Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1055

Search results for: highly scalable

1055 Reversible, Embedded and Highly Scalable Image Compression System

Authors: Federico Pérez González, Iñaki Goirizelaia Ordorika, Pedro Iriondo Bengoa

Abstract:

In this work a new method for low complexity image coding is presented, that permits different settings and great scalability in the generation of the final bit stream. This coding presents a continuous-tone still image compression system that groups loss and lossless compression making use of finite arithmetic reversible transforms. Both transformation in the space of color and wavelet transformation are reversible. The transformed coefficients are coded by means of a coding system in depending on a subdivision into smaller components (CFDS) similar to the bit importance codification. The subcomponents so obtained are reordered by means of a highly configure alignment system depending on the application that makes possible the re-configure of the elements of the image and obtaining different importance levels from which the bit stream will be generated. The subcomponents of each importance level are coded using a variable length entropy coding system (VBLm) that permits the generation of an embedded bit stream. This bit stream supposes itself a bit stream that codes a compressed still image. However, the use of a packing system on the bit stream after the VBLm allows the realization of a final highly scalable bit stream from a basic image level and one or several improvement levels.

Keywords: Image compression, wavelet transform, highly scalable, reversible transform, embedded, subcomponents.

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1054 Highly Scalable, Reversible and Embedded Image Compression System

Authors: Federico Pérez González, Iñaki Goiricelaia Ordorika, Pedro Iriondo Bengoa

Abstract:

A new method for low complexity image coding is presented, that permits different settings and great scalability in the generation of the final bit stream. This coding presents a continuoustone still image compression system that groups loss and lossless compression making use of finite arithmetic reversible transforms. Both transformation in the space of color and wavelet transformation are reversible. The transformed coefficients are coded by means of a coding system in depending on a subdivision into smaller components (CFDS) similar to the bit importance codification. The subcomponents so obtained are reordered by means of a highly configure alignment system depending on the application that makes possible the re-configure of the elements of the image and obtaining different levels of importance from which the bit stream will be generated. The subcomponents of each level of importance are coded using a variable length entropy coding system (VBLm) that permits the generation of an embedded bit stream. This bit stream supposes itself a bit stream that codes a compressed still image. However, the use of a packing system on the bit stream after the VBLm allows the realization of a final highly scalable bit stream from a basic image level and one or several enhance levels.

Keywords: Image compression, wavelet transform, highlyscalable, reversible transform, embedded, subcomponents.

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1053 A Reconfigurable Distributed Multiagent System Optimized for Scalability

Authors: Summiya Moheuddin, Afzel Noore, Muhammad Choudhry

Abstract:

This paper proposes a novel solution for optimizing the size and communication overhead of a distributed multiagent system without compromising the performance. The proposed approach addresses the challenges of scalability especially when the multiagent system is large. A modified spectral clustering technique is used to partition a large network into logically related clusters. Agents are assigned to monitor dedicated clusters rather than monitor each device or node. The proposed scalable multiagent system is implemented using JADE (Java Agent Development Environment) for a large power system. The performance of the proposed topologyindependent decentralized multiagent system and the scalable multiagent system is compared by comprehensively simulating different fault scenarios. The time taken for reconfiguration, the overall computational complexity, and the communication overhead incurred are computed. The results of these simulations show that the proposed scalable multiagent system uses fewer agents efficiently, makes faster decisions to reconfigure when a fault occurs, and incurs significantly less communication overhead.

Keywords: Multiagent system, scalable design, spectral clustering, reconfiguration.

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1052 Application and Limitation of Parallel Modelingin Multidimensional Sequential Pattern

Authors: Mahdi Esmaeili, Mansour Tarafdar

Abstract:

The goal of data mining algorithms is to discover useful information embedded in large databases. One of the most important data mining problems is discovery of frequently occurring patterns in sequential data. In a multidimensional sequence each event depends on more than one dimension. The search space is quite large and the serial algorithms are not scalable for very large datasets. To address this, it is necessary to study scalable parallel implementations of sequence mining algorithms. In this paper, we present a model for multidimensional sequence and describe a parallel algorithm based on data parallelism. Simulation experiments show good load balancing and scalable and acceptable speedup over different processors and problem sizes and demonstrate that our approach can works efficiently in a real parallel computing environment.

Keywords: Sequential Patterns, Data Mining, ParallelAlgorithm, Multidimensional Sequence Data

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1051 Diffusion Analysis of a Scalable Feistel Network

Authors: Subariah Ibrahim, Mohd Aizaini Maarof

Abstract:

A generalization of the concepts of Feistel Networks (FN), known as Extended Feistel Network (EFN) is examined. EFN splits the input blocks into n > 2 sub-blocks. Like conventional FN, EFN consists of a series of rounds whereby at least one sub-block is subjected to an F function. The function plays a key role in the diffusion process due to its completeness property. It is also important to note that in EFN the F-function is the most computationally expensive operation in a round. The aim of this paper is to determine a suitable type of EFN for a scalable cipher. This is done by analyzing the threshold number of rounds for different types of EFN to achieve the completeness property as well as the number of F-function required in the network. The work focuses on EFN-Type I, Type II and Type III only. In the analysis it is found that EFN-Type II and Type III diffuses at the same rate and both are faster than Type-I EFN. Since EFN-Type-II uses less F functions as compared to EFN-Type III, therefore Type II is the most suitable EFN for use in a scalable cipher.

Keywords: Cryptography, Extended Feistel Network, Diffusion Analysis.

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1050 An Atomic-Domains-Based Approach for Attack Graph Generation

Authors: Fangfang Chen, Chunlu Wang, Zhihong Tian, Shuyuan Jin, Tianle Zhang

Abstract:

Attack graph is an integral part of modeling the overview of network security. System administrators use attack graphs to determine how vulnerable their systems are and to determine what security measures to deploy to defend their systems. Previous methods on AGG(attack graphs generation) are aiming at the whole network, which makes the process of AGG complex and non-scalable. In this paper, we propose a new approach which is simple and scalable to AGG by decomposing the whole network into atomic domains. Each atomic domain represents a host with a specific privilege. Then the process for AGG is achieved by communications among all the atomic domains. Our approach simplifies the process of design for the whole network, and can gives the attack graphs including each attack path for each host, and when the network changes we just carry on the operations of corresponding atomic domains which makes the process of AGG scalable.

Keywords: atomic domain, vulnerability, attack graphs, generation, computer security

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1049 Developing a Sustainable Educational Portal for the D-Grid Community

Authors: Viktor Achter, Sebastian Breuers, Marc Seifert, Ulrich Lang, Joachim Götze, Bernd Reuther, Paul Müller

Abstract:

Within the last years, several technologies have been developed to help building e-learning portals. Most of them follow approaches that deliver a vast amount of functionalities, suitable for class-like learning. The SuGI project, as part of the D-Grid (funded by the BMBF), targets on delivering a highly scalable and sustainable learning solution to provide materials (e.g. learning modules, training systems, webcasts, tutorials, etc.) containing knowledge about Grid computing to the D-Grid community. In this article, the process of the development of an e-learning portal focused on the requirements of this special user group is described. Furthermore, it deals with the conceptual and technical design of an e-learning portal, addressing the special needs of heterogeneous target groups. The main focus lies on the quality management of the software development process, Web templates for uploading new contents, the rich search and filter functionalities which will be described from a conceptual as well as a technical point of view. Specifically, it points out best practices as well as concepts to provide a sustainable solution to a relatively unknown and highly heterogeneous community.

Keywords: D-Grid, e-learning, e-science, Grid computing, SuGI.

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1048 An Improved Resource Discovery Approach Using P2P Model for Condor: A Grid Middleware

Authors: Anju Sharma, Seema Bawa

Abstract:

Resource Discovery in Grids is critical for efficient resource allocation and management. Heterogeneous nature and dynamic availability of resources make resource discovery a challenging task. As numbers of nodes are increasing from tens to thousands, scalability is essentially desired. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) techniques, on the other hand, provide effective implementation of scalable services and applications. In this paper we propose a model for resource discovery in Condor Middleware by using the four axis framework defined in P2P approach. The proposed model enhances Condor to incorporate functionality of a P2P system, thus aim to make Condor more scalable, flexible, reliable and robust.

Keywords: Condor Middleware, Grid Computing, P2P, Resource Discovery.

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1047 A Flexible and Scalable Agent Platform for Multi-Agent Systems

Authors: Ae Hee Park, So Hyun Park, Hee Yong Youn

Abstract:

Multi-agent system is composed by several agents capable of reaching the goal cooperatively. The system needs an agent platform for efficient and stable interaction between intelligent agents. In this paper we propose a flexible and scalable agent platform by composing the containers with multiple hierarchical agent groups. It also allows efficient implementation of multiple domain presentations of the agents unlike JADE. The proposed platform provides both group management and individual management of agents for efficiency. The platform has been implemented and tested, and it can be used as a flexible foundation of the dynamic multi-agent system targeting seamless delivery of ubiquitous services.

Keywords: Agent platform, container, multi-agent system, services, ubiquitous computing

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1046 International Migration of Highly Skilled Indian Professionals: A Case Study of Indian IT Professionals in Japan, Preliminary Results

Authors: Rimpi Rani

Abstract:

In the 2000s, a new migration trend of highly skilled Indian professionals towards Japan has appeared. This paper examines the factors that set off the incoming of highly skilled Indian professionals in Japan, mainly focusing on IT professionals’ immigration, and the reasons of the increase in their number. It investigates the influence of four factors: The Japanese immigration policy, the bilateral relations between India and Japan, the higher education system in India and the American H-1B visa policy with its cap system. This study concludes that increased and continuous supply of highly skilled Indian professionals have intensified the competition for migration to traditional destinations like the USA. This led Indian professionals   to consider other options such as Japan.

Keywords: International migration, India, Japan, highly skilled professionals.

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1045 A Paradigm Shift towards Personalized and Scalable Product Development and Lifecycle Management Systems in the Aerospace Industry

Authors: David E. Culler, Noah D. Anderson

Abstract:

Integrated systems for product design, manufacturing, and lifecycle management are difficult to implement and customize. Commercial software vendors, including CAD/CAM and third party PDM/PLM developers, create user interfaces and functionality that allow their products to be applied across many industries. The result is that systems become overloaded with functionality, difficult to navigate, and use terminology that is unfamiliar to engineers and production personnel. For example, manufacturers of automotive, aeronautical, electronics, and household products use similar but distinct methods and processes. Furthermore, each company tends to have their own preferred tools and programs for controlling work and information flow and that connect design, planning, and manufacturing processes to business applications. This paper presents a methodology and a case study that addresses these issues and suggests that in the future more companies will develop personalized applications that fit to the natural way that their business operates. A functioning system has been implemented at a highly competitive U.S. aerospace tooling and component supplier that works with many prominent airline manufacturers around the world including The Boeing Company, Airbus, Embraer, and Bombardier Aerospace. During the last three years, the program has produced significant benefits such as the automatic creation and management of component and assembly designs (parametric models and drawings), the extensive use of lightweight 3D data, and changes to the way projects are executed from beginning to end. CATIA (CAD/CAE/CAM) and a variety of programs developed in C#, VB.Net, HTML, and SQL make up the current system. The web-based platform is facilitating collaborative work across multiple sites around the world and improving communications with customers and suppliers. This work demonstrates that the creative use of Application Programming Interface (API) utilities, libraries, and methods is a key to automating many time-consuming tasks and linking applications together.

Keywords: CAD/CAM, CAPP, PDM, PLM, Scalable Systems.

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1044 An Efficient Run Time Interface for Heterogeneous Architecture of Large Scale Supercomputing System

Authors: Prabu D., Andrew Aaron James, Vanamala V., Vineeth Simon, Sanjeeb Kumar Deka, Sridharan R., Prahlada Rao B.B., Mohanram N.

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a novel Run Time Interface (RTI) technique to provide an efficient environment for MPI jobs on the heterogeneous architecture of PARAM Padma. It suggests an innovative, unified framework for the job management interface system in parallel and distributed computing. This approach employs proxy scheme. The implementation shows that the proposed RTI is highly scalable and stable. Moreover RTI provides the storage access for the MPI jobs in various operating system platforms and improve the data access performance through high performance C-DAC Parallel File System (C-PFS). The performance of the RTI is evaluated by using the standard HPC benchmark suites and the simulation results show that the proposed RTI gives good performance on large scale supercomputing system.

Keywords: RTI, C-MPI, C-PFS, Scheduler Interface.

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1043 Optimal Trajectories for Highly Automated Driving

Authors: Christian Rathgeber, Franz Winkler, Xiaoyu Kang, Steffen Müller

Abstract:

In this contribution two approaches for calculating optimal trajectories for highly automated vehicles are presented and compared. The first one is based on a non-linear vehicle model, used for evaluation. The second one is based on a simplified model and can be implemented on a current ECU. In usual driving situations both approaches show very similar results.

Keywords: Trajectory planning, direct method, indirect method, highly automated driving.

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1042 Modeling and Simulations of Complex Low- Dimensional systems: Testing the Efficiency of Parallelization

Authors: Ryszard Matysiak, Grzegorz Kamieniarz

Abstract:

The deterministic quantum transfer-matrix (QTM) technique and its mathematical background are presented. This important tool in computational physics can be applied to a class of the real physical low-dimensional magnetic systems described by the Heisenberg hamiltonian which includes the macroscopic molecularbased spin chains, small size magnetic clusters embedded in some supramolecules and other interesting compounds. Using QTM, the spin degrees of freedom are accurately taken into account, yielding the thermodynamical functions at finite temperatures. In order to test the application for the susceptibility calculations to run in the parallel environment, the speed-up and efficiency of parallelization are analyzed on our platform SGI Origin 3800 with p = 128 processor units. Using Message Parallel Interface (MPI) system libraries we find the efficiency of the code of 94% for p = 128 that makes our application highly scalable.

Keywords: Deterministic simulations, low-dimensional magnets, modeling of complex systems, parallelization.

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1041 An Efficient Cache Replacement Strategy for the Hybrid Cache Consistency Approach

Authors: Aline Zeitunlian, Ramzi A. Haraty

Abstract:

Caching was suggested as a solution for reducing bandwidth utilization and minimizing query latency in mobile environments. Over the years, different caching approaches have been proposed, some relying on the server to broadcast reports periodically informing of the updated data while others allowed the clients to request for the data whenever needed. Until recently a hybrid cache consistency scheme Scalable Asynchronous Cache Consistency Scheme SACCS was proposed, which combined the two different approaches benefits- and is proved to be more efficient and scalable. Nevertheless, caching has its limitations too, due to the limited cache size and the limited bandwidth, which makes the implementation of cache replacement strategy an important aspect for improving the cache consistency algorithms. In this thesis, we proposed a new cache replacement strategy, the Least Unified Value strategy (LUV) to replace the Least Recently Used (LRU) that SACCS was based on. This paper studies the advantages and the drawbacks of the new proposed strategy, comparing it with different categories of cache replacement strategies.

Keywords: Cache consistency, hybrid algorithm, and mobileenvironments

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1040 A Parallel Approach for 3D-Variational Data Assimilation on GPUs in Ocean Circulation Models

Authors: Rossella Arcucci, Luisa D’Amore, Simone Celestino, Giuseppe Scotti, Giuliano Laccetti

Abstract:

This work is the first dowel in a rather wide research activity in collaboration with Euro Mediterranean Center for Climate Changes, aimed at introducing scalable approaches in Ocean Circulation Models. We discuss designing and implementation of a parallel algorithm for solving the Variational Data Assimilation (DA) problem on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). The algorithm is based on the fully scalable 3DVar DA model, previously proposed by the authors, which uses a Domain Decomposition approach (we refer to this model as the DD-DA model). We proceed with an incremental porting process consisting of 3 distinct stages: requirements and source code analysis, incremental development of CUDA kernels, testing and optimization. Experiments confirm the theoretic performance analysis based on the so-called scale up factor demonstrating that the DD-DA model can be suitably mapped on GPU architectures.

Keywords: Data Assimilation, Parallel Algorithm, GPU architectures, Ocean Models.

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1039 Effective Relay Communication for Scalable Video Transmission

Authors: Jung Ah Park, Zhijie Zhao, Doug Young Suh, Joern Ostermann

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an effective relay communication for layered video transmission as an alternative to make the most of limited resources in a wireless communication network where loss often occurs. Relaying brings stable multimedia services to end clients, compared to multiple description coding (MDC). Also, retransmission of only parity data about one or more video layer using channel coder to the end client of the relay device is paramount to the robustness of the loss situation. Using these methods in resource-constrained environments, such as real-time user created content (UCC) with layered video transmission, can provide high-quality services even in a poor communication environment. Minimal services are also possible. The mathematical analysis shows that the proposed method reduced the probability of GOP loss rate compared to MDC and raptor code without relay. The GOP loss rate is about zero, while MDC and raptor code without relay have a GOP loss rate of 36% and 70% in case of 10% frame loss rate.

Keywords: Relay communication, Multiple Description Coding, Scalable Video Coding

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1038 Scalable Cloud-Based LEO Satellite Constellation Simulator

Authors: Karim Sobh, Khaled El-Ayat, Fady Morcos, Amr El-Kadi

Abstract:

Distributed applications deployed on LEO satellites and ground stations require substantial communication between different members in a constellation to overcome the earth coverage barriers imposed by GEOs. Applications running on LEO constellations suffer the earth line-of-sight blockage effect. They need adequate lab testing before launching to space. We propose a scalable cloud-based network simulation framework to simulate problems created by the earth line-of-sight blockage. The framework utilized cloud IaaS virtual machines to simulate LEO satellites and ground stations distributed software. A factorial ANOVA statistical analysis is conducted to measure simulator overhead on overall communication performance. The results showed a very low simulator communication overhead. Consequently, the simulation framework is proposed as a candidate for testing LEO constellations with distributed software in the lab before space launch.

Keywords: LEO, Cloud Computing, Constellation, Satellite, Network Simulation, Netfilter.

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1037 A Framework for Scalable Autonomous P2P Resource Discovery for the Grid Implementation

Authors: Hesham A. Ali, Mofreh M. Salem, Ahmed A. Hamza

Abstract:

Recently, there have been considerable efforts towards the convergence between P2P and Grid computing in order to reach a solution that takes the best of both worlds by exploiting the advantages that each offers. Augmenting the peer-to-peer model to the services of the Grid promises to eliminate bottlenecks and ensure greater scalability, availability, and fault-tolerance. The Grid Information Service (GIS) directly influences quality of service for grid platforms. Most of the proposed solutions for decentralizing the GIS are based on completely flat overlays. The main contributions for this paper are: the investigation of a novel resource discovery framework for Grid implementations based on a hierarchy of structured peer-to-peer overlay networks, and introducing a discovery algorithm utilizing the proposed framework. Validation of the framework-s performance is done via simulation. Experimental results show that the proposed organization has the advantage of being scalable while providing fault-isolation, effective bandwidth utilization, and hierarchical access control. In addition, it will lead to a reliable, guaranteed sub-linear search which returns results within a bounded interval of time and with a smaller amount of generated traffic within each domain.

Keywords: Grid computing, grid information service, P2P, resource discovery.

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1036 Scalable Systolic Multiplier over Binary Extension Fields Based on Two-Level Karatsuba Decomposition

Authors: Chiou-Yng Lee, Wen-Yo Lee, Chieh-Tsai Wu, Cheng-Chen Yang

Abstract:

Shifted polynomial basis (SPB) is a variation of polynomial basis representation. SPB has potential for efficient bit level and digi -level implementations of multiplication over binary extension fields with subquadratic space complexity. For efficient implementation of pairing computation with large finite fields, this paper presents a new SPB multiplication algorithm based on Karatsuba schemes, and used that to derive a novel scalable multiplier architecture. Analytical results show that the proposed multiplier provides a trade-off between space and time complexities. Our proposed multiplier is modular, regular, and suitable for very large scale integration (VLSI) implementations. It involves less area complexity compared to the multipliers based on traditional decomposition methods. It is therefore, more suitable for efficient hardware implementation of pairing based cryptography and elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) in constraint driven applications.

Keywords: Digit-serial systolic multiplier, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), Karatsuba algorithm (KA), shifted polynomial basis (SPB), pairing computation.

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1035 New Highly-Scalable Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Glasses and Ceramics

Authors: Konstantinos G. Dassios, Guillaume Bonnefont, Gilbert Fantozzi, Theodore E. Matikas, Costas Galiotis

Abstract:

We report herein the development and preliminary mechanical characterization of fully-dense multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-reinforced ceramics and glasses based on a completely new methodology termed High Shear Compaction (HSC). The tubes are introduced and bound to the matrix grains by aid of polymeric binders to form flexible green bodies which are sintered and densified by spark plasma sintering to unprecedentedly high densities of 100% of the pure-matrix value. The strategy was validated across a PyrexTM glass / MWCNT composite while no identifiable factors limit application to other types of matrices. Nondestructive evaluation, based on ultrasonics, of the dynamic mechanical properties of the materials including elastic, shear and bulk modulus as well as Poisson’s ratio showed optimum property improvement at 0.5 %wt tube loading while evidence of nanoscalespecific energy dissipative characteristics acting complementary to nanotube bridging and pull-out indicate a high potential in a wide range of reinforcing and multifunctional applications. 

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, ceramic matrix composites, toughening, ultrasonics.

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1034 An Agile, Intelligent and Scalable Framework for Global Software Development

Authors: Raja Asad Zaheer, Aisha Tanveer, Hafza Mehreen Fatima

Abstract:

Global Software Development (GSD) is becoming a common norm in software industry, despite of the fact that global distribution of the teams presents special issues for effective communication and coordination of the teams. Now trends are changing and project management for distributed teams is no longer in a limbo. GSD can be effectively established using agile and project managers can use different agile techniques/tools for solving the problems associated with distributed teams. Agile methodologies like scrum and XP have been successfully used with distributed teams. We have employed exploratory research method to analyze different recent studies related to challenges of GSD and their proposed solutions. In our study, we had deep insight in six commonly faced challenges: communication and coordination, temporal differences, cultural differences, knowledge sharing/group awareness, speed and communication tools. We have established that each of these challenges cannot be neglected for distributed teams of any kind. They are interlinked and as an aggregated whole can cause the failure of projects. In this paper we have focused on creating a scalable framework for detecting and overcoming these commonly faced challenges. In the proposed solution, our objective is to suggest agile techniques/tools relevant to a particular problem faced by the organizations related to the management of distributed teams. We focused mainly on scrum and XP techniques/tools because they are widely accepted and used in the industry. Our solution identifies the problem and suggests an appropriate technique/tool to help solve the problem based on globally shared knowledgebase. We can establish a cause and effect relationship using a fishbone diagram based on the inputs provided for issues commonly faced by organizations. Based on the identified cause, suitable tool is suggested, our framework suggests a suitable tool. Hence, a scalable, extensible, self-learning, intelligent framework proposed will help implement and assess GSD to achieve maximum out of it. Globally shared knowledgebase will help new organizations to easily adapt best practices set forth by the practicing organizations.

Keywords: Agile project management, agile framework, distributed teams, global software development.

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1033 Iran’s Gas Flare Recovery Options Using MCDM

Authors: Halle Bakhteeyar, Azadeh Maroufmashat, Abbas Maleki, Sourena Sattari Khavas

Abstract:

In this paper, five options of Iran’s gas flare recovery have been compared via MCDM method. For developing the model, the weighing factor of each indicator an AHP method is used via the Expert-choice software. Several cases were considered in this analysis. They are defined where the priorities were defined always keeping one criterion in first position, while the priorities of the other criteria were defined by ordinal information defining the mutual relations of the criteria and the respective indicators. The results, show that amongst these cases, priority is obtained for CHP usage where availability indicator is highly weighted while the pipeline usage is obtained where environmental indicator highly weighted and the injection priority is obtained where economic indicator is highly weighted and also when the weighing factor of all the criteria are the same the Injection priority is obtained.

Keywords: Flare, Gas, Iran.

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1032 The Control of a Highly Nonlinear Two-wheels Balancing Robot: A Comparative Assessment between LQR and PID-PID Control Schemes

Authors: A. N. K. Nasir, M. A. Ahmad, R. M. T. Raja Ismail

Abstract:

The research on two-wheels balancing robot has gained momentum due to their functionality and reliability when completing certain tasks. This paper presents investigations into the performance comparison of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and PID-PID controllers for a highly nonlinear 2–wheels balancing robot. The mathematical model of 2-wheels balancing robot that is highly nonlinear is derived. The final model is then represented in statespace form and the system suffers from mismatched condition. Two system responses namely the robot position and robot angular position are obtained. The performances of the LQR and PID-PID controllers are examined in terms of input tracking and disturbances rejection capability. Simulation results of the responses of the nonlinear 2–wheels balancing robot are presented in time domain. A comparative assessment of both control schemes to the system performance is presented and discussed.

Keywords: PID, LQR, Two-wheels balancing robot.

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1031 Effect of Self-Compacting Concrete and Aggregate Size on Anchorage Performance at Highly Congested Reinforcement Regions

Authors: Umair Baig, Kohei Nagai

Abstract:

At highly congested reinforcement regions, which is common at beam-column joint area, clear spacing between parallel bars becomes less than maximum normal aggregate size (20mm) which has not been addressed in any design code and specifications. Limited clear spacing between parallel bars (herein after thin cover) is one of the causes which affect anchorage performance. In this study, an experimental investigation was carried out to understand anchorage performance of reinforcement in Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) and Normal Concrete (NC) at highly congested regions under uni-axial tensile loading.  Column bar was pullout whereas; beam bars were offset from column reinforcement creating thin cover as per site condition. Two different sizes of coarse aggregate were used for NC (20mm and 10mm). Strain gauges were also installed along the bar in some specimens to understand the internal stress mechanism. Test results reveal that anchorage performance is affected at highly congested reinforcement region in NC with maximum aggregate size 20mm whereas; SCC and Small Aggregate (10mm) gives better structural performance. 

Keywords: Anchorage capacity, bond, Normal Concrete, self-compacting concrete.

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1030 Structural Health Monitoring of Offshore Structures Using Wireless Sensor Networking under Operational and Environmental Variability

Authors: Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, Thailammai Chithambaram, Shihas A. Khader

Abstract:

The early-stage damage detection in offshore structures requires continuous structural health monitoring and for the large area the position of sensors will also plays an important role in the efficient damage detection. Determining the dynamic behavior of offshore structures requires dense deployment of sensors. The wired Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems are highly expensive and always needs larger installation space to deploy. Wireless sensor networks can enhance the SHM system by deployment of scalable sensor network, which consumes lesser space. This paper presents the results of wireless sensor network based Structural Health Monitoring method applied to a scaled experimental model of offshore structure that underwent wave loading. This method determines the serviceability of the offshore structure which is subjected to various environment loads. Wired and wireless sensors were installed in the model and the response of the scaled BLSRP model under wave loading was recorded. The wireless system discussed in this study is the Raspberry pi board with Arm V6 processor which is programmed to transmit the data acquired by the sensor to the server using Wi-Fi adapter, the data is then hosted in the webpage. The data acquired from the wireless and wired SHM systems were compared and the design of the wireless system is verified.

Keywords: Condition assessment, damage detection, structural health monitoring, structural response, wireless sensor network.

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1029 Distributed Cost-Based Scheduling in Cloud Computing Environment

Authors: Rupali, Anil Kumar Jaiswal

Abstract:

Cloud computing can be defined as one of the prominent technologies that lets a user change, configure and access the services online. it can be said that this is a prototype of computing that helps in saving cost and time of a user practically the use of cloud computing can be found in various fields like education, health, banking etc.  Cloud computing is an internet dependent technology thus it is the major responsibility of Cloud Service Providers(CSPs) to care of data stored by user at data centers. Scheduling in cloud computing environment plays a vital role as to achieve maximum utilization and user satisfaction cloud providers need to schedule resources effectively.  Job scheduling for cloud computing is analyzed in the following work. To complete, recreate the task calculation, and conveyed scheduling methods CloudSim3.0.3 is utilized. This research work discusses the job scheduling for circulated processing condition also by exploring on this issue we find it works with minimum time and less cost. In this work two load balancing techniques have been employed: ‘Throttled stack adjustment policy’ and ‘Active VM load balancing policy’ with two brokerage services ‘Advanced Response Time’ and ‘Reconfigure Dynamically’ to evaluate the VM_Cost, DC_Cost, Response Time, and Data Processing Time. The proposed techniques are compared with Round Robin scheduling policy.

Keywords: Physical machines, virtual machines, support for repetition, self-healing, highly scalable programming model.

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1028 Discrete and Stationary Adaptive Sub-Band Threshold Method for Improving Image Resolution

Authors: P. Joyce Beryl Princess, Y. Harold Robinson

Abstract:

Image Processing is a structure of Signal Processing for which the input is the image and the output is also an image or parameter of the image. Image Resolution has been frequently referred as an important aspect of an image. In Image Resolution Enhancement, images are being processed in order to obtain more enhanced resolution. To generate highly resoluted image for a low resoluted input image with high PSNR value. Stationary Wavelet Transform is used for Edge Detection and minimize the loss occurs during Downsampling. Inverse Discrete Wavelet Transform is to get highly resoluted image. Highly resoluted output is generated from the Low resolution input with high quality. Noisy input will generate output with low PSNR value. So Noisy resolution enhancement technique has been used for adaptive sub-band thresholding is used. Downsampling in each of the DWT subbands causes information loss in the respective subbands. SWT is employed to minimize this loss. Inverse Discrete wavelet transform (IDWT) is to convert the object which is downsampled using DWT into a highly resoluted object. Used Image denoising and resolution enhancement techniques will generate image with high PSNR value. Our Proposed method will improve Image Resolution and reached the optimized threshold.

Keywords: Image Processing, Inverse Discrete wavelet transform, PSNR.

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1027 MinRoot and CMesh: Interconnection Architectures for Network-on-Chip Systems

Authors: Mohammad Ali Jabraeil Jamali, Ahmad Khademzadeh

Abstract:

The success of an electronic system in a System-on- Chip is highly dependent on the efficiency of its interconnection network, which is constructed from routers and channels (the routers move data across the channels between nodes). Since neither classical bus based nor point to point architectures can provide scalable solutions and satisfy the tight power and performance requirements of future applications, the Network-on-Chip (NoC) approach has recently been proposed as a promising solution. Indeed, in contrast to the traditional solutions, the NoC approach can provide large bandwidth with moderate area overhead. The selected topology of the components interconnects plays prime rule in the performance of NoC architecture as well as routing and switching techniques that can be used. In this paper, we present two generic NoC architectures that can be customized to the specific communication needs of an application in order to reduce the area with minimal degradation of the latency of the system. An experimental study is performed to compare these structures with basic NoC topologies represented by 2D mesh, Butterfly-Fat Tree (BFT) and SPIN. It is shown that Cluster mesh (CMesh) and MinRoot schemes achieves significant improvements in network latency and energy consumption with only negligible area overhead and complexity over existing architectures. In fact, in the case of basic NoC topologies, CMesh and MinRoot schemes provides substantial savings in area as well, because they requires fewer routers. The simulation results show that CMesh and MinRoot networks outperforms MESH, BFT and SPIN in main performance metrics.

Keywords: MinRoot, CMesh, NoC, Topology, Performance Evaluation

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1026 The Use of Appeals in Green Printed Advertisements: A Case of Product Orientation and Organizational Image Orientation Ads

Authors: Chutima Ruanguttamanun

Abstract:

Despite the relatively large number of studies that have examined the use of appeals in advertisements, research on the use of appeals in green advertisements is still underdeveloped and needs to be investigated further, as it is definitely a tool for marketers to create illustrious ads. In this study, content analysis was employed to examine the nature of green advertising appeals and to match the appeals with the green advertisements. Two different types of green print advertisings, product orientation and organizational image orientation were used. Thirty highly educated participants with different backgrounds were asked individually to ascertain three appeals out of thirty-four given appeals found among forty real green advertisements. To analyze participant responses and to group them based on common appeals, two-step K-mean clustering is used. The clustering solution indicates that eye-catching graphics and imaginative appeals are highly notable in both types of green ads. Depressed, meaningful and sad appeals are found to be highly used in organizational image orientation ads, whereas, corporate image, informative and natural appeals are found to be essential for product orientation ads.

Keywords: Advertising appeals, green marketing, green advertisement, printed advertisement.

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