Search results for: Landing gear
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 103

Search results for: Landing gear

103 Design and Analysis of Universal Multifunctional Leaf Spring Main Landing Gear for Light Aircraft

Authors: Meiyuan Zheng, Jingwu He, Yuexi Xiong

Abstract:

A universal multi-function leaf spring main landing gear was designed for light aircraft. The main landing gear combined with the leaf spring, skidding, and wheels enables it to have a good takeoff and landing performance on various grounds such as the hard, snow, grass and sand grounds. Firstly, the characteristics of different landing sites were studied in this paper in order to analyze the load of the main landing gear on different types of grounds. Based on this analysis, the structural design optimization along with the strength and stiffness characteristics of the main landing gear has been done, which enables it to have good takeoff and landing performance on different types of grounds given the relevant regulations and standards. Additionally, the impact of the skidding on the aircraft during the flight was also taken into consideration. Finally, a universal multi-function leaf spring type of the main landing gear suitable for light aircraft has been developed.

Keywords: Landing gear, multi-function, leaf spring, skidding.

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102 Analysis of Different Designed Landing Gears for a Light Aircraft

Authors: Essam A. Al-Bahkali

Abstract:

The design of a landing gear is one of the fundamental aspects of aircraft design. The need for a light weight, high strength, and stiffness characteristics coupled with techno economic feasibility are a key to the acceptability of any landing gear construction. In this paper, an approach for analyzing two different designed landing gears for an unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV) using advanced CAE techniques will be applied. Different landing conditions have been considered for both models. The maximum principle stresses for each model along with the factor of safety are calculated for every loading condition. A conclusion is drawing about better geometry.

Keywords: Landing Gear, Model, Finite Element Analysis, Aircraft.

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101 Conceptual Design of an Aircraft with Maglev Landing System

Authors: Nishanth Murugan, Mohammed Niyasdeen Nejaamtheen, S. Sounder Rajan

Abstract:

The accelerated growth in aircraft industries desire effectual schemes, programs, innovative designs of advanced systems to accomplishing the augmenting need for home-free air transportation. In this paper, a contemporary conceptual design of an airplane has been proposed without landing gear systems in order to reducing accidents, time consumption, and to eliminating drawbacks by using superconducting levitation phenomenon. This invention of an airplane with superconductive material coating, on the solar plexus region assist to reduce weight by approximately 4% of the total takeoff weight, and cost effective. Moreover, we conjectured that superconductor landing system reduces ground friction, mission fuel, total drag, take-off and landing distance.

Keywords: Aircraft landing system, Magnetic levitation, Superconductors, Take-off and landing.

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100 Optimization of the Aerodynamic Performances of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Fares Senouci, Bachir Imine

Abstract:

This document provides numerical and experimental optimization of the aerodynamic performance of a drone equipped with three types of horizontal stabilizer. To build this optimal configuration, an experimental and numerical study was conducted on three parameters: the geometry of the stabilizer (horizontal form or reverse V form), the position of the horizontal stabilizer (up or down), and the landing gear position (closed or open). The results show that up-stabilizer position with respect to the horizontal plane of the fuselage provides better aerodynamic performance, and that the landing gear increases the lift in the zone of stability, that is to say where the flow is not separated.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, wind tunnel, turbulence model, lift, drag.

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99 Stress Analysis of Spider Gear Using Structural Steel on ANSYS

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Shahab Khushnood

Abstract:

Differential is an integral part of four wheeled vehicle, and its main function is to transmit power from drive shaft to wheels. Differential assembly allows both rear wheels to turn at different speed along curved paths. It consists of four gears which are assembled together namely pinion, ring, spider and bevel gears. This research focused on the spider gear and its static structural analysis using ANSYS. The main aim was to evaluate the distribution of stresses on the teeth of the spider gear. This study also analyzed total deformation that may occur during its working along with bevel gear that is meshed with spider gear. Structural steel was chosen for spider gear in this research. Modeling and assembling were done on SolidWorks for both spider and bevel gear. They were assembled exactly same as in a differential assembly. This assembly was then imported to ANSYS. After observing results that maximum amount of stress and deformation was produced in the spider gear, it was concluded that structural steel material for spider gear possesses greater amount of strength to bear maximum stress.

Keywords: Differential, spider gear, ANSYS, structural steel.

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98 Lubrication Performance of Multi-Level Gear Oil in a Gasoline Engine

Authors: Feng-Tsai Weng, Dong- Syuan Cai, Tsochu-Lin

Abstract:

A vehicle gasoline engine converts gasoline into power so that the car can move, and lubricants are important for engines and also gear boxes. Manufacturers have produced numbers of engine oils, and gear oils for engines and gear boxes to SAE International Standards. Some products not only can improve the lubrication of both the engine and gear box but also can raise power of vehicle this can be easily seen in the advertisement declared by the manufacturers. To observe the lubrication performance, a multi-leveled (heavy duty) gear oil was added to a gasoline engine as the oil in the vehicle. The oil was checked at about every 10,000 kilometers. The engine was detailed disassembled, cleaned, and parts were measured. The wear of components of the engine parts were checked and recorded finally. Based on the experiment results, some gear oil seems possible to be used as engine oil in particular vehicles. Vehicle owners should change oil periodically in about every 6,000 miles (or 10,000 kilometers). Used car owners may change engine oil in even longer distance.

Keywords: Multi-level gear oil, engine oil, viscosity, abrasion.

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97 Transient Stress Analysis on Medium Modules Spur Gear by Using Mode Super Position Technique

Authors: Ali Raad Hassan

Abstract:

Natural frequencies and dynamic response of a spur gear sector are investigated using a two dimensional finite element model that offers significant advantages for dynamic gear analyses. The gear teeth are analyzed for different operating speeds. A primary feature of this modeling is determination of mesh forces using a detailed contact analysis for each time step as the gears roll through the mesh. ANSYS software has been used on the proposed model to find the natural frequencies by Block Lanczos technique and displacements and dynamic stresses by transient mode super position method. The effect of rotational speed of the gear on the dynamic response of gear tooth has been studied and design limits have been discussed.

Keywords: Spur gear, Natural frequency, transient analysis, Mode super position technique.

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96 Worm Gearing Design Improvement by Considering Varying Mesh Stiffness

Authors: A. H. Elkholy, A. H. Falah

Abstract:

A new approach has been developed to estimate the load share and distribution of worm gear drives, and to calculate the instantaneous tooth meshing stiffness. In the approach, the worm gear drive was modelled as a series of spur gear slices, and each slice was analyzed separately using the well-established formulae of spur gear loading and stresses. By combining the results obtained for all slices, the entire envolute worm gear set loading and stressing was obtained. The geometric modelling method presented allows tooth elastic deformation and tooth root stresses of worm gear drives under different load conditions to be investigated. Based on the slicing method introduced in this study, the instantaneous meshing stiffness and load share are obtained. In comparison with existing methods, this approach has both good analysis accuracy and less computing time.

Keywords: Gear, load/stress distribution, worm, wheel, tooth stiffness, contact line.

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95 Analytical Crack Propagation Scenario for Gear Teeth and Time-Varying Gear Mesh Stiffness

Authors: Omar D. Mohammed, Matti Rantatalo, Uday Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper an analytical crack propagation scenario is proposed which assumes that a crack propagates in the tooth root in both the crack depth direction and the tooth width direction, and which is more reasonable and realistic for non-uniform load distribution cases than the other presented scenarios. An analytical approach is used for quantifying the loss of time-varying gear mesh stiffness with the presence of crack propagation in the gear tooth root. The proposed crack propagation scenario can be applied for crack propagation modelling and monitoring simulation, but further research is required for comparison and evaluation of all the presented crack propagation scenarios from the condition monitoring point of view.

Keywords: Crack propagation, Gear tooth crack, Time varying gear mesh stiffness.

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94 Equipment Design for Lunar Lander Landing-Impact Test

Authors: Xiaohuan Li, Wangmin Yi, Xinghui Wu

Abstract:

In order to verify the performance of lunar lander structure, landing-impact test is urgently needed. And the test equipment is necessary for the test. The functions and the key points of the equipment are presented to satisfy the requirements of the test, and the design scheme is proposed. The composition, the major function and the critical parts’ design of the equipment are introduced. By the load test of releasing device and single-beam hoist, and the compatibility test of landing-impact testing system, the rationality and reliability of the equipment is proved.

Keywords: Landing-impact test, lunar lander, releasing device, test equipment.

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93 Chaotic Response and Bifurcation Analysis of Gear-Bearing System with and without Porous Effect under Nonlinear Suspension

Authors: Cai-Wan Chang-Jian

Abstract:

This study presents a systematic analysis of the dynamic behaviors of a gear-bearing system with porous squeeze film damper (PSFD) under nonlinear suspension, nonlinear oil-film force and nonlinear gear meshing force effect. It can be found that the system exhibits very rich forms of sub-harmonic and even the chaotic vibrations. The bifurcation diagrams also reveal that greater values of permeability may not only improve non-periodic motions effectively, but also suppress dynamic amplitudes of the system. Therefore, porous effect plays an important role to improve dynamic stability of gear-bearing systems or other mechanical systems. The results presented in this study provide some useful insights into the design and development of a gear-bearing system for rotating machinery that operates in highly rotational speed and highly nonlinear regimes.

Keywords: Gear, PSFD, bifurcation, chaos.

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92 Motor Gear Fault Diagnosis by Current, Noise and Vibration on AC Machine Considering Environment

Authors: Sun-Ki Hong, Ki-Seok Kim, Yong-Ho Cho

Abstract:

Lots of motors have been being used in industry. Therefore many researchers have studied about the failure diagnosis of motors. In this paper, the effect of measuring environment for diagnosis of gear fault connected to a motor shaft is studied. The fault diagnosis is executed through the comparison of normal gear and abnormal gear. The measured FFT data are compared with the normal data and analyzed for q-axis current, noise and vibration. For bad and good environment, the diagnosis results are compared. From these, it is shown that the bad measuring environment may not be able to detect exactly the motor gear fault. Therefore it is emphasized that the measuring environment should be carefully prepared.

Keywords: Motor fault, Diagnosis, FFT, Vibration, Noise, q-axis current, measuring environment.

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91 Effect of Lubrication on the Quantity of Heat Emission of two Spur Gears in Meshing

Authors: S. A. M. Elshourbagy

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effects of lubrication on the quantity of heat emission of two spur gear. System with and without lubrication effected on the quantity of heat induced on the gear box (oil - bearings – gears). Both of lubrication and speed of motor are affected on the performance of gears. Research investigated the lubrication on the system with and without loading as well as the wear of gears and bearing's conditions. Gear box investigated includes the motor, pump, two spur gears, two shafts; speed change used pulleys and belts. Load used equal one weight ones of gear. Lubrication mechanism used jet system (upper and lower jet). Gear box we used system of jet lubrication is perpendicular direction of the contact line between two teeth. Results appeared in this work that the lubrication is the vital parameter which is affected on the performance and durability of gears and bearings. In macroscopic observation, we noted that damage of bearings happened during the absence of lubrication as well as abrasive of wear of teeth. Higher speed of motor without lubrication increased the noise, but in the presence of lubrication was decreased.

Keywords: Lubrication, jet, laser gun, spur gear, temperature

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90 Prediction of Overall Efficiency in Multistage Gear Trains

Authors: James Kuria, John Kihiu

Abstract:

A mathematical model for determining the overall efficiency of a multistage tractor gearbox including all gear, lubricant, surface finish related parameters and operating conditions is presented. Sliding friction, rolling friction and windage losses were considered as the main sources of power loss in the gearing system. A computer code in FORTRAN was developed to simulate the model. Sliding friction contributes about 98% of the total power loss for gear trains operating at relatively low speeds (less than 2000 rpm input speed). Rolling frictional losses decrease with increased load while windage losses are only significant for gears running at very high speeds (greater than 3000 rpm). The results also showed that the overall efficiency varies over the path of contact of the gear meshes ranging between 94% to 99.5%.

Keywords: Efficiency, multistage gear train, rolling friction, slidingfriction, windage losses.

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89 Contact Stress on the Surface of Gear Teeth with Different Profile

Authors: K. Farhangdoost, H. Heirani

Abstract:

Contact stress is an important problem in industry. This is a problem that in the first attention may be don-t appears, but disregard of these stresses cause a lot of damages in machines. These stresses occur at locations such as gear teeth, bearings, cams and between a locomotive wheel and the railroad rail. These stresses cause failure by excessive elastic deformation, yielding and fracture. In this paper we intend show the effective parameters in contact stress and ponder effect of curvature. In this paper we study contact stresses on the surface of gear teeth and compare these stresses for four popular profiles of gear teeth (involute, cycloid, epicycloids, and hypocycloid). We study this problem with mathematical and finite element methods and compare these two methods on different profile surfaces.

Keywords: Contact stress, Cycloid, Epicycloids, Finite element, Gear, Hypocycloid, Involute, Radius of curvature.

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88 Evaluation of the Power Generation Effect Obtained by Inserting a Piezoelectric Sheet in the Backlash Clearance of a Circular Arc Helical Gear

Authors: Barenten Suciu, Yuya Nakamoto

Abstract:

Power generation effect, obtained by inserting a piezo- electric sheet in the backlash clearance of a circular arc helical gear, is evaluated. Such type of screw gear is preferred since, in comparison with the involute tooth profile, the circular arc profile leads to reduced stress-concentration effects, and improved life of the piezoelectric film. Firstly, geometry of the circular arc helical gear, and properties of the piezoelectric sheet are presented. Then, description of the test-rig, consisted of a right-hand thread gear meshing with a left-hand thread gear, and the voltage measurement procedure are given. After creating the tridimensional (3D) model of the meshing gears in SolidWorks, they are 3D-printed in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) resin. Variation of the generated voltage versus time, during a meshing cycle of the circular arc helical gear, is measured for various values of the center distance. Then, the change of the maximal, minimal, and peak-to-peak voltage versus the center distance is illustrated. Optimal center distance of the gear, to achieve voltage maximization, is found and its significance is discussed. Such results prove that the contact pressure of the meshing gears can be measured, and also, the electrical power can be generated by employing the proposed technique.

Keywords: Power generation, circular arc helical gear, piezo- electric sheet, contact problem, optimal center distance.

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87 Parametric Transition as a Spiral Curve and Its Application in Spur Gear Tooth with FEA

Authors: S. H. Yahaya, J. M. Ali, T.A. Abdullah

Abstract:

The exploration of this paper will focus on the Cshaped transition curve. This curve is designed by using the concept of circle to circle where one circle lies inside other. The degree of smoothness employed is curvature continuity. The function used in designing the C-curve is Bézier-like cubic function. This function has a low degree, flexible for the interactive design of curves and surfaces and has a shape parameter. The shape parameter is used to control the C-shape curve. Once the C-shaped curve design is completed, this curve will be applied to design spur gear tooth. After the tooth design procedure is finished, the design will be analyzed by using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). This analysis is used to find out the applicability of the tooth design and the gear material that chosen. In this research, Cast Iron 4.5 % Carbon, ASTM A-48 is selected as a gear material.

Keywords: Bézier-like cubic function, Curvature continuity, Cshapedtransition curve, Spur gear tooth.

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86 Effects of Natural Frequency and Rotational Speed on Dynamic Stress in Spur Gear

Authors: Ali Raad Hassan, G. Thanigaiyarasu, V. Ramamurti

Abstract:

Natural frequencies and dynamic response of a spur gear sector are investigated using a two dimensional finite element model that offers significant advantages for dynamic gear analyses. The gear teeth are analyzed for different operating speeds. A primary feature of this modeling is determination of mesh forces using a detailed contact analysis for each time step as the gears roll through the mesh. Transient mode super position method has been used to find horizontal and vertical components of displacement and dynamic stress. The finite element analysis software ANSYS has been used on the proposed model to find the natural frequencies by Block Lanczos technique and displacements and dynamic stresses by transient mode super position method. A comparison of theoretical (natural frequency and static stress) results with the finite element analysis results has also been done. The effect of rotational speed of the gears on the dynamic response of gear tooth has been studied and design limits have been discussed.

Keywords: Natural frequency, Modal and transientanalysis, Spur gear, Dynamic stress.

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85 Friction Calculation and Simulation of Column Electric Power Steering System

Authors: Seyed Hamid Mirmohammad Sadeghi, Raffaella Sesana, Daniela Maffiodo

Abstract:

This study presents a procedure for friction calculation of column electric power steering (C-EPS) system which affects handling and comfort in driving. The friction losses estimation is obtained from experimental tests and mathematical calculation. Parts in C-EPS mainly involved in friction losses are bearings and worm gear. In the theoretical approach, the gear geometry and Hertz law were employed to measure the normal load and the sliding velocity and contact areas from the worm gears driving conditions. The viscous friction generated in the worm gear was obtained with a theoretical approach and the result was applied to model the friction in the steering system. Finally, by viscous friction coefficient and Coulomb friction coefficient, values of friction in worm gear were calculated. According to the Bearing Company and the characteristics of each bearing, the friction torques due to load and due to speed were calculated. A MATLAB Simulink model for calculating the friction in bearings and worm gear in C-EPS were done and the total friction value was estimated.

Keywords: Friction, worm gear, column electric power steering system, Simulink, bearing, electric power steering, EPS.

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84 Ghost Frequency Noise Reduction through Displacement Deviation Analysis

Authors: Paua Ketan, Bhagate Rajkumar, Adiga Ganesh, M. Kiran

Abstract:

Low gear noise is an important sound quality feature in modern passenger cars. Annoying gear noise from the gearbox is influenced by the gear design, gearbox shaft layout, manufacturing deviations in the components, assembly errors and the mounting arrangement of the complete gearbox. Geometrical deviations in the form of profile and lead errors are often present on the flanks of the inspected gears. Ghost frequencies of a gear are very challenging to identify in standard gear measurement and analysis process due to small wavelengths involved. In this paper, gear whine noise occurring at non-integral multiples of gear mesh frequency of passenger car gearbox is investigated and the root cause is identified using the displacement deviation analysis (DDA) method. DDA method is applied to identify ghost frequency excitations on the flanks of gears arising out of generation grinding. Frequency identified through DDA correlated with the frequency of vibration and noise on the end-of-line machine as well as vehicle level measurements. With the application of DDA method along with standard lead profile measurement, gears with ghost frequency geometry deviations were identified on the production line to eliminate defective parts and thereby eliminate ghost frequency noise from a vehicle. Further, displacement deviation analysis can be used in conjunction with the manufacturing process simulation to arrive at suitable countermeasures for arresting the ghost frequency.

Keywords: Displacement deviation analysis, gear whine, ghost frequency, sound quality.

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83 Design Process and Real-Time Validation of an Innovative Autonomous Mid-Air Flight and Landing System

Authors: De Lellis E., Di Vito V., Garbarino L., Lai C., Corraro F.

Abstract:

This paper describes the design process and the realtime validation of an innovative autonomous mid-air flight and landing system developed by the Italian Aerospace Research Center in the framework of the Italian national funded project TECVOL (Technologies for the Autonomous Flight). In the paper it is provided an insight of the whole development process of the system under study. In particular, the project framework is illustrated at first, then the functional context and the adopted design and testing approach are described, and finally the on-ground validation test rig on purpose designed is addressed in details. Furthermore, the hardwarein- the-loop validation of the autonomous mid-air flight and landing system by means of the real-time test rig is described and discussed.

Keywords: Autonomous landing, autonomous mid-air flight, design and test approach, real-time hardware-in-the-loop validation

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82 Modeling Parametric Vibration of Multistage Gear Systems as a Tool for Design Optimization

Authors: James Kuria, John Kihiu

Abstract:

This work presents a numerical model developed to simulate the dynamics and vibrations of a multistage tractor gearbox. The effect of time varying mesh stiffness, time varying frictional torque on the gear teeth, lateral and torsional flexibility of the shafts and flexibility of the bearings were included in the model. The model was developed by using the Lagrangian method, and it was applied to study the effect of three design variables on the vibration and stress levels on the gears. The first design variable, module, had little effect on the vibration levels but a higher module resulted to higher bending stress levels. The second design variable, pressure angle, had little effect on the vibration levels, but had a strong effect on the stress levels on the pinion of a high reduction ratio gear pair. A pressure angle of 25o resulted to lower stress levels for a pinion with 14 teeth than a pressure angle of 20o. The third design variable, contact ratio, had a very strong effect on both the vibration levels and bending stress levels. Increasing the contact ratio to 2.0 reduced both the vibration levels and bending stress levels significantly. For the gear train design used in this study, a module of 2.5 and contact ratio of 2.0 for the various meshes was found to yield the best combination of low vibration levels and low bending stresses. The model can therefore be used as a tool for obtaining the optimum gear design parameters for a given multistage spur gear train.

Keywords: bending stress levels, frictional torque, gear designparameters, mesh stiffness, multistage gear train, vibration levels.

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81 Comparison of Meshing Stiffness of Altered Tooth Sum Spur Gear Tooth with Different Pressure Angles

Authors: H. K. Sachidananda, K. Raghunandana, B. Shivamurthy

Abstract:

The estimation of gear tooth stiffness is important for finding the load distribution between the gear teeth when two consecutive sets of teeth are in contact. Based on dynamic model a C-program has been developed to compute mesh stiffness. By using this program position dependent mesh stiffness of spur gear tooth for various profile shifts have been computed for a fixed center distance and altering tooth-sum gearing (100 by ± 4%). It is found that the C-program using dynamic model is one of the rapid soft computing technique which helps in design of gears. The mesh tooth stiffness along the path of contact is studied for both 20° and 25° pressure angle gears at various profile shifts. Better tooth stiffness is noticed in case of negative alteration tooth-sum gears compared to standard and positive alteration tooth-sum gears. Also, in case of negative alteration tooth-sum gearing better mesh stiffness is noticed in 20° pressure angle when compared to 25°.

Keywords: Altered tooth-sum gearing, bending fatigue, mesh stiffness, spur gear.

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80 A Study on Optimal Determination of Partial Transmission Ratios of Helical Gearboxes with Second-Step Double Gear-Sets

Authors: Vu Ngoc Pi

Abstract:

In this paper, a study on the applications of the optimization and regression techniques for optimal calculation of partial ratios of helical gearboxes with second-step double gear-sets for minimal cross section dimension is introduced. From the condition of the moment equilibrium of a mechanic system including three gear units and their regular resistance condition, models for calculation of the partial ratios of helical gearboxes with second-step double gear-sets were given. Especially, by regression analysis, explicit models for calculation of the partial ratios are introduced. These models allow determining the partial ratios accurately and simply.

Keywords: Gearbox design, optimal design, helical gearbox, transmission ratio.

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79 Robust Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller Design for Flight Control Systems

Authors: Y. J. Huang, T. C. Kuo, B. W. Hong, B. C. Wu

Abstract:

This paper presents a robust proportionalderivative (PD) based cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) for vertical take-off and landing flight control systems. Successful on-line training and recalling process of CMAC accompanying the PD controller is developed. The advantage of the proposed method is mainly the robust tracking performance against aerodynamic parametric variation and external wind gust. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is validated through the application of a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft control system.

Keywords: vertical takeoff and landing, cerebellar modelarticulation controller, proportional-derivative control.

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78 Vehicle Gearbox Fault Diagnosis Based On Cepstrum Analysis

Authors: Mohamed El Morsy, Gabriela Achtenová

Abstract:

Research on damage of gears and gear pairs using vibration signals remains very attractive, because vibration signals from a gear pair are complex in nature and not easy to interpret. Predicting gear pair defects by analyzing changes in vibration signal of gears pairs in operation is a very reliable method. Therefore, a suitable vibration signal processing technique is necessary to extract defect information generally obscured by the noise from dynamic factors of other gear pairs.This article presents the value of cepstrum analysis in vehicle gearbox fault diagnosis. Cepstrum represents the overall power content of a whole family of harmonics and sidebands when more than one family of sidebands is present at the same time. The concept for the measurement and analysis involved in using the technique are briefly outlined. Cepstrum analysis is used for detection of an artificial pitting defect in a vehicle gearbox loaded with different speeds and torques. The test stand is equipped with three dynamometers; the input dynamometer serves asthe internal combustion engine, the output dynamometers introduce the load on the flanges of the output joint shafts. The pitting defect is manufactured on the tooth side of a gear of the fifth speed on the secondary shaft. Also, a method for fault diagnosis of gear faults is presented based on order Cepstrum. The procedure is illustrated with the experimental vibration data of the vehicle gearbox. The results show the effectiveness of Cepstrum analysis in detection and diagnosis of the gear condition.

Keywords: Cepstrum analysis, fault diagnosis, gearbox.

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77 A Fundamental Study for Real-Time Safety Evaluation System of Landing Pier Using FBG Sensor

Authors: Heungsu Lee, Youngseok Kim, Jonghwa Yi, Chul Park

Abstract:

A landing pier is subjected to safety assessment by visual inspection and design data, but it is difficult to check the damage in real-time. In this study, real - time damage detection and safety evaluation methods were studied. As a result of structural analysis of the arbitrary landing pier structure, the inflection point of deformation and moment occurred at 10%, 50%, and 90% of pile length. The critical value of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor was set according to the safety factor, and the FBG sensor application method for real - time safety evaluation was derived.

Keywords: FBG sensor, harbor structure, maintenance, safety evaluation system.

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76 A Study on the Heading of Spur Gears: Numerical Analysis and Experiments

Authors: M.Zadshakouyan, E.Abdi Sobbouhi, H.Jafarzadeh

Abstract:

In this study, the precision heading process of spur gears has been investigated by means of numerical analysis. The effect of some parameters such as teeth number and module on the forming force and material flow were presented. The simulation works were performed rigid-plastic finite element method using DEFORM 3D software. In order to validate the estimated numerical results, they were compared with those obtained experimentally during heading of spur gear using lead as a model material. Results showed that the optimum number of gear teeth is between 10 to 20, that is because of being the specific pressure in its minimum value.

Keywords: Heading, spur gear, numerical analysis, experiments.

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75 Modern Vibration Signal Processing Techniques for Vehicle Gearbox Fault Diagnosis

Authors: Mohamed El Morsy, Gabriela Achtenová

Abstract:

This paper presents modern vibration signalprocessing techniques for vehicle gearbox fault diagnosis, via the wavelet analysis and the Squared Envelope (SE) technique. The wavelet analysis is regarded as a powerful tool for the detection of sudden changes in non-stationary signals. The Squared Envelope (SE) technique has been extensively used for rolling bearing diagnostics. In the present work a scheme of using the Squared Envelope technique for early detection of gear tooth pit. The pitting defect is manufactured on the tooth side of a fifth speed gear on the intermediate shaft of a vehicle gearbox. The objective is to supplement the current techniques of gearbox fault diagnosis based on using the raw vibration and ordered signals. The test stand is equipped with three dynamometers; the input dynamometer serves as the internal combustion engine, the output dynamometers introduce the load on the flanges of output joint shafts. The gearbox used for experimental measurements is the type most commonly used in modern small to mid-sized passenger cars with transversely mounted powertrain and front wheel drive; a five-speed gearbox with final drive gear and front wheel differential. The results show that the approaches methods are effective for detecting and diagnosing localized gear faults in early stage under different operation conditions, and are more sensitive and robust than current gear diagnostic techniques.

Keywords: Wavelet analysis, Squared Envelope, gear faults.

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74 Vibration, Lubrication and Machinery Consideration for a Mixer Gearbox Related to Iran Oil Industries

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

In this paper, some common gearboxes vibration analysis methods and condition monitoring systems are explained. In addition, an experimental gearbox vibration analysis is discussed through a critical case history for a mixer gearbox related to Iran oil industry. The case history also consists of gear manufacturing (machining) recommendations, lubrication condition of gearbox and machinery maintenance activities that caused reduction in noise and vibration of the gearbox. Besides some of the recent patents and innovations in gearboxes, lubrication and vibration monitoring systems explained. Finally micro pitting and surface fatigue in pinion and bevel of mentioned horizontal to vertical gearbox discussed in details.

Keywords: Gear box, condition monitoring, time wave form (TWF), fast Fourier transform (FFT), gear mesh frequency (GMF), Shock Pulse measurement (SPM), bearing condition unit (BCU), pinion, bevel gear, micro pitting, surface fatigue.

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