Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 634

Search results for: heat stimulation

634 Investigation of Different Stimulation Patterns to Reduce Muscle Fatigue during Functional Electrical Stimulation

Authors: R. Ruslee, H. Gollee

Abstract:

Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a commonly used technique in rehabilitation and often associated with rapid muscle fatigue which becomes the limiting factor in its applications. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects on the onset of fatigue of conventional synchronous stimulation, as well as asynchronous stimulation that mimic voluntary muscle activation targeting different motor units which are activated sequentially or randomly via multiple pairs of stimulation electrodes. We investigate three different approaches with various electrode configurations, as well as different patterns of stimulation applied to the gastrocnemius muscle: Conventional Synchronous Stimulation (CSS), Asynchronous Sequential Stimulation (ASS) and Asynchronous Random Stimulation (ARS). Stimulation was applied repeatedly for 300 ms followed by 700 ms of no-stimulation with 40 Hz effective frequency for all protocols. Ten able-bodied volunteers (28±3 years old) participated in this study. As fatigue indicators, we focused on the analysis of Normalized Fatigue Index (NFI), Fatigue Time Interval (FTI) and pre-post Twitch-Tetanus Ratio (ΔTTR). The results demonstrated that ASS and ARS give higher NFI and longer FTI confirming less fatigue for asynchronous stimulation. In addition, ASS and ARS resulted in higher ΔTTR than conventional CSS. In this study, we proposed a randomly distributed stimulation method for the application of FES and investigated its suitability for reducing muscle fatigue compared to previously applied methods. The results validated that asynchronous stimulation reduces fatigue, and indicates that random stimulation may improve fatigue resistance in some conditions.

Keywords: Asynchronous stimulation, electrode configuration, functional electrical stimulation, muscle fatigue, pattern stimulation, random stimulation, sequential stimulation, synchronous stimulation.

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633 Combined Effect of Heat Stimulation and Delayed Addition of Superplasticizer with Slag on Fresh and Hardened Property of Mortar

Authors: Faraidoon Rahmanzai, Mizuki Takigawa, Yu Bomura, Shigeyuki Date

Abstract:

To obtain the high quality and essential workability of mortar, different types of superplasticizers are used. The superplasticizers are the chemical admixture used in the mix to improve the fluidity of mortar. Many factors influenced the superplasticizer to disperse the cement particle in the mortar. Nature and amount of replaced cement by slag, mixing procedure, delayed addition time, and heat stimulation technique of superplasticizer cause the varied effect on the fluidity of the cementitious material. In this experiment, the superplasticizers were heated for 1 hour under 60 °C in a thermostatic chamber. Furthermore, the effect of delayed addition time of heat stimulated superplasticizers (SP) was also analyzed. This method was applied to two types of polycarboxylic acid based ether SP (precast type superplasticizer (SP2) and ready-mix type superplasticizer (SP1)) in combination with a partial replacement of normal Portland cement with blast furnace slag (BFS) with 30% w/c ratio. On the other hands, the fluidity, air content, fresh density, and compressive strength for 7 and 28 days were studied. The results indicate that the addition time and heat stimulation technique improved the flow and air content, decreased the density, and slightly decreased the compressive strength of mortar. Moreover, the slag improved the flow of mortar by increasing the amount of slag, and the effect of external temperature of SP on the flow of mortar was decreased. In comparison, the flow of mortar was improved on 5-minute delay for both kinds of SP, but SP1 has improved the flow in all conditions. Most importantly, the transition points in both types of SP appear to be the same, at about 5±1 min.  In addition, the optimum addition time of SP to mortar should be in this period.

Keywords: Combined effect, delayed addition, heat stimulation, flow of mortar.

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632 Bio-Heat Transfer in Various Transcutaneous Stimulation Models

Authors: Trevor E. Davis, Isaac Cassar, Yi-Kai Lo, Wentai Liu

Abstract:

This study models the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on skin with a disk electrode in order to simulate tissue damage. The current density distribution above a disk electrode is known to be a dynamic and non-uniform quantity that is intensified at the edges of the disk. The non-uniformity is subject to change through using various electrode geometries or stimulation methods. One of these methods known as edge-retarded stimulation has shown to reduce this edge enhancement. Though progress has been made in modeling the behavior of a disk electrode, little has been done to test the validity of these models in simulating the actual heat transfer from the electrode. This simulation uses finite element software to couple the injection of current from a disk electrode to heat transfer described by the Pennesbioheat transfer equation. An example application of this model is studying an experimental form of stimulation, known as edge-retarded stimulation. The edge-retarded stimulation method will reduce the current density at the edges of the electrode. It is hypothesized that reducing the current density edge enhancement effect will, in turn, reduce temperature change and tissue damage at the edges of these electrodes. This study tests this hypothesis as a demonstration of the capabilities of this model. The edge-retarded stimulation proved to be safer after this simulation. It is shown that temperature change and the fraction of tissue necrosis is much greater in the square wave stimulation. These results bring implications for changes of procedures in transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation as well.

Keywords: Bioheat transfer, Electrode, Neuroprosthetics, TENS, Transcutaneous stimulation.

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631 A Chaotic Study on Tremor Behavior of Parkinsonian Patients under Deep Brain Stimulation

Authors: M. Sadeghi, A.H. Jafari, S.M.P. Firoozabadi

Abstract:

Deep Brain Stimulation or DBS is a surgical treatment for Parkinson-s Disease with three stimulation parameters: frequency, pulse width, and voltage. The parameters should be selected appropriately to achieve effective treatment. This selection now, performs clinically. The aim of this research is to study chaotic behavior of recorded tremor of patients under DBS in order to present a computational method to recognize stimulation optimum voltage. We obtained some chaotic features of tremor signal, and discovered embedding space of it has an attractor, and its largest Lyapunov exponent is positive, which show tremor signal has chaotic behavior, also we found out, in optimal voltage, entropy and embedding space variance of tremor signal have minimum values in comparison with other voltages. These differences can help neurologists recognize optimal voltage numerically, which leads to reduce patients' role and discomfort in optimizing stimulation parameters and to do treatment with high accuracy.

Keywords: Chaos, Deep Brain Stimulation, Parkinson's Disease, Stimulation Parameters, tremor.

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630 Wireless Neural Stimulator with Adjustable Electrical Quantity

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

The neural stimulation has been gaining much interest in neuromodulation research and clinical trials. For efficiency, there is a need for variable electrical stimulation such as current and voltage stimuli as well as wireless framework. In this regard, we develop the wireless neural stimulator capable of voltage and current stimuli. The system consists of ZigBee which is a wireless communication module and stimulus generator. The stimulus generator with 8-bits resolution enable both mono-polar and bi-polar waveform in voltage (-3.3~3.3V) and current(-330~330µA) stimulus mode which is controllable. The experimental results suggest that the proposed neural stimulator can play a role as an effective approach for neuromodulation.

Keywords: Neural stimulator, current stimulation, voltage stimulation, neuromodulation

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629 Temporal Analysis of Magnetic Nerve Stimulation–Towards Enhanced Systems via Virtualisation

Authors: Stefan M. Goetz, Thomas Weyh, Hans-Georg Herzog

Abstract:

The triumph of inductive neuro-stimulation since its rediscovery in the 1980s has been quite spectacular. In lots of branches ranging from clinical applications to basic research this system is absolutely indispensable. Nevertheless, the basic knowledge about the processes underlying the stimulation effect is still very rough and rarely refined in a quantitative way. This seems to be not only an inexcusable blank spot in biophysics and for stimulation prediction, but also a fundamental hindrance for technological progress. The already very sophisticated devices have reached a stage where further optimization requires better strategies than provided by simple linear membrane models of integrate-and-fire style. Addressing this problem for the first time, we suggest in the following text a way for virtual quantitative analysis of a stimulation system. Concomitantly, this ansatz seems to provide a route towards a better understanding by using nonlinear signal processing and taking the nerve as a filter that is adapted for neuronal magnetic stimulation. The model is compact and easy to adjust. The whole setup behaved very robustly during all performed tests. Exemplarily a recent innovative stimulator design known as cTMS is analyzed and dimensioned with this approach in the following. The results show hitherto unforeseen potentials.

Keywords: Theory of magnetic stimulation, inversion, optimization, high voltage oscillator, TMS, cTMS.

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628 Authoring Tactile Gestures: Case Study for Emotion Stimulation

Authors: Rodrigo Lentini, Beatrice Ionascu, Friederike A. Eyssel, Scandar Copti, Mohamad Eid

Abstract:

The haptic modality has brought a new dimension to human computer interaction by engaging the human sense of touch. However, designing appropriate haptic stimuli, and in particular tactile stimuli, for various applications is still challenging. To tackle this issue, we present an intuitive system that facilitates the authoring of tactile gestures for various applications. The system transforms a hand gesture into a tactile gesture that can be rendering using a home-made haptic jacket. A case study is presented to demonstrate the ability of the system to develop tactile gestures that are recognizable by human subjects. Four tactile gestures are identified and tested to intensify the following four emotional responses: high valence – high arousal, high valence – low arousal, low valence – high arousal, and low valence – low arousal. A usability study with 20 participants demonstrated high correlation between the selected tactile gestures and the intended emotional reaction. Results from this study can be used in a wide spectrum of applications ranging from gaming to interpersonal communication and multimodal simulations.

Keywords: Tactile stimulation, tactile gesture, emotion reactions, arousal, valence.

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627 Optimizing Voltage Parameter of Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinsonian Patients by Modeling

Authors: M. Sadeghi, A.H. Jafari, S.M.P. Firoozabadi

Abstract:

Deep Brain Stimulation or DBS is the second solution for Parkinson's Disease. Its three parameters are: frequency, pulse width and voltage. They must be optimized to achieve successful treatment. Nowadays it is done clinically by neurologists and there is not certain numerical method to detect them. The aim of this research is to introduce simulation and modeling of Parkinson's Disease treatment as a computational procedure to select optimum voltage. We recorded finger tremor signals of some Parkinsonian patients under DBS treatment at constant frequency and pulse width but variable voltages; then, we adapted a new model to fit these data. The optimum voltages obtained by data fitting results were the same as neurologists- commented voltages, which means modeling can be used as an engineering method to select optimum stimulation voltages.

Keywords: modeling, Deep Brain Stimulation, Parkinson'sdisease, tremor.

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626 A Fuzzy System to Analyze SIVD Diseases Using the Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Authors: A. Faro, D. Giordano, M. Pennisi, G. Scarciofalo, C. Spampinato, F. Tramontana

Abstract:

The paper proposes a methodology to process the signals coming from the Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in order to identify the pathology and evaluate the therapy to treat the patients affected by demency diseases. In particular, a fuzzy model is developed to identify the demency of the patients affected by Subcortical Ischemic Vascular Dementia (SIVD) and to measure the effect of a repetitive TMS on their motor performances. A tool is also presented to support the mentioned analysis.

Keywords: TMS, EMG, fuzzy logic, transcranial magnetic stimulation.

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625 Combined Effect of Heat Stimulation and Delay Addition of Superplasticizer with Slag on Fresh and Hardened Property of Mortar

Authors: Antoni Wibowo, Harry Pujianto, Dewi Retno Sari Saputro

Abstract:

The stock market can provide huge profits in a relatively short time in financial sector; however, it also has a high risk for investors and traders if they are not careful to look the factors that affect the stock market. Therefore, they should give attention to the dynamic fluctuations and movements of the stock market to optimize profits from their investment. In this paper, we present a nonlinear autoregressive exogenous model (NARX) to predict the movements of stock market; especially, the movements of the closing price index. As case study, we consider to predict the movement of the closing price in Indonesia composite index (IHSG) and choose the best structures of NARX for IHSG’s prediction.

Keywords: NARX, prediction, stock market, time series.

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624 A Novel EMG Feedback Control Method in Functional Electrical Stimulation Cycling System for Stroke Patients

Authors: Chien-Chih Chen, Ya-Hsin Hsueh, Zong-Cian He

Abstract:

With getting older in the whole population, the prevalence of stroke and its residual disability is getting higher and higher recently in Taiwan. The functional electrical stimulation cycling system (FESCS) is useful for hemiplegic patients. Because that the muscle of stroke patients is under hybrid activation. The raw electromyography (EMG) represents the residual muscle force of stroke subject whereas the peak-to-peak of stimulus EMG indicates the force enhancement benefiting from ES. It seems that EMG signals could be used for a parameter of feedback control mechanism. So, we design the feedback control protocol of FESCS, it includes physiological signal recorder, FPGA biomedical module, DAC and electrical stimulation circuit. Using the intensity of real-time EMG signal obtained from patients, as a feedback control method for the output voltage of FES-cycling system.

Keywords: Functional Electrical Stimulation cycling system EMG, control protocol.

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623 Cephalometric Changes of Patient with Class II Division 1 [Malocclusion] Post Orthodontic Treatment with Growth Stimulation: A Case Report

Authors: Pricillia Priska Sianita

Abstract:

An aesthetic facial profile is one of the goals in Orthodontics treatment. However, this is not easily achieved, especially in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion who have the clinical characteristics of convex profile and significant skeletal discrepancy due to mandibular growth deficiency. Malocclusion with skeletal problems require proper treatment timing for growth stimulation, and it must be done in early age and in need of good cooperation from the patient. If this is not done and the patient has passed the growth period, the ideal treatment is orthognathic surgery which is more complicated and more painful. The growth stimulation of skeletal malocclusion requires a careful cephalometric evaluation ranging from diagnosis to determine the parts that require stimulation to post-treatment evaluation to see the success achieved through changes in the measurement of the skeletal parameters shown in the cephalometric analysis. This case report aims to describe skeletal changes cephalometrically that were achieved through orthodontic treatment in growing period. Material and method: Lateral Cephalograms, pre-treatment, and post-treatment of cases of Class II Division 1 malocclusion is selected from a collection of cephalometric radiographic in a private clinic. The Cephalogram is then traced and measured for the skeletal parameters. The result is noted as skeletal condition data of pre-treatment and post-treatment. Furthermore, superimposition is done to see the changes achieved. The results show that growth stimulation through orthodontic treatment can solve the skeletal problem of Class II Division 1 malocclusion and the skeletal changes that occur can be verified through cephalometric analysis. The skeletal changes have an impact on the improvement of patient's facial profile. To sum up, the treatment timing on a skeletal malocclusion is very important to obtain satisfactory results for the improvement of the aesthetic facial profile, and skeletal changes can be verified through cephalometric evaluation of pre- and post-treatment.

Keywords: Cephalometric evaluation, Class II Division 1 malocclusion, growth stimulation, skeletal changes, skeletal problems.

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622 A Detailed Review on Pin Fin Heat Sink

Authors: Vedulla Manoj Kumar, B. Nageswara Rao, Sk. Farooq

Abstract:

Heat sinks are being considered in many advanced heat transfer applications including automotive and stationary fuel cells as well as cooling of electronic devices. However, there are innumerable fundamental issues in the fields of heat transfer and fluid mechanics perspectives which remains unresolved. The present review emphasizes on the progress of research in the field of pin fin heat sinks, while understanding the fluid dynamics and heat transfer characteristics with a detailed and sophisticated prediction of the temperature distribution, high heat flux removal and by minimizing thermal resistance. Lot of research work carried out across the globe to address this challenge and trying to come up with an economically viable and user friendly solution. The high activities for future pin fin heat sinks research and development to meet the current issue is recorded in this article.

Keywords: Heat sinks, heat transfer, heat flux, thermal resistance, electronic devices.

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621 A Review of Heat Pipe Heat Exchangers Activity in Asia

Authors: Ehsan Firouzfar, Maryam Attaran

Abstract:

Heat pipes are two-phase heat transfer devices with high effective thermal conductivity. Due to the high heat transport capacity, heat exchanger with heat pipes has become much smaller than traditional heat exchangers in handling high heat fluxes. With the working fluid in a heat pipe, heat can be absorbed on the evaporator region and transported to the condenser region where the vapour condenses releasing the heat to the cooling media. Heat pipe technology has found increasing applications in enhancing the thermal performance of heat exchangers in microelectranics, energy saving in HVAC systems for operating rooms,surgery centers, hotels, cleanrooms etc, temperature regulation systems for the human body and other industrial sectors. Development activity in heat pipe and thermosyphon technology in asia in recent years is surveyed. Some new results obtained in Australia and other countries are also included.

Keywords: Heat pipe heat exchanger, Thermosyphone, effectiveness, HVAC system, energy saving, temperature regulation.

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620 Numerical Study of Heat Release of the Symmetrically Arranged Extruded-Type Heat Sinks

Authors: Man Young Kim, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this numerical study, we want to present the design of highly efficient extruded-type heat sink. The symmetrically arranged extruded-type heat sinks are used instead of a single extruded or swaged-type heat sink. In this parametric study, the maximum temperatures, the base temperatures between heaters, and the heat release rates were investigated with respect to the arrangements of heat sources, air flow rates, and amounts of heat input. Based on the results we believe that the use of both side of heat sink is to be much better for release the heat than the use of single side. Also from the results, it is believed that the symmetric arrangement of heat sources is recommended to achieve a higher heat transfer from the heat sink.

Keywords: Heat Sink, Forced Convection, Heat Transfer, Performance Evaluation, Symmetrically Arranged.

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619 Estimation of Natural Convection Heat Transfer from Plate-Fin Heat Sinks in a Closed Enclosure

Authors: Han-Taw Chen, Chung-Hou Lai, Tzu-Hsiang Lin, Ge-Jang He

Abstract:

This study applies the inverse method and three- dimensional CFD commercial software in conjunction with the experimental temperature data to investigate the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of the plate-fin heat sink in a closed rectangular enclosure for various values of fin height. The inverse method with the finite difference method and the experimental temperature data is applied to determine the heat transfer coefficient. The k-ε turbulence model is used to obtain the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics within the fins. To validate the accuracy of the results obtained, the comparison of the average heat transfer coefficient is made. The calculated temperature at selected measurement locations on the plate-fin is also compared with experimental data.

Keywords: Inverse method, FLUENT, k-ε model, Heat transfer characteristics, Plate-fin heat sink.

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618 Feasibility Study on Designing a Flat Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) to Recover the Heat from Exhaust of a Gas Turbine

Authors: M.H.Ghaffari

Abstract:

A theoretical study is conducted to design and explore the effect of different parameters such as heat loads, the tube size of piping system, wick thickness, porosity and hole size on the performance and capability of a Loop Heat Pipe(LHP). This paper presents a steady state model that describes the different phenomena inside a LHP. Loop Heat Pipes(LHPs) are two-phase heat transfer devices with capillary pumping of a working fluid. By their original design comparing with heat pipes and special properties of the capillary structure, they-re capable of transferring heat efficiency for distances up to several meters at any orientation in the gravity field, or to several meters in a horizontal position. This theoretical model is described by different relations to satisfy important limits such as capillary and nucleate boiling. An algorithm is developed to predict the size of the LHP satisfying the limitations mentioned above for a wide range of applied loads. Finally, to assess and evaluate the algorithm and all the relations considered, we have used to design a new kind of LHP to recover the heat from the exhaust of an actual Gas Turbine. By finding the results, it showed that we can use the LHP as a very high efficient device to recover the heat even in high amount of loads(exhaust of a gas turbine). The sizes of all parts of the LHP were obtained using the developed algorithm.

Keywords: Loop Heat Pipe, Head Load, Liquid-Vapor Interface, Heat Transfer, Design Algorithm

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617 Heat Transfer Analysis of Rectangular Channel Plate Heat Sink

Authors: Zhang Lei, Liu Min, Liu Botao

Abstract:

In order to improve the simulation effects of space cold black environment, this paper described a rectangular channel plate heat sink. By using fluid mechanics theory and finite element method, the internal fluid flow and heat transfer in heat sink was numerically simulated to analyze the impact of channel structural on fluid flow and heat transfer. The result showed that heat sink temperature uniformity is well, and the impact of channel structural on the heat sink temperature uniformity is not significant. The channel depth and spacing are important factors which affect the fluid flow and heat transfer in the heat sink. The two factors of heat transfer and resistance need to be considered comprehensively to determine the optimal flow structure parameters.

Keywords: heat transfer, heat sink, numerical simulation

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616 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Geometrical Shape of Plate Heat Exchangers on Heat Transfer Efficiency

Authors: Hamed Sanei, Mohammad Bagher Ayani

Abstract:

Optimizations of Plate Heat Exchangers (PHS) have received great attention in the past decade. In this study, heat transfer and pressure drop coefficients are compared for rectangular and circular PHS employing numerical simulations. Plates are designed to have equivalent areas. Simulations were implemented to investigate the efficiency of PHSs considering heat transfer, friction factor and pressure drop. Amount of heat transfer and pressure drop was obtained for different range of Reynolds numbers. These two parameters were compared with aim of F "weighting factor correlation". In this comparison, the minimum amount of F indicates higher efficiency. Results reveal that the F value for rectangular shape is less than circular plate, and hence using rectangular shape of PHS is more efficient than circular one. It was observed that, the amount of friction factor is correlated to the Reynolds numbers, such that friction factor decreased in both rectangular and circular plates with an increase in Reynolds number. Furthermore, such simulations revealed that the amount of heat transfer in rectangular plate is more than circular plate for different range of Reynolds numbers. The difference is more distinct for higher Reynolds number. However, amount of pressure drop in circular plate is less than rectangular plate for the same range of Reynolds numbers which is considered as a negative point for rectangular plate efficiency. It can be concluded that, while rectangular PHSs occupy more space than circular plate, the efficiency of rectangular plate is higher.

Keywords: Chevron corrugated-plate heat exchanger, heat transfer, friction factor, Reynolds numbers.

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615 2D and 3D Unsteady Simulation of the Heat Transfer in the Sample during Heat Treatment by Moving Heat Source

Authors: Z. Veselý, M. Honner, J. Mach

Abstract:

The aim of the performed work is to establish the 2D and 3D model of direct unsteady task of sample heat treatment by moving source employing computer model on the basis of finite element method. Complex boundary condition on heat loaded sample surface is the essential feature of the task. Computer model describes heat treatment of the sample during heat source movement over the sample surface. It is started from 2D task of sample cross section as a basic model. Possibilities of extension from 2D to 3D task are discussed. The effect of the addition of third model dimension on temperature distribution in the sample is showed. Comparison of various model parameters on the sample temperatures is observed. Influence of heat source motion on the depth of material heat treatment is shown for several velocities of the movement. Presented computer model is prepared for the utilization in laser treatment of machine parts.

Keywords: Computer simulation, unsteady model, heat treatment, complex boundary condition, moving heat source.

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614 Study of Natural Convection Heat Transfer of Plate-Fin Heat Sink in a Closed Enclosure

Authors: Han-Taw Chen, Tzu-Hsiang Lin, Chung-Hou Lai

Abstract:

The present study applies the inverse method and three-dimensional CFD commercial software in conjunction with the experimental temperature data to investigate the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of the plate-fin heat sink in a rectangular closed enclosure. The inverse method with the finite difference method and the experimental temperature data is applied to determine the approximate heat transfer coefficient. Later, based on the obtained results, the zero-equation turbulence model is used to obtain the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics between two fins. T0 validate the accuracy of the results obtained, the comparison of the heat transfer coefficient is made. The obtained temperature at selected measurement locations of the fin is also compared with experimental data. The effect of the height of the rectangular enclosure on the obtained results is discussed.

Keywords: Inverse method, FLUENT, Plate-fin heat sink, Heat transfer characteristics.

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613 Heat Release Performance of Swaged- and Extruded-Type Heat Sink Used in Industrial Inverter

Authors: Jung Hyun Kim, Min Ye Ku, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this experiment, we investigated the performance of two types of heat sink, swaged- and extruded-type, used in the inverter of industrial electricity generator. The swaged-type heat sink has 62 fins, and the extruded-type has 38 fins having the same dimension as that of the swaged-type. But the extruded-type heat sink maintains the same heat transfer area by the laterally waved surface which has 1 mm in radius. As a result, the swaged- and extruded-type heat sinks released 71% and 64% of the heat incoming to the heat sink, respectively. The other incoming heat were naturally convected and radiated to the ambient. In spite of 40% decrease in number of fins, the heat release performance of the extruded-type heat sink was lowered only 7% than that of the swaged-type. We believe that, this shows the increment of effective heat transfer area by the laterally waved surface of fins and the better heat transfer property of the extruded-type heat sink.

Keywords: Solar Inverter, Heat Sink, Forced Convection, Heat Transfer, Performance Evaluation.

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612 Developing a Conjugate Heat Transfer Solver

Authors: Mansour A. Al Qubeissi

Abstract:

The current paper presents a numerical approach in solving the conjugate heat transfer problems. A heat conduction code is coupled internally with a computational fluid dynamics solver for developing a couple conjugate heat transfer solver. Methodology of treating non-matching meshes at interface has also been proposed. The validation results of 1D and 2D cases for the developed conjugate heat transfer code have shown close agreement with the solutions given by analysis.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Conjugate Heat transfer, Heat Conduction, Heat Transfer

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611 Heat transfer Characteristics of Fin-and-Tube heat Exchanger under Condensing Conditions

Authors: Abdenour Bourabaa, Mohamed Saighi, Said El Metenani

Abstract:

In the present work an investigation of the effects of the air frontal velocity, relative humidity and dry air temperature on the heat transfer characteristics of plain finned tube evaporator has been conducted. Using an appropriate correlation for the air side heat transfer coefficient the temperature distribution along the fin surface was calculated using a dimensionless temperature distribution. For a constant relative humidity and bulb temperature, it is found that the temperature distribution decreases with increasing air frontal velocity. Apparently, it is attributed to the condensate water film flowing over the fin surface. When dry air temperature and face velocity are being kept constant, the temperature distribution decreases with the increase of inlet relative humidity. An increase in the inlet relative humidity is accompanied by a higher amount of moisture on the fin surface. This results in a higher amount of latent heat transfer which involves higher fin surface temperature. For the influence of dry air temperature, the results here show an increase in the dimensionless temperature parameter with a decrease in bulb temperature. Increasing bulb temperature leads to higher amount of sensible and latent heat transfer when other conditions remain constant.

Keywords: Fin efficiency, heat and mass transfer, dehumidifying conditions, finned tube heat exchangers.

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610 Improvement of Energy Efficiency using Porous Fins in Heat Exchangers

Authors: Hadi Niknami Esfahani , Hossein Shokouhmand, Fahim Faraji

Abstract:

The forced convection heat transfer in high porosity metal-foam filled tube heat exchangers are studied in this paper. The Brinkman Darcy momentum model and two energy equations for both solid and fluid phases in porous media are employed .The study shows that using metal-foams can significantly improve the heat transfer in heat exchangers.

Keywords: Metal foam, Nusselt number, heat exchanger, heat flux.

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609 Flat Miniature Heat Pipes for Electronics Cooling: State of the Art, Experimental and Theoretical Analysis

Authors: M.C. Zaghdoudi, S. Maalej, J. Mansouri, M.B.H. Sassi

Abstract:

An experimental study is realized in order to verify the Mini Heat Pipe (MHP) concept for cooling high power dissipation electronic components and determines the potential advantages of constructing mini channels as an integrated part of a flat heat pipe. A Flat Mini Heat Pipe (FMHP) prototype including a capillary structure composed of parallel rectangular microchannels is manufactured and a filling apparatus is developed in order to charge the FMHP. The heat transfer improvement obtained by comparing the heat pipe thermal resistance to the heat conduction thermal resistance of a copper plate having the same dimensions as the tested FMHP is demonstrated for different heat input flux rates. Moreover, the heat transfer in the evaporator and condenser sections are analyzed, and heat transfer laws are proposed. In the theoretical part of this work, a detailed mathematical model of a FMHP with axial microchannels is developed in which the fluid flow is considered along with the heat and mass transfer processes during evaporation and condensation. The model is based on the equations for the mass, momentum and energy conservation, which are written for the evaporator, adiabatic, and condenser zones. The model, which permits to simulate several shapes of microchannels, can predict the maximum heat transfer capacity of FMHP, the optimal fluid mass, and the flow and thermal parameters along the FMHP. The comparison between experimental and model results shows the good ability of the numerical model to predict the axial temperature distribution along the FMHP.

Keywords: Electronics Cooling, Micro Heat Pipe, Mini Heat Pipe, Mini Heat Spreader, Capillary grooves.

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608 Effect of Flow Holes on Heat Release Performance of Extruded-type Heat Sink

Authors: Jung Hyun Kim, Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this study, the enhancement of the heat release performance of an extruded-type heat sink to prepare the large-capacity solar inverter thru the flow holes in the base plate near the heat sources was investigated. Optimal location and number of the holes in the baseplate were determined by using a commercial computation program. The heat release performance of the shape-modified heat sink was measured experimentally and compared with that of the simulation. The heat sink with 12 flow holes in the 18-mm-thick base plate has a 8.1% wider heat transfer area, a 2.5% more mass flow of air, and a 2.7% higher heat release rate than those of the original heat sink. Also, the surface temperature of the base plate was lowered 1.5oC by the holes.

Keywords: Heat Sink, Forced Convection, Heat Transfer, Performance Evaluation, Flow Holes.

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607 Hybrid Heat Pump for Micro Heat Network

Authors: J. M. Counsell, Y. Khalid, M. J. Stewart

Abstract:

Achieving nearly zero carbon heating continues to be identified by UK government analysis as an important feature of any lowest cost pathway to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Heat currently accounts for 48% of UK energy consumption and approximately one third of UK’s greenhouse gas emissions. Heat Networks are being promoted by UK investment policies as one means of supporting hybrid heat pump based solutions. To this effect the RISE (Renewable Integrated and Sustainable Electric) heating system project is investigating how an all-electric heating sourceshybrid configuration could play a key role in long-term decarbonisation of heat.  For the purposes of this study, hybrid systems are defined as systems combining the technologies of an electric driven air source heat pump, electric powered thermal storage, a thermal vessel and micro-heat network as an integrated system.  This hybrid strategy allows for the system to store up energy during periods of low electricity demand from the national grid, turning it into a dynamic supply of low cost heat which is utilized only when required. Currently a prototype of such a system is being tested in a modern house integrated with advanced controls and sensors. This paper presents the virtual performance analysis of the system and its design for a micro heat network with multiple dwelling units. The results show that the RISE system is controllable and can reduce carbon emissions whilst being competitive in running costs with a conventional gas boiler heating system.

Keywords: Gas boilers, heat pumps, hybrid heating and thermal storage, renewable integrated& sustainable electric.

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606 Convective Heat Transfer of Internal Electronic Components in a Headlight Geometry

Authors: Jan Langebach, Peter Fischer, Christian Karcher

Abstract:

A numerical study is presented on convective heat transfer in enclosures. The results are addressed to automotive headlights containing new-age light sources like Light Emitting Diodes (LED). The heat transfer from the heat source (LED) to the enclosure walls is investigated for mixed convection as interaction of the forced convection flow from an inlet and an outlet port and the natural convection at the heat source. Unlike existing studies, inlet and outlet port are thermally coupled and do not serve to remove hot fluid. The input power of the heat source is expressed by the Rayleigh number. The internal position of the heat source, the aspect ratio of the enclosure, and the inclination angle of one wall are varied. The results are given in terms of the global Nusselt number and the enclosure Nusselt number that characterize the heat transfer from the source and from the interior fluid to the enclosure walls, respectively. It is found that the heat transfer from the source to the fluid can be maximized if the source is placed in the main stream from the inlet to the outlet port. In this case, the Reynolds number and heat source position have the major impact on the heat transfer. A disadvantageous position has been found where natural and forced convection compete each other. The overall heat transfer from the source to the wall increases with increasing Reynolds number as well as with increasing aspect ratio and decreasing inclination angle. The heat transfer from the interior fluid to the enclosure wall increases upon decreasing the aspect ratio and increasing the inclination angle. This counteracting behaviour is caused by the variation of the area of the enclosure wall. All mixed convection results are compared to the natural convection limit.

Keywords: Enclosure, heat source, heat transfer, mixed convection.

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605 Thermal Performance Analysis of Nanofluids in Microchannel Heat Sinks

Authors: Manay E., Sahin B., Yilmaz M., Gelis K.

Abstract:

In the present study, the pressure drop and laminar convection heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids in microchannel heat sink with square duct are numerically investigated. The water based nanofluids created with Al2O3 and CuO particles in four different volume fractions of 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% are used to analyze their effects on heat transfer and the pressure drop. Under the laminar, steady-state flow conditions, the finite volume method is used to solve the governing equations of heat transfer. Mixture Model is considered to simulate the nanofluid flow. For verification of used numerical method, the results obtained from numerical calculations were compared with the results in literature for both pure water and the nanofluids in different volume fractions. The distributions of the particles in base fluid are assumed to be uniform. The results are evaluated in terms of Nusselt number, the pressure drop and heat transfer enhancement. Analysis shows that the nanofluids enhance heat transfer while the Reynolds number and the volume fractions are increasing. The best overall enhancement was obtained at φ=%2 and Re=100 for CuO-water nanofluid.

Keywords: Microchannel Heat Sink, Nanofluid, Heat transfer enhancement, pressure drop

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