Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2180

Search results for: fused deposition modeling

2180 A Rapid and Cost-Effective Approach to Manufacturing Modeling Platform for Fused Deposition Modeling

Authors: Chil-Chyuan Kuo, Chen-Hsuan Tsai

Abstract:

This study presents a cost-effective approach for rapid fabricating modeling platforms utilized in fused deposition modeling system. A small-batch production of modeling platforms about 20 pieces can be obtained economically through silicone rubber mold using vacuum casting without applying the plastic injection molding. The air venting systems is crucial for fabricating modeling platform using vacuum casting. Modeling platforms fabricated can be used for building rapid prototyping model after sandblasting. This study offers industrial value because it has both time-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.

Keywords: Vacuum casting, fused deposition modeling, modeling platform, sandblasting, surface roughness.

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2179 Impact of Process Parameters on Tensile Strength of Fused Deposition Modeling Printed Crisscross Poylactic Acid

Authors: Shilpesh R. Rajpurohit, Harshit K. Dave

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing gains the popularity in recent times, due to its capability to create prototype as well functional as end use product directly from CAD data without any specific requirement of tooling. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is one of the widely used additive manufacturing techniques that are used to create functional end use part of polymer that is comparable with the injection-molded parts. FDM printed part has an application in various fields such as automobile, aerospace, medical, electronic, etc. However, application of FDM part is greatly affected by poor mechanical properties. Proper selection of the process parameter could enhance the mechanical performance of the printed part. In the present study, experimental investigation has been carried out to study the behavior of the mechanical performance of the printed part with respect to process variables. Three process variables viz. raster angle, raster width and layer height have been varied to understand its effect on tensile strength. Further, effect of process variables on fractured surface has been also investigated.

Keywords: 3D printing, fused deposition modeling, layer height, raster angle, raster width, tensile strength.

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2178 Surface Roughness Analysis, Modelling and Prediction in Fused Deposition Modelling Additive Manufacturing Technology

Authors: Yusuf S. Dambatta, Ahmed A. D. Sarhan

Abstract:

Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the most prominent rapid prototyping (RP) technologies which is being used to efficiently fabricate CAD 3D geometric models. However, the process is coupled with many drawbacks, of which the surface quality of the manufactured RP parts is among. Hence, studies relating to improving the surface roughness have been a key issue in the field of RP research. In this work, a technique of modelling the surface roughness in FDM is presented. Using experimentally measured surface roughness response of the FDM parts, an ANFIS prediction model was developed to obtain the surface roughness in the FDM parts using the main critical process parameters that affects the surface quality. The ANFIS model was validated and compared with experimental test results.

Keywords: Surface roughness, fused deposition modelling, adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system, ANFIS, orientation.

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2177 Determination of Material Properties for Biodegradable Polylactic Acid Plastic Used in 3D Printers

Authors: Juraj Beniak, Ľubomír Šooš, Peter Križan, Miloš Matúš

Abstract:

Within Rapid Prototyping technologies are used many types of materials. Many of them are recyclable but there are still as plastic like, so practically they do not degrade in the landfill. Polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the special plastic materials, which are biodegradable and available for 3D printing within Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) technology. The question is, if the mechanical properties of produced models are comparable to similar technical plastic materials which are usual for prototype production. Presented paper shows the experiments results for tensile strength measurements for specimens prepared with different 3D printer settings and model orientation. Paper contains also the comparison of tensile strength values with values measured on specimens produced by conventional technologies as injection moulding.

Keywords: 3D printing, biodegradable plastic, fused deposition modeling, PLA plastic, rapid prototyping.

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2176 Evaluation of Environmental, Technical, and Economic Indicators of a Fused Deposition Modeling Process

Authors: M. Yosofi, S. Ezeddini, A. Ollivier, V. Lavaste, C. Mayousse

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing processes have changed significantly in a wide range of industries and their application progressed from rapid prototyping to production of end-use products. However, their environmental impact is still a rather open question. In order to support the growth of this technology in the industrial sector, environmental aspects should be considered and predictive models may help monitor and reduce the environmental footprint of the processes. This work presents predictive models based on a previously developed methodology for the environmental impact evaluation combined with a technical and economical assessment. Here we applied the methodology to the Fused Deposition Modeling process. First, we present the predictive models relative to different types of machines. Then, we present a decision-making tool designed to identify the optimum manufacturing strategy regarding technical, economic, and environmental criteria.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, decision-makings, environmental impact, predictive models.

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2175 Testing of Materials for Rapid Prototyping Fused Deposition Modelling Technology

Authors: L. Novakova-Marcincinova, J. Novak-Marcincin

Abstract:

Paper presents knowledge about types of test in area of materials properties of selected methods of rapid prototyping technologies. In today used rapid prototyping technologies for production of models and final parts are used materials in initial state as solid, liquid or powder material structure. In solid state are used various forms such as pellets, wire or laminates. Basic range materials include paper, nylon, wax, resins, metals and ceramics. In Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) rapid prototyping technology are mainly used as basic materials ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene), polyamide, polycarbonate, polyethylene and polypropylene. For advanced FDM applications are used special materials as silicon nitrate, PZT (Piezoceramic Material - Lead Zirconate Titanate), aluminium oxide, hydroxypatite and stainless steel.

Keywords: Rapid prototyping, materials, testing of materials.

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2174 Tensile Properties of 3D Printed PLA under Unidirectional and Bidirectional Raster Angle: A Comparative Study

Authors: Shilpesh R. Rajpurohit, Harshit K. Dave

Abstract:

Fused deposition modeling (FDM) gains popularity in recent times, due to its capability to create prototype as well as functional end use product directly from CAD file. Parts fabricated using FDM process have mechanical properties comparable with those of injection-molded parts. However, performance of the FDM part is severally affected by the poor mechanical properties of the part due to nature of layered structure of printed part. Mechanical properties of the part can be improved by proper selection of process variables. In the present study, a comparative study between unidirectional and bidirectional raster angle has been carried out at a combination of different layer height and raster width. Unidirectional raster angle varied at five different levels, and bidirectional raster angle has been varied at three different levels. Fabrication of tensile specimen and tensile testing of specimen has been conducted according to ASTM D638 standard. From the results, it can be observed that higher tensile strength has been obtained at 0° raster angle followed by 45°/45° raster angle, while lower tensile strength has been obtained at 90° raster angle. Analysis of fractured surface revealed that failure takes place along with raster deposition direction for unidirectional and zigzag failure can be observed for bidirectional raster angle.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, fused deposition modeling, raster angle, tensile strength.

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2173 Optimization of Surface Roughness in Additive Manufacturing Processes via Taguchi Methodology

Authors: Anjian Chen, Joseph C. Chen

Abstract:

This paper studies a case where the targeted surface roughness of fused deposition modeling (FDM) additive manufacturing process is improved. The process is designing to reduce or eliminate the defects and improve the process capability index Cp and Cpk for an FDM additive manufacturing process. The baseline Cp is 0.274 and Cpk is 0.654. This research utilizes the Taguchi methodology, to eliminate defects and improve the process. The Taguchi method is used to optimize the additive manufacturing process and printing parameters that affect the targeted surface roughness of FDM additive manufacturing. The Taguchi L9 orthogonal array is used to organize the parameters' (four controllable parameters and one non-controllable parameter) effectiveness on the FDM additive manufacturing process. The four controllable parameters are nozzle temperature [°C], layer thickness [mm], nozzle speed [mm/s], and extruder speed [%]. The non-controllable parameter is the environmental temperature [°C]. After the optimization of the parameters, a confirmation print was printed to prove that the results can reduce the amount of defects and improve the process capability index Cp from 0.274 to 1.605 and the Cpk from 0.654 to 1.233 for the FDM additive manufacturing process. The final results confirmed that the Taguchi methodology is sufficient to improve the surface roughness of FDM additive manufacturing process.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, fused deposition modeling, surface roughness, Six-Sigma, Taguchi method, 3D printing.

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2172 3D-Printing Plates without “Support”

Authors: Yasusi Kanada

Abstract:

When printing a plate (or dish) by an FDM 3D printer, the process normally requires support material, which causes several problems. This paper proposes a method for forming thin plates without using wasteful support material. This method requires several extraordinary parameter values when slicing plates. The experiments show that the plates can, for the most part, be successfully formed using a conventional slicer and a 3D printer; however, seams between layers spoil them and the quality of printed objects strongly depends on the slicer.

Keywords: Fused deposition modeling (FDM), 3D printing, Support-less, Layer seam, Slicer.

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2171 Natural-Direction-Consistent 3D-Design and Printing Methods

Authors: Yasusi Kanada

Abstract:

Objects are usually horizontally sliced when printed by 3D printers. Therefore, if an object to be printed, such as a collection of fibers, originally has natural direction in shape, the printed direction contradicts with the natural direction. By using proper tools, such as field-oriented 3D paint software, field-oriented solid modelers, field-based tool-path generation software, and non-horizontal FDM 3D printers, the natural direction can be modeled and objects can be printed in a direction that is consistent with the natural direction. This consistence results in embodiment of momentum or force in expressions of the printed object. To achieve this goal, several design and manufacturing problems, but not all, have been solved. An application of this method is (Japanese) 3D calligraphy.

Keywords: 3D printing, Three-dimensional printing, Solid free-form fabrication, SFF, Fused deposition modeling, FDM, Additive manufacturing.

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2170 Modeling and Simulation for Physical Vapor Deposition: Multiscale Model

Authors: Jürgen Geiser, Robert Röhle

Abstract:

In this paper we present modeling and simulation for physical vapor deposition for metallic bipolar plates. In the models we discuss the application of different models to simulate the transport of chemical reactions of the gas species in the gas chamber. The so called sputter process is an extremely sensitive process to deposit thin layers to metallic plates. We have taken into account lower order models to obtain first results with respect to the gas fluxes and the kinetics in the chamber. The model equations can be treated analytically in some circumstances and complicated multi-dimensional models are solved numerically with a software-package (UG unstructed grids, see [1]). Because of multi-scaling and multi-physical behavior of the models, we discuss adapted schemes to solve more accurate in the different domains and scales. The results are discussed with physical experiments to give a valid model for the assumed growth of thin layers.

Keywords: Convection-diffusion equations, multi-scale problem, physical vapor deposition, reaction equations, splitting methods.

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2169 Geometrical Structure and Layer Orientation Effects on Strength, Material Consumption and Building Time of FDM Rapid Prototyped Samples

Authors: Ahmed A. D. Sarhan, Chong Feng Duan, Mum Wai Yip, M. Sayuti

Abstract:

Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies enable physical parts to be produced from various materials without depending on the conventional tooling. Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is one of the famous RP processes used at present. Tensile strength and compressive strength resistance will be identified for different sample structures and different layer orientations of ABS rapid prototype solid models. The samples will be fabricated by a FDM rapid prototyping machine in different layer orientations with variations in internal geometrical structure. The 0° orientation where layers were deposited along the length of the samples displayed superior strength and impact resistance over all the other orientations. The anisotropic properties were probably caused by weak interlayer bonding and interlayer porosity.

Keywords: Building orientation, compression strength, rapid prototyping, tensile strength.

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2168 Region-Based Image Fusion with Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Shuo-Li Hsu, Peng-Wei Gau, I-Lin Wu, Jyh-Horng Jeng

Abstract:

For most image fusion algorithms separate relationship by pixels in the image and treat them more or less independently. In addition, they have to be adjusted different parameters in different time or weather. In this paper, we propose a region–based image fusion which combines aspects of feature and pixel-level fusion method to replace only by pixel. The basic idea is to segment far infrared image only and to add information of each region from segmented image to visual image respectively. Then we determine different fused parameters according different region. At last, we adopt artificial neural network to deal with the problems of different time or weather, because the relationship between fused parameters and image features are nonlinear. It render the fused parameters can be produce automatically according different states. The experimental results present the method we proposed indeed have good adaptive capacity with automatic determined fused parameters. And the architecture can be used for lots of applications.

Keywords: Image fusion, Region-based fusion, Segmentation, Neural network, Multi-sensor.

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2167 Improved Text-Independent Speaker Identification using Fused MFCC and IMFCC Feature Sets based on Gaussian Filter

Authors: Sandipan Chakroborty, Goutam Saha

Abstract:

A state of the art Speaker Identification (SI) system requires a robust feature extraction unit followed by a speaker modeling scheme for generalized representation of these features. Over the years, Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) modeled on the human auditory system has been used as a standard acoustic feature set for speech related applications. On a recent contribution by authors, it has been shown that the Inverted Mel- Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (IMFCC) is useful feature set for SI, which contains complementary information present in high frequency region. This paper introduces the Gaussian shaped filter (GF) while calculating MFCC and IMFCC in place of typical triangular shaped bins. The objective is to introduce a higher amount of correlation between subband outputs. The performances of both MFCC & IMFCC improve with GF over conventional triangular filter (TF) based implementation, individually as well as in combination. With GMM as speaker modeling paradigm, the performances of proposed GF based MFCC and IMFCC in individual and fused mode have been verified in two standard databases YOHO, (Microphone Speech) and POLYCOST (Telephone Speech) each of which has more than 130 speakers.

Keywords: Gaussian Filter, Triangular Filter, Subbands, Correlation, MFCC, IMFCC, GMM.

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2166 Modeling the Effect of Scale Deposition on Heat Transfer in Desalination Multi-Effect Distillation Evaporators

Authors: K. Bourouni, M. Chacha, T. Jaber, A. Tchantchane

Abstract:

In Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) desalination evaporators, the scale deposit outside the tubes presents a barrier to heat transfers reducing the global heat transfer coefficient and causing a decrease in water production; hence a loss of efficiency and an increase in operating and maintenance costs. Scale removal (by acid cleaning) is the main maintenance operation and constitutes the major reason for periodic plant shutdowns. A better understanding of scale deposition mechanisms will lead to an accurate determination of the variation of scale thickness around the tubes and an improved accuracy of the overall heat transfer coefficient calculation. In this paper, a coupled heat transfer-calcium carbonate scale deposition model on a horizontal tube bundle is presented. The developed tool is used to determine precisely the heat transfer area leading to a significant cost reduction for a given water production capacity. Simulations are carried to investigate the influence of different parameters such as water salinity, temperature, etc. on the heat transfer.

Keywords: Multi-effect-evaporator, water desalination, scale deposition, heat transfer coefficient.

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2165 A Novel Metric for Performance Evaluation of Image Fusion Algorithms

Authors: Nedeljko Cvejic, Artur Łoza, David Bull, Nishan Canagarajah

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a novel objective nonreference performance assessment algorithm for image fusion. It takes into account local measurements to estimate how well the important information in the source images is represented by the fused image. The metric is based on the Universal Image Quality Index and uses the similarity between blocks of pixels in the input images and the fused image as the weighting factors for the metrics. Experimental results confirm that the values of the proposed metrics correlate well with the subjective quality of the fused images, giving a significant improvement over standard measures based on mean squared error and mutual information.

Keywords: Fusion performance measures, image fusion, non-reference quality measures, objective quality measures.

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2164 A Similarity Metric for Assessment of Image Fusion Algorithms

Authors: Nedeljko Cvejic, Artur Łoza, David Bull, Nishan Canagarajah

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a novel objective nonreference performance assessment algorithm for image fusion. It takes into account local measurements to estimate how well the important information in the source images is represented by the fused image. The metric is based on the Universal Image Quality Index and uses the similarity between blocks of pixels in the input images and the fused image as the weighting factors for the metrics. Experimental results confirm that the values of the proposed metrics correlate well with the subjective quality of the fused images, giving a significant improvement over standard measures based on mean squared error and mutual information.

Keywords: Fusion performance measures, image fusion, nonreferencequality measures, objective quality measures.

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2163 Fabrication of Wearable Antennas through Thermal Deposition

Authors: Jeff Letcher, Dennis Tierney, Haider Raad

Abstract:

Antennas are devices for transmitting and/or receiving signals which make them a necessary component of any wireless system. In this paper, a thermal deposition technique is utilized as a method to fabricate antenna structures on substrates. Thin-film deposition is achieved by evaporating a source material (metals in our case) in a vacuum which allows vapor particles to travel directly to the target substrate which is encased with a mask that outlines the desired structure. The material then condenses back to solid state. This method is used in comparison to screen printing, chemical etching, and ink jet printing to indicate advantages and disadvantages to the method. The antenna created undergoes various testing of frequency ranges, conductivity, and a series of flexing to indicate the effectiveness of the thermal deposition technique. A single band antenna that is operated at 2.45 GHz intended for wearable and flexible applications was successfully fabricated through this method and tested. It is concluded that thermal deposition presents a feasible technique of producing such antennas.

Keywords: Thermal deposition, wearable antennas, Bluetooth technology, flexible electronics.

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2162 The Buffer Gas Influence Rate on Absolute Cu Atoms Density with regard to Deposition

Authors: S. Sobhanian, H. Naghshara, N. Sadeghi, S. Khorram

Abstract:

The absolute Cu atoms density in Cu(2S1/2ÔåÉ2P1/2) ground state has been measured by Resonance Optical Absorption (ROA) technique in a DC magnetron sputtering deposition with argon. We measured these densities under variety of operation conditions: pressure from 0.6 μbar to 14 μbar, input power from 10W to 200W and N2 mixture from 0% to 100%. For measuring the gas temperature, we used the simulation of N2 rotational spectra with a special computer code. The absolute number density of Cu atoms decreases with increasing the N2 percentage of buffer gas at any conditions of this work. But the deposition rate, is not decreased with the same manner. The deposition rate variation is very small and in the limit of quartz balance measuring equipment accuracy. So we conclude that decrease in the absolute number density of Cu atoms in magnetron plasma has not a big effect on deposition rate, because the diffusion of Cu atoms to the chamber volume and deviation of Cu atoms from direct path (towards the substrate) decreases with increasing of N2 percentage of buffer gas. This is because of the lower mass of N2 atoms compared to the argon ones.

Keywords: Deposition rate, Resonance Optical Absorption, Sputtering.

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2161 Performance Analysis of Brain Tumor Detection Based On Image Fusion

Authors: S. Anbumozhi, P. S. Manoharan

Abstract:

Medical Image fusion plays a vital role in medical field to diagnose the brain tumors which can be classified as benign or malignant. It is the process of integrating multiple images of the same scene into a single fused image to reduce uncertainty and minimizing redundancy while extracting all the useful information from the source images. Fuzzy logic is used to fuse two brain MRI images with different vision. The fused image will be more informative than the source images. The texture and wavelet features are extracted from the fused image. The multilevel Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Classifier classifies the brain tumors based on trained and tested features. The proposed method achieved 80.48% sensitivity, 99.9% specificity and 99.69% accuracy. Experimental results obtained from fusion process prove that the use of the proposed image fusion approach shows better performance while compared with conventional fusion methodologies.

Keywords: Image fusion, Fuzzy rules, Neuro-fuzzy classifier.

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2160 Deposition of Transparent IGZO Conducting Thin Films by Co-Sputtering of Zn2Ga2O3 and In2O3 Targets at Room Temperature

Authors: Yu-Hsin Chen, Yuan-Tai Hsieh, Cheng-Shong Hong, Chia-Ching Wu, Cheng-Fu Yang, Yu-Jhen Liou

Abstract:

In this study, we investigated (In,Ga,Zn)Ox (IGZO) thin films and examined their characteristics of using Ga2O3-2 ZnO (GZO) co-sputtered In2O3 prepared by dual target radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature in a pure Ar atmosphere. RF powers of 80 W and 70 W were used for GZO and pure In2O3, room temperature (RT) was used as deposition temperature, and the deposition time was changed from 15 min to 60 min. Structural, surface, electrical, and optical properties of IGZO thin films were investigated as a function of deposition time. Furthermore, the GZO co-sputtered In2O3 thin films showed a very smooth and featureless surface and an amorphous structure regardless of the deposition time due to the room temperature sputtering process. We would show that the co-sputtered IGZO thin films exhibited transparent electrode properties with high transmittance ratio and low resistivity.

Keywords: IGZO, co-sputter, Ga2O3-2 ZnO, In2O3.

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2159 Application of RP Technology with Polycarbonate Material for Wind Tunnel Model Fabrication

Authors: A. Ahmadi Nadooshan, S. Daneshmand, C. Aghanajafi

Abstract:

Traditionally, wind tunnel models are made of metal and are very expensive. In these years, everyone is looking for ways to do more with less. Under the right test conditions, a rapid prototype part could be tested in a wind tunnel. Using rapid prototype manufacturing techniques and materials in this way significantly reduces time and cost of production of wind tunnel models. This study was done of fused deposition modeling (FDM) and their ability to make components for wind tunnel models in a timely and cost effective manner. This paper discusses the application of wind tunnel model configuration constructed using FDM for transonic wind tunnel testing. A study was undertaken comparing a rapid prototyping model constructed of FDM Technologies using polycarbonate to that of a standard machined steel model. Testing covered the Mach range of Mach 0.3 to Mach 0.75 at an angle-ofattack range of - 2° to +12°. Results from this study show relatively good agreement between the two models and rapid prototyping Method reduces time and cost of production of wind tunnel models. It can be concluded from this study that wind tunnel models constructed using rapid prototyping method and materials can be used in wind tunnel testing for initial baseline aerodynamic database development.

Keywords: Polycarbonate, Fabrication, FDM, Model, RapidPrototyping, Wind Tunnel.

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2158 Blind Spot Area Tracking Solution Using 1x12 POF-Based Optical Couplers

Authors: Mohammad Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman, Mohd Hadi Guna Safnal, Mohd Hazwan Harun, Mohd.Saiful Dzulkefly Zan, Kasmiran Jumari

Abstract:

Optical 1x12 fused-taper-twisted polymer optical fiber (POF) couplers has been fabricated by a perform technique. Characterization of the coupler which proposed to be used in passive night vision application to tracking a blind sport area was reported. During the development process of fused-taper-twisted POF couplers was carried out, red LED fully utilized to be injected into the couplers to test the quality of fabricated couplers. Some characterization parameters, such as optical output power, POFs attenuation characteristics and power losses on the network were observed. The maximum output power efficiency of the coupler is about 40%, but it can be improved gradually through experience and practice.

Keywords: polymer optical fiber (POF), customer-made, fused-taper-twisted fiber, optical coupler, small world communication, home network.

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2157 On the EM Algorithm and Bootstrap Approach Combination for Improving Satellite Image Fusion

Authors: Tijani Delleji, Mourad Zribi, Ahmed Ben Hamida

Abstract:

This paper discusses EM algorithm and Bootstrap approach combination applied for the improvement of the satellite image fusion process. This novel satellite image fusion method based on estimation theory EM algorithm and reinforced by Bootstrap approach was successfully implemented and tested. The sensor images are firstly split by a Bayesian segmentation method to determine a joint region map for the fused image. Then, we use the EM algorithm in conjunction with the Bootstrap approach to develop the bootstrap EM fusion algorithm, hence producing the fused targeted image. We proposed in this research to estimate the statistical parameters from some iterative equations of the EM algorithm relying on a reference of representative Bootstrap samples of images. Sizes of those samples are determined from a new criterion called 'hybrid criterion'. Consequently, the obtained results of our work show that using the Bootstrap EM (BEM) in image fusion improve performances of estimated parameters which involve amelioration of the fused image quality; and reduce the computing time during the fusion process.

Keywords: Satellite image fusion, Bayesian segmentation, Bootstrap approach, EM algorithm.

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2156 Facile Synthesis of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanowires on Carbon Layer by Vapour Deposition

Authors: Kh. A. Abdullin, N. B. Bakranov, S. E. Kudaibergenov, S.E. Kumekov, V. N. Ermolaev, L. V. Podrezova

Abstract:

A facile vapour deposition method of synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanowires on carbon seed layer was developed. The received samples were investigated on electronic microscope JSM-6490 LA JEOL and x-ray diffractometer X, pert MPD PRO. The photoluminescence spectra (PL) of obtained ZnO samples at a room temperature were studied using He-Cd laser (325 nm line) as excitation source.

Keywords: ZnO nanowires, vapor-phase deposition, Nicatalytic layer, facile method of synthesis, carbon catalytic layer, thephotoluminescence spectra, X-ray spectrum.

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2155 Metal Inert Gas Welding-Based-Shaped Metal Deposition in Additive Layered Manufacturing: A Review

Authors: Adnan A. Ugla, Hassan J. Khaudair, Ahmed R. J. Almusawi

Abstract:

Shaped Metal Deposition (SMD) in additive layered manufacturing technique is a promising alternative to traditional manufacturing used for manufacturing large, expensive metal components with complex geometry in addition to producing free structures by building materials in a layer by layer technique. The present paper is a comprehensive review of the literature and the latest rapid manufacturing technologies of the SMD technique. The aim of this paper is to comprehensively review the most prominent facts that researchers have dealt with in the SMD techniques especially those associated with the cold wire feed. The intent of this study is to review the literature presented on metal deposition processes and their classifications, including SMD process using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) which divides into wire + tungsten inert gas (TIG), metal inert gas (MIG), or plasma. This literary research presented covers extensive details on bead geometry, process parameters and heat input or arc energy resulting from the deposition process in both cases MIG and Tandem-MIG in SMD process. Furthermore, SMD may be done using Single Wire-MIG (SW-MIG) welding and SMD using Double Wire-MIG (DW-MIG) welding. The present review shows that the method of deposition of metals when using the DW-MIG process can be considered a distinctive and low-cost method to produce large metal components due to high deposition rates as well as reduce the input of high temperature generated during deposition and reduce the distortions. However, the accuracy and surface finish of the MIG-SMD are less as compared to electron and laser beam.

Keywords: Shaped metal deposition, additive manufacturing, double-wire feed, cold feed wire.

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2154 A Comparative Study on the Dimensional Error of 3D CAD Model and SLS RP Model for Reconstruction of Cranial Defect

Authors: L. Siva Rama Krishna, Sriram Venkatesh, M. Sastish Kumar, M. Uma Maheswara Chary

Abstract:

Rapid Prototyping (RP) is a technology that produces models and prototype parts from 3D CAD model data, CT/MRI scan data, and model data created from 3D object digitizing systems. There are several RP process like Stereolithography (SLA), Solid Ground Curing (SGC), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), 3D Printing (3DP) among them SLS and FDM RP processes are used to fabricate pattern of custom cranial implant. RP technology is useful in engineering and biomedical application. This is helpful in engineering for product design, tooling and manufacture etc. RP biomedical applications are design and development of medical devices, instruments, prosthetics and implantation; it is also helpful in planning complex surgical operation. The traditional approach limits the full appreciation of various bony structure movements and therefore the custom implants produced are difficult to measure the anatomy of parts and analyze the changes in facial appearances accurately. Cranioplasty surgery is a surgical correction of a defect in cranial bone by implanting a metal or plastic replacement to restore the missing part. This paper aims to do a comparative study on the dimensional error of CAD and SLS RP Models for reconstruction of cranial defect by comparing the virtual CAD with the physical RP model of a cranial defect.

Keywords: Rapid Prototyping, Selective Laser Sintering, Cranial defect, Dimensional Error.

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2153 RBS Characteristic of Cd1−xZnxS Thin Film Fabricated by Vacuum Deposition Method

Authors: N. Dahbi, D-E. Arafah

Abstract:

Cd1−xZnxS thins films have been fabricated from ZnS/CdS/ZnS multilayer thin film systems, by using the vacuum deposition method; the Rutherford backscattering (RBS) technique have been applied in order to determine the: structure, composition, depth profile, and stoichiometric of these films. The influence of the chemical and heat treatments on the produced films also have been investigated; the RBS spectra of the films showed that homogenous Cd1−xZnxS can be synthesized with x=0.45.

Keywords: Cd1−xZnxS, chemical treatment, depth profile, heat treatment, RBS, RUMP simulation, thin film, vacuum deposition, ZnS/CdS/ZnS.

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2152 Improved p-Xylene Selectivity of n-Pentane Aromatization over Silylated Ga-exchanged HZSM- 5 Catalysts

Authors: Tunchanok Nitipan, Siriporn Jongpatiwut, Thirasak Rirksomboon, Boonyarach Kitiyanan, Tivaporn Apphakvan

Abstract:

In this study, the conversion of n-pentane to aromatics is investigated on HZSM-5 zeolites modified by Ga ion-exchange and silylation using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) via chemical liquid deposition (CLD). The effect of SiO2/Al2O3 ratios of HZSM-5 was also studied. Parameters in preparing catalysts i.e. TEOS loading and cycles of deposition were varied to obtain the optimal condition for enhancing p-xylene selectivity. The highest p-xylene selectivity 99.7% was achieved when the amount of TEOS was 20 vol.%.The catalysts were characterized by TPD, TPO, XRF, and BET. Results show that the conversion of n-pentane was influenced remarkably by the SiO2/Al2O3 ratios of HZSM-5. The highest p-xylene selectivity 99.7% was achieved when the amount of TEOS was 20 vol.%. And cycles of deposition greatly improves HZSM-5 shape-selectivity.

Keywords: Aromatization, Chemical Liquid Deposition (CLD), p-Xylene, ZSM-5 Zeolite

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2151 Thermophoretic Deposition of Nanoparticles Due Toa Permeable Rotating Disk: Effects of Partial Slip, Magnetic Field, Thermal Radiation, Thermal-Diffusion, and Diffusion-Thermo

Authors: M. M. Rahman

Abstract:

The present contribution deals with the thermophoretic deposition of nanoparticles over a rapidly rotating permeable disk in the presence of partial slip, magnetic field, thermal radiation, thermal-diffusion, and diffusion-thermo effects. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations such as continuity, momentum, energy and concentration are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity analysis, and the solutions are obtained through the very efficient computer algebra software MATLAB. Graphical results for non-dimensional concentration and temperature profiles including thermophoretic deposition velocity and Stanton number (thermophoretic deposition flux) in tabular forms are presented for a range of values of the parameters characterizing the flow field. It is observed that slip mechanism, thermal-diffusion, diffusion-thermo, magnetic field and radiation significantly control the thermophoretic particles deposition rate. The obtained results may be useful to many industrial and engineering applications.

Keywords: Boundary layer flows, convection, diffusion-thermo, rotating disk, thermal-diffusion, thermophoresis.

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