Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31105
New Highly-Scalable Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Glasses and Ceramics

Authors: Konstantinos G. Dassios, Guillaume Bonnefont, Gilbert Fantozzi, Theodore E. Matikas, Costas Galiotis


We report herein the development and preliminary mechanical characterization of fully-dense multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-reinforced ceramics and glasses based on a completely new methodology termed High Shear Compaction (HSC). The tubes are introduced and bound to the matrix grains by aid of polymeric binders to form flexible green bodies which are sintered and densified by spark plasma sintering to unprecedentedly high densities of 100% of the pure-matrix value. The strategy was validated across a PyrexTM glass / MWCNT composite while no identifiable factors limit application to other types of matrices. Nondestructive evaluation, based on ultrasonics, of the dynamic mechanical properties of the materials including elastic, shear and bulk modulus as well as Poisson’s ratio showed optimum property improvement at 0.5 %wt tube loading while evidence of nanoscalespecific energy dissipative characteristics acting complementary to nanotube bridging and pull-out indicate a high potential in a wide range of reinforcing and multifunctional applications. 

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Ultrasonics, Ceramic Matrix Composites, toughening

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1361


[1] Iijima, S., “Helical Microtubules of Graphitic Carbon,” Nature, 354(6348), 56-58 (1991).
[2] Treacy, M. M. J., Ebbesen, T. W., and Gibson, J. M., “Exceptionally high Young's modulus observed for individual carbon nanotubes,” Nature, 381(6584), 678-680 (1996).
[3] Yu, M. F., Lourie, O., Dyer, M. J. et al., “Strength and breaking mechanism of multiwalled carbon nanotubes under tensile load,” Science, 287(5453), 637-640 (2000).
[4] Balandin, A. A., “Thermal properties of graphene and nanostructured carbon materials,” Nature Materials, 10(8), 569-581 (2011).
[5] Berber, S., Kwon, Y. K., and Tomanek, D., “Unusually high thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes,” Physical Review Letters, 84(20), 4613-4616 (2000).
[6] Baughman, R. H., Zakhidov, A. A., and de Heer, W. A., “Carbon nanotubes - the route toward applications,” Science, 297(5582), 787-792 (2002).
[7] Berber, S., Kwon, Y. K., and Tomanek, D., “Electronic and structural properties of carbon nanohorns,” Physical Review B, 62(4), R2291- R2294 (2000).
[8] Avouris, P., Chen, Z. H., and Perebeinos, V., “Carbon-based electronics,” Nature Nanotechnology, 2(10), 605-615 (2007).
[9] Avouris, P., Freitag, M., and Perebeinos, V., “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nature Photonics, 2(6), 341-350 (2008).
[10] Dassios, K. G., Musso, S., and Galiotis, C., “Compressive behavior of MWCNT/epoxy composite mats,” Composites Science and Technology, 72(9), 1027-1033 (2012).
[11] Dassios, K., and Galiotis, C., “Polymer-nanotube interaction in MWCNT/poly(vinyl alcohol) composite mats,” Carbon, (2012).
[12] Spitalsky, Z., Tasis, D., Papagelis, K. et al., “Carbon nanotube-polymer composites: Chemistry, processing, mechanical and electrical properties,” Progress in Polymer Science, 35(3), 357-401 (2010).
[13] Cho, J., Inam, F., Reece, M. J. et al., “Carbon nanotubes: do they toughen brittle matrices?,” Journal of Materials Science, 46(14), 4770- 4779 (2011).
[14] Dassios, K. G., “Carbon nanotube-reinforced ceramic matrix composites: Processing and properties,” Ceramic Transactions, 248, 133-157 (2014).
[15] Cho, J., Boccaccini, A. R., and Shaffer, M. S. P., “Ceramic matrix composites containing carbon nanotubes,” Journal of Materials Science, 44(8), 1934-1951 (2009).
[16] Inam, F., Yan, H. X., Peijs, T. et al., “The sintering and grain growth behaviour of ceramic-carbon nanotube nanocomposites,” Composites Science and Technology, 70(6), 947-952 (2010).
[17] Peigney, A., Laurent, C., Flahaut, E. et al., “Carbon nanotubes in novel ceramic matrix nanocomposites,” Ceramics International, 26(6), 677- 683 (2000).
[18] Estili, M., and Kawasaki, A., “An approach to mass-producing individually alumina-decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes with optimized and controlled compositions,” Scripta Materialia, 58(10), 906- 909 (2008).
[19] Thomas, B. J. C., Shaffer, M. S. P., and Boccaccini, A. R., “Sol-gel route to carbon nanotube borosilicate glass composites,” Composites Part a-Applied Science and Manufacturing, 40(6-7), 837-845 (2009).
[20] Peigney, A., Rul, S., Lefevre-Schlick, F. et al., “Densification during hot-pressing of carbon nanotube-metal-magnesium aluminate spinel nanocomposites,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 27(5), 2183-2193 (2007).
[21] Du, H. B., Li, Y. L., Zhou, F. Q. et al., “One-Step Fabrication of Ceramic and Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Composites by In Situ Growth of CNTs,” Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 93(5), 1290-1296 (2010).
[22] Dobedoe, R. S., West, G. D., and Lewis, M. H., “Spark plasma sintering of ceramics: understanding temperature distribution enables more realistic comparison with conventional processing,” Advances in Applied Ceramics, 104(3), 110-116 (2005).
[23] Hvizdos, P., Puchy, V., Duszova, A. et al., “Tribological and electrical properties of ceramic matrix composites with carbon nanotubes,” Ceramics International, 38(7), 5669-5676 (2012).
[24] Tapaszto, O., Kun, P., Weber, F. et al., “Silicon nitride based nanocomposites produced by two different sintering methods,” Ceramics International, 37(8), 3457-3461 (2011).
[25] Zhang, S. C., Fahrenholtz, W. G., Hilmas, G. E. et al., “Pressureless sintering of carbon nanotube-Al2O3 composites,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 30(6), 1373-1380 (2010).
[26] Estili, M., Sakka, Y., and Kawasaki, A., “Unprecedented simultaneous enhancement in strain tolerance, toughness and strength of Al2O3 ceramic by multiwall-type failure of a high loading of carbon nanotubes,” Nanotechnology, 24(15), (2013).
[27] Matikas, T. E., Karpur, P., and Shamasundar, S., “Measurement of the dynamic elastic moduli of porous titanium aluminide compacts,” Journal of Materials Science, 32(4), 1099-1103 (1997).
[28] Estili, M., Kawasaki, A., and Sakka, Y., “Highly Concentrated 3D Macrostructure of Individual Carbon Nanotubes in a Ceramic Environment,” Advanced Materials, 24(31), 4322-+ (2012).
[29] Dassios, K. G., and Galiotis, C., “Direct measurement of fiber bridging in notched glass-ceramic-matrix composites,” Journal of Materials Research, 21(5), 1150-1160 (2006).
[30] Dassios, K. G., Kostopoulos, V., and Steen, M., “A micromechanical bridging law model for CFCCs,” Acta Materialia, 55(1), 83-92 (2007).
[31] Xia, Z., Riester, L., Curtin, W. A. et al., “Direct observation of toughening mechanisms in carbon nanotube ceramic matrix composites,” Acta Materialia, 52(4), 931-944 (2004).
[32] Gu, Z. J., Yang, Y. C., Li, K. Y. et al., “Aligned carbon nanotubereinforced silicon carbide composites produced by chemical vapor infiltration,” Carbon, 49(7), 2475-2482 (2011).
[33] Dassios, K. G., Galiotis, C., Kostopoujos, V. et al., “Direct in situ measurements of bridging stresses in CFCCs,” Acta Materialia, 51(18), 5359-5373 (2003).
[34] Dassios, K. G., “A review of the pull-out mechanism in the fracture of brittle-matrix fibre-reinforced cowosites,” Advanced Composites Letters, 16(1), 17-24 (2007).
[35] Dassios, K. G., Kostopoulos, V., and Steen, M., “Intrinsic parameters in the fracture of carbon/carbon composites,” Composites Science and Technology, 65(6), 883-897 (2005).