopez, C. Capel and J. Moreno, “Antagonistic activity of bacteria and fungi from horticultural compost against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis”, Crop Protection, vol. 26, 2007, pp. 46-53.
[15] J.G. Harris and M.W. Harris, Plant Identification Terminology, 2nd Edition, Utah: Spring Lake Publishing, 2001, 216pp.
[16] M. Momoh, M. Adikwu, and A.R. Oyi, “Vernonia amygdalina and CD4+ cell counts: An immune mutual interaction between antioxidants”, LWT-Food Sci. and Technol., vol. 44, 2010, pp. 1703-1710.
[17] T.T. Epidi, A. Alamene, B.A. Onuegbu, “Influence of some plant extracts on yield and insect pests of cowpea (Vigna unguiculate (L.) Walp), Nigerian Journal of Plant Protection, vol. 22, 2005, pp. 65-76.
[18] E.H. Kass and C.H. Norden, “Bacteriuria of pregnancy- a critical appraisal, Amer. Rev. Med., vol. 19, 1968, pp. 431-470.
[19] T.P. Terna, A.C. Odebode, J.I. Okogbaa and J.I. Waya, “Invitro screening of Trichoderma isolates for biological control of a post-harvest rot fungus”, IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, vol. 9, no. 4, 2016, pp. 46-51.
[20] K.I. Ugwuoke, C.C. Onyeke and N.G.R. Tsopmbeng, “The efficacy of botanical protectants in the storage of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Shott)”, Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture Food Environment Extension, vol. 7, no. 2, 2008, pp. 93-98.
[21] C.A. Onyeani, S.O. Osunlaja, O.O. Oworu, and A.O. Joda, “Evaluation of effect of aqueous plant extract in the control of storage fungi”, International Journal of Science Technology Research, vol. 1, no. 6, 2012, pp. 76-79.
[22] N.E. Blake, “Effect of allelochemicals on mineral uptake and associated physiological processes” in The Chemistry of Allelopathy: Biochemical Interactions among the plants, A.C. Thompson, Ed. Washington: American Chemical, 1985, pp. 161.
[23] J.B. Harborne, Methods in Plant Biochmistry Volume 1. Plant phenolics, London: Academic Press LTD, 1989, pp. 552.
[24] H. Wiendenfield, and E. Roder, “Pyrozidine alkaloids from Agenrantum conyzoides”, Planta Med., vol. 57, no. 6, 1991, pp. 578-579.
[25] A.K. Singh, L.M. McIntyre and L.A. Sherman, “Microarray analysis of the genome-wide response to iron deficiency and iron reconstitution in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803”, Plant Physiol vol. 132, 2003, pp. 1825-1839.
[26] M.N. Suleiman, “Fungitoxic activity of neem and paw paw leaves extracts on Alternaria solani, casual organism of yam rots”, Global Journal of Biotechnology and Biochemistry, vol. 5, 2010, pp. 92-96.
[27] R.N. Okigbo, U.E. Eme, R. Aseidu and P. Ramesh, “Effect of crude extracts of Allium sativum Linn, Cymbopogon citratus C.D. Stapf and Terminalia catappa on rot causing fungi of Dioscorea species”, Nig. J. Biol., vol. 22, no. 2, 2009b, pp. 359-369.
[28] A. Banso, S.O. Adeyemo and P. Jeremiah, “Antimicrobial properties of Vernonia amygdalina extract”, J. Appl. Sci. Manage., vol. 3, 1999, pp. 9-11.
[29] N. Martins, L. Barros, C. Santos-Buelga, M. Henriques, S. Silva and I.C. Ferreira, “Evaluation of bioactive properties and phenolic compounds in different extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L.”, Food Chem., vol. 170, 2015, pp. 378-85.
[30] K.D. Sharma, U.P. Singh, and K.P. Singh, “Variability in Indian isolates of Sclerotium rolfsii”, Mycologia, vol. 946, 2002, 1051-1058.
[31] R.C. Dubey and R. Kumar, “Efficacy of azadirachtin and fungicides on growth and survival of sclerotia of Macrophomina phaseolina causing charcoal rot in soyabean”, Indian Phytopathology, vol. 56, 2003, pp. 216-217.