Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 444

Search results for: double-wire feed

444 Minimizing Fish-feed Loss due to Sea Currents: An Economic Methodology

Authors: V. Vassiliou, M. Charalambides, M. Menicou

Abstract:

Fish-feed is a major cost component of operating expenses for any aquaculture farm. Due to soaring prices of fish-feed ingredients, the need for better feeding schedule management has become imperative. On such factor that influences the utilization rate of fish-feed are sea currents. Up to now, practical monitoring of fishfeed loss due to sea currents is not exercised. This paper gives a description of an economic methodology that aims at quantifying the amount of fish-feed lost due to sea currents and draws on data from a Mediterranean aquaculture farm to formulate the associated model.

Keywords: Aquaculture, economic model, fish-feed loss, sea currents.

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443 Ethylene Epoxidation in a Low-Temperature Parallel Plate Dielectric Barrier Discharge System: Effects of Ethylene Feed Position and O2/C2H4 Feed Molar Ratio

Authors: Bunphot Paosombat, Thitiporn Suttikul, Sumaeth Chavadej

Abstract:

The effects of ethylene (C2H4) feed position and O2/C2H4 feed molar ratio on ethylene epoxidation in a parallel dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) were studied. The results showed that the ethylene feed position fraction of 0.5 and the feed molar ratio of O2/C2H4 of 0.2:1 gave the highest EO selectivity of 34.3% and the highest EO yield of 5.28% with low power consumptions of 2.11×10-16 Ws/molecule of ethylene converted and 6.34×10-16 Ws/molecule of EO produced when the DBD system was operated under the best conditions: an applied voltage of 19 kV, an input frequency of 500 Hz and a total feed flow rate of 50 cm3/min. The separate ethylene feed system provided much higher epoxidation activity as compared to the mixed feed system which gave EO selectivity of 15.5%, EO yield of 2.1% and the power consumption of EO produced of 7.7×10-16 Ws/molecule.

Keywords: Dielectric Barrier Discharge, C2H4 Feed Position, Epoxidation, Ethylene Oxide

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442 A Research about Determination of the Quality of Feed Oils Used as Mixed Feed Raw Material from Some Feed Factories in Konya-Turkey

Authors: Gülşah Kanbur, Veysel Ayhan

Abstract:

Feed oil samples which are used as mixed feed raw material were taken from six different feed factories in March, May and July. All factories make production in Konya, Turkey and all of the samples were crude soybean oils. Physical and chemical analyses, free radical scavenger effect, and total phenol content were determined on these oil samples. Moisture (M) content was found between 0.10-22.23%, saponification number (SF) was determined 143.13 to 167.93 KOH/kg, free fatty acidity (FFA) was varied 0.73 to 35.00%, peroxide value (PV) was found between 1.53 and 28.43 meq/kg, unsaponifiable matter (USM) was determined from 0.40 to 17.10%, viscosity (V) was found between 34.30 and 625.67 mPas, sediment (S) amount was determined between 0.60-18.16%, free radical scavenger effect (FRSE) was varied 20.7 to 43.04% inhibition of the extract and total phenol (TPC) content was found between 1.20 and 2.69mg/L extract. Different results were found between months and factories.

Keywords: Crude soybean oil, Feed oils, mixed feed.

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441 Feed-Forward Control in Resonant DC Link Inverter

Authors: Apinan Aurasopon, Worawat Sa-ngiavibool

Abstract:

This paper proposes a feed-forward control in resonant dc link inverter. The feed-forward control configuration is based on synchronous sigma-delta modulation. The simulation results showing the proposed technique can reject non-ideal dc bus improving the total harmonic distortion.

Keywords: Feed-forward control, Resonant dc link inverter, Synchronous sigma-delta modulation.

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440 Assessment of the Effect of Feed Plate Location on Interactions for a Binary Distillation Column

Authors: A. Khelassi, R. Bendib

Abstract:

The paper considers the effect of feed plate location on the interactions in a seven plate binary distillation column. The mathematical model of the distillation column is deduced based on the equations of mass and energy balances for each stage, detailed model for both reboiler and condenser, and heat transfer equations. The Dynamic Relative Magnitude Criterion, DRMC is used to assess the interactions in different feed plate locations for a seven plate (Benzene-Toluene) binary distillation column ( the feed plate is originally at stage 4). The results show that whenever we go far from the optimum feed plate position, the level of interaction augments.

Keywords: Distillation column, assessment of interactions, feedplate location, DRMC.

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439 Waste Oils pre-Esterification for Biodiesel Synthesis: Effect of Feed Moisture Contents

Authors: Kalala Jalama

Abstract:

A process flowsheet was developed in ChemCad 6.4 to study the effect of feed moisture contents on the pre-esterification of waste oils. Waste oils were modelled as a mixture of triolein (90%), oleic acid (5%) and water (5%). The process mainly consisted of feed drying, pre-esterification reaction and methanol recovery. The results showed that the process energy requirements would be minimized when higher degrees of feed drying and higher preesterification reaction temperatures are used.

Keywords: Waste oils, moisture content, pre-esterification.

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438 Feed-Forward Control in Half-Bridge Resonant DC Link Inverter

Authors: Apinan Aurasopon, Worawat Sa-ngiavibool

Abstract:

This paper proposes a feed-forward control in a halfbridge resonant dc link inverter. The configuration of feed-forward control is based on synchronous sigma-delta modulation and the halfbridge resonant dc link inverter consists of two inductors, one capacitor and two power switches. The simulation results show the proposed technique can reject non-ideal dc bus improving the total harmonic distortion.

Keywords: Feed-forward control, Resonant dc link inverter, Synchronous sigma-delta modulation.

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437 Chemical and Biological Properties of Local Cowpea Seed Protein Grown in Gizan Region

Authors: Abdelatief S. H. El-Jasser

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical and biological properties of local cowpea seed protein cultivated in Gizan region. The results showed that the cowpea and its products contain high level of protein (22.9-77.6%), high carbohydrates (9.4-64.3%) and low fats (0.1-0.3%). The trypsin and chymotrypsin activities were found to be 32.2 and 15.2 units, respectively. These activities were not affected in both defatted and protein concentrate whereas they were significantly reduced in isolated protein and cooked samples. The phytate content of cooked and concentrated cowpea samples varied from 0.25% -0.32%, respectively. Tannin content was found to be 0.4% and 0.23% for cooked and raw samples, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility was very high in cowpea seeds (75.04-78.76%). The biological evaluation using rats showed that the group fed with animal feed containing casein gain more weight than those fed with that containing cowpea. However, the group fed with cooked cowpea gain more weight than those fed with uncooked cowpea. On the other hand, in vivo digestion showed high value (98.33%) among the group consumed casein compared to other groups those consumed cowpea contains feed. This could be attributed to low antinutritional factors in casein contains feed compared to those of cowpea contains feed because cooking significantly increased the digestion rate (80.8% to 83.5%) of cowpea contains feed. Furthermore, the biological evaluation was high (91.67%) of casein containing feed compared to that of cowpea containing feed (80.83%-87.5%). The net protein utilization (NPU) was higher (89.67%) in the group fed with casein containing feed than that of cowpea containing feed (56.33%-69.67%).

Keywords: Biological properties, Cowpea seed protein, Antinutritional factors, In vitro digestibility

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436 The Effects of Production, Transportation and Storage Conditions on Mold Growth in Compound Feeds

Authors: N. Cetinkaya

Abstract:

The objective of the present study is to determine the critical control points during the production, transportation and storage conditions of compound feeds to be used in the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) feed safety management system. A total of 40 feed samples were taken after 20 and 40 days of storage periods from the 10 dairy and 10 beef cattle farms following the transportation of the compound feeds from the factory. In addition, before transporting the feeds from factory immediately after production of dairy and beef cattle compound feeds, 10 from each total 20 samples were taken as 0 day. In all feed samples, chemical composition and total aflatoxin levels were determined. The aflatoxin levels in all feed samples with the exception of 2 dairy cattle feeds were below the maximum acceptable level. With the increase in storage period in dairy feeds, the aflatoxin levels were increased to 4.96 ppb only in a BS8 dairy farm. This value is below the maximum permissible level (10 ppb) in beef cattle feed. The aflatoxin levels of dairy feed samples taken after production varied between 0.44 and 2.01 ppb. Aflatoxin levels were found to be between 0.89 and 3.01 ppb in dairy cattle feeds taken on the 20th day of storage at 10 dairy cattle farm. On the 40th day, feed aflatoxin levels in the same dairy cattle farm were found between 1.12 and 7.83 ppb. The aflatoxin levels were increased to 7.83 and 6.31 ppb in 2 dairy farms, after a storage period of 40 days. These obtained aflatoxin values are above the maximum permissible level in dairy cattle feeds. The 40 days storage in pellet form in the HACCP feed safety management system can be considered as a critical control point.

Keywords: Aflatoxin, beef cattle feed, compound feed, dairy cattle feed, HACCP.

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435 High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Determination of Colistin Sulfate and its Application in Medicated Premixand Animal Feed

Authors: S.Choosakoonkriang, S. Supaluknari, P. Puangkaew

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to develop and validate an inexpensive and simple high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of colistin sulfate. Separation of colistin sulfate was achieved on a ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 column using UV detection at λ=215 nm. The mobile phase was 30 mM sulfate buffer (pH 2.5):acetonitrile(76:24). An excellent linearity (r2=0.998) was found in the concentration range of 25 - 400 μg/mL. Intra- day and inter-day precisions of method (%RSD, n=3) were less than 7.9%.The developed and validated method was applied to determination of the content of colistin sulfate in medicated premix and animal feed sample.The recovery of colistin from animal feed was satisfactorily ranged from 90.92 to 93.77%. The results demonstrated that the HPLC method developed in this work is appropriate for direct determination of colistin sulfate in commercial medicated premixes and animal feed.

Keywords: Colistin sulfate, HPLC, medicated premix, animal feed

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434 Economic Returns of Using Brewery`s Spent Grain in Animal Feed

Authors: U. Ben-Hamed, H. Seddighi, K. Thomas

Abstract:

UK breweries generate extensive by products in the form of spent grain, slurry and yeast. Much of the spent grain is produced by large breweries and processed in bulk for animal feed. Spent brewery grains contain up to 20% protein dry weight and up to 60% fiber and are useful additions to animal feed. Bulk processing is economic and allows spent grain to be sold so providing an income to the brewery. A proportion of spent grain, however, is produced by small local breweries and is more variably distributed to farms or other users using intermittent collection methods. Such use is much less economic and may incur losses if not carefully assessed for transport costs. This study reports an economic returns of using wet brewery spent grain (WBSG) in animal feed using the Co-product Optimizer Decision Evaluator model (Cattle CODE) developed by the University of Nebraska to predict performance and economic returns when byproducts are fed to finishing cattle. The results indicated that distance from brewery to farm had a significantly greater effect on the economics of use of small brewery spent grain and that alternative uses than cattle feed may be important to develop.

Keywords: Animal Feed, Brewery Spent Grains, cattle CODE, Economic returns.

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433 Grooved Linear Microstrip Patch Antenna Array

Authors: Ayesha Aslam, F A Bhatti

Abstract:

A simple impedance matching technique for inset feed grooved microstrip patch antenna based on the concept of coplanar waveguide feed line has been developed and investigated for a printed antenna at X-Band frequency of 10GHz. The proposed technique has been used in the design of Linear Grooved Microstrip patch antenna array. The characteristics of the antenna are determined in terms of Return loss, VSWR, gain, radiation pattern etc. The measured and simulated results presented are found to be in good agreement.

Keywords: Gain, Microstrip patch, return loss, VSWR, Radiation pattern, CPW Feed, Inset feed.

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432 Investigating Feed Mix Problem Approaches: An Overview and Potential Solution

Authors: Rosshairy Abd Rahman, Chooi-Leng Ang, Razamin Ramli

Abstract:

Feed is one of the factors which play an important role in determining a successful development of an aquaculture industry. It is always critical to produce the best aquaculture diet at a minimum cost in order to trim down the operational cost and gain more profit. However, the feed mix problem becomes increasingly difficult since many issues need to be considered simultaneously. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to review the current techniques used by nutritionist and researchers to tackle the issues. Additionally, this paper introduce an enhance algorithm which is deemed suitable to deal with all the issues arise. The proposed technique refers to Hybrid Genetic Algorithm which is expected to obtain the minimum cost diet for farmed animal, while satisfying nutritional requirements. Hybrid GA technique with artificial bee algorithm is expected to reduce the penalty function and provide a better solution for the feed mix problem.

Keywords: Artificial bee algorithm, feed mix problem, hybrid genetic algorithm.

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431 Margin-Based Feed-Forward Neural Network Classifiers

Authors: Han Xiao, Xiaoyan Zhu

Abstract:

Margin-Based Principle has been proposed for a long time, it has been proved that this principle could reduce the structural risk and improve the performance in both theoretical and practical aspects. Meanwhile, feed-forward neural network is a traditional classifier, which is very hot at present with a deeper architecture. However, the training algorithm of feed-forward neural network is developed and generated from Widrow-Hoff Principle that means to minimize the squared error. In this paper, we propose a new training algorithm for feed-forward neural networks based on Margin-Based Principle, which could effectively promote the accuracy and generalization ability of neural network classifiers with less labelled samples and flexible network. We have conducted experiments on four UCI open datasets and achieved good results as expected. In conclusion, our model could handle more sparse labelled and more high-dimension dataset in a high accuracy while modification from old ANN method to our method is easy and almost free of work.

Keywords: Max-Margin Principle, Feed-Forward Neural Network, Classifier.

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430 A Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Trained Inspectors in Different Workloads between Feed Forward and Feedback Training

Authors: Sittichai K., Anucha W., Phonsak L.

Abstract:

Objective of this study was to study and compare the effectiveness of inspectors who had different workloads for feed forward and feedback training. The visual search task was simulated to search for specified alphabets called defects. These defects were included of four alphabets in Thai and English such as s ภ, ถ, X, and V with different background. These defects were combined in the specified alphabets and were given the different three backgrounds i.e., Thai, English, and mixed English and Thai alphabets. Sixty students were chosen as a sample in this study and test for final selection subject. Finally, five subjects were taken into testing process. They were asked to search for defects after they were provided basic information. Experiment design was used factorial design and subjects were trained for feed forward and the feedback training. The results show that both trainings were affected on mean search time. It was also found that the feedback training can increase the effectiveness of visual inspectors rather than the feed forward training significantly different at the level of .05

Keywords: visual search, feed forward, feedback training.

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429 Vacuum Membrane Distillation for Desalination of Ground Water by using Flat Sheet Membrane

Authors: Bhausaheb L. Pangarkar, M.G. Sane, Saroj B. Parjane, Mahendra Guddad

Abstract:

The possibility of producing drinking water from brackish ground water using Vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) process was studied. It is a rising technology for seawater or brine desalination process. The process simply consists of a flat sheet hydrophobic micro porous PTFE membrane and diaphragm vacuum pump without a condenser for the water recovery or trap. In this work, VMD performance was investigated for aqueous NaCl solution and natural ground water. The influence of operational parameters such as feed flow rate (30 to 55 l/h), feed temperature (313 to 333 K), feed salt concentration (5000 to 7000 mg/l) and permeate pressure (1.5 to 6 kPa) on the membrane distillation (MD) permeation flux have been investigated. The maximum flux reached to 28.34 kg/m2 h at feed temperature, 333 K; vacuum pressure, 1.5 kPa; feed flow rate, 55 l/h and feed salt concentration, 7000 mg/l. The negligible effects in the reduction of permeate flux found over 150 h experimental run for salt water. But for the natural ground water application over 75 h, scale deposits observed on the membrane surface and 29% reduction in the permeate flux over 75 h. This reduction can be eliminated by acidification of feed water. Hence, promote the research attention in apply of VMD for the ground water purification over today-s conventional RO operation.

Keywords: VMD, hydrophobic PTFE flat membrane, desalination, ground water

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428 Comparison between Torsional Ultrasonic Assisted Drilling and Conventional Drilling of Bone: An in vitro Study

Authors: Nikoo Soleimani

Abstract:

Background: Reducing torque during bone drilling is one of the effective factors in reaching to an optimal drilling process. Methods: 15 bovine femurs were drilled in vitro with a drill bit with a diameter of 4 mm using two methods of torsional ultrasonic assisted drilling (T-UAD) and convent conventional drilling (CD) and the effects of changing the feed rate and rotational speed on the torque were compared in both methods. Results: There was no significant difference in the thrust force measured in both methods due to the direction of vibrations. Results showed that using T-UAD method for bone drilling at feed rates of 0.16, 0.24 and 0.32 mm/rev led for all rotational speeds to a decrease of at least 16.3% in torque compared to the CD method. Further, using T-UAD at rotational speeds of 355~1000 rpm with various feed rates resulted in a torque reduction of 16.3~50.5% compared to CD method. Conclusions: Reducing the feed rate and increasing the rotational speed, except for the rotational speed of 500 rpm and a feed rate of 0.32 mm/rev, resulted generally in torque reduction in both methods. However, T-UAD is a more effective and desirable option for bone drilling considering its significant torque reduction.

Keywords: Torsional ultrasonic assisted drilling, torque, bone drilling, rotational speed, feed rate.

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427 The Effect of Main Factors on Forces during FSJ Processing of AA2024 Aluminum

Authors: Dunwen Zuo, Yongfang Deng, Bo Song

Abstract:

An attempt is made here to measure the forces of three directions, under conditions of different feed speeds, different tilt angles of tool and without or with the pin on the tool, by using octagonal ring dynamometer in the AA2024 aluminum FSJ (Friction Stir Joining) process, and investigate how four main factors influence forces in the FSJ process. It is found that, high feed speed lead to small feed force and small lateral force, but high feed speed leads to large feed force in the stable joining stage of process. As the rotational speed increasing, the time of axial force drop from the maximum to the minimum required increased in the push-up process. In the stable joining stage, the rotational speed has little effect on the feed force; large rotational speed leads to small lateral force and axial force. The maximum axial force increases as the tilt angle of tool increases at the downward movement stage. At the moment of start feeding, as tilt angle of tool increases, the amplitudes of the axial force increasing become large. In the stable joining stage, with the increase of tilt angle of tool, the axial force is increased, the lateral force is decreased, and the feed force almost unchanged. The tool with pin will decrease axial force in the downward movement stage. The feed force and lateral force will increase, but the axial force will reduced in the stable joining stage by using the tool with pin compare to by using the tool without pin.

Keywords: FSJ, force factor, AA2024, friction stir joining.

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426 Microwave Plasma Dry Reforming of Methane at High CO2/CH4 Feed Ratio

Authors: Nabil Majd Alawi, Gia Hung Pham, Ahmed Barifcani

Abstract:

Dry reforming of methane that converts two greenhouses gases (CH4 and CO2) to synthesis gas (a mixture of H2 and CO) was studied in a commercial bench scale microwave (MW) plasma reactor system at atmospheric pressure. The CO2, CH4 and N2 conversions; H2, CO selectivities and yields, and syngas ratio (H2/CO) were investigated in a wide range of total feed flow rate (0.45 – 2.1 L/min), MW power (700 – 1200 watt) and CO2/CH4 molar ratio (2 – 5). At the feed flow rates of CH4, CO2 and N2 of 0.2, 0.4 and 1.5 L/min respectively, and the MWs input power of 700 W, the highest conversions of CH4 and CO2, selectivity and yield of H2, CO and H2/CO ratio of 79.35%, 44.82%, 50.12, 58.42, 39.77%, 32.89%, and 0.86, respectively, were achieved. The results of this work show that the product ratio increases slightly with the increasing total feed flow rate, but it decreases significantly with the increasing MW power and feeds CO2/CH4 ratio.

Keywords: Atmospheric pressure, methane dry reforming, microwave plasma, synthesis gas production.

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425 A Probabilistic Optimization Approach for a Gas Processing Plant under Uncertain Feed Conditions and Product Requirements

Authors: G. Mesfin, M. Shuhaimi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new optimization techniques for the optimization a gas processing plant uncertain feed and product flows. The problem is first formulated using a continuous linear deterministic approach. Subsequently, the single and joint chance constraint models for steady state process with timedependent uncertainties have been developed. The solution approach is based on converting the probabilistic problems into their equivalent deterministic form and solved at different confidence levels Case study for a real plant operation has been used to effectively implement the proposed model. The optimization results indicate that prior decision has to be made for in-operating plant under uncertain feed and product flows by satisfying all the constraints at 95% confidence level for single chance constrained and 85% confidence level for joint chance constrained optimizations cases.

Keywords: Butane, Feed composition, LPG, Productspecification, Propane.

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424 Effect of Recycle Gas on Activity and Selectivity of Co-Ru/Al2O3 Catalyst in Fischer- Tropsch Synthesis

Authors: A.A.Rohani, B.Hatami, L.Jokar, F.khorasheh, A.A.Safekordi

Abstract:

In industrial scale of Gas to Liquid (GTL) process in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, a part of reactor outlet gases such as CO2 and CH4 as side reaction products, is usually recycled. In this study, the influence of CO2 and CH4 on the performance and selectivity of Co-Ru/Al2O3 catalyst is investigated by injection of these gases (0-20 vol. % of feed) to the feed stream. The effect of temperature and feed flow rate, are also inspected. The results show that low amounts of CO2 in the feed stream, doesn`t change the catalyst activity significantly but increasing the amount of CO2 (more than 10 vol. %) cause the CO conversion to decrease and the selectivity of heavy components to increase. Methane acts as an inert gas and doesn`t affect the catalyst performance. Increasing feed flow rate has negative effect on both CO conversion and heavy component selectivity. By raising the temperature, CO conversion will increase but there are more volatile components in the product. The effect of CO2 on the catalyst deactivation is also investigated carefully and a mechanism is suggested to explain the negative influence of CO2 on catalyst deactivation.

Keywords: Alumina, Carbon dioxide, Cobalt catalyst, Conversion, Fischer Tropsch, Selectivity

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423 A 4-Element Corporate Series Feed Millimeter-Wave Microstrip Antenna Array for 5G Applications

Authors: G. Viswanadh Raviteja

Abstract:

In this paper, a microstrip antenna array is designed for 5G applications. A corporate series feed is considered to operate with a center frequency between 27 to 28 GHz to be able to cover the 5G frequency bands 24.25-27.5 GHz, 26.5-29.5 GHz and 27.5-28.35 GHz. The substrate is taken to be Rogers RT/Duroid 6002. The corporate series 5G antenna array is designed stage by stage by taking into consideration a conventional antenna designed at 28 GHz, thereby constructing the 2X1 antenna array before arriving at the final design structure of 4-element corporate series feed antenna array. The discussions concerning S11 parameter, gain and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) for the design structures are considered and all the important findings are tabulated. The proposed antenna array’s S11 parameter was found to be -29.00 dB at a frequency of 27.39 GHz with a good directional gain of 12.12 dB.

Keywords: Corporate series feed, millimeter wave antenna array, 5G applications, millimeter-wave (mm-wave) applications

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422 Implementation of Feed-in Tariffs into Multi-Energy Systems

Authors: M. Schulze, P. Crespo Del Granado

Abstract:

This paper considers the influence of promotion instruments for renewable energy sources (RES) on a multi-energy modeling framework. In Europe, so called Feed-in Tariffs are successfully used as incentive structures to increase the amount of energy produced by RES. Because of the stochastic nature of large scale integration of distributed generation, many problems have occurred regarding the quality and stability of supply. Hence, a macroscopic model was developed in order to optimize the power supply of the local energy infrastructure, which includes electricity, natural gas, fuel oil and district heating as energy carriers. Unique features of the model are the integration of RES and the adoption of Feed-in Tariffs into one optimization stage. Sensitivity studies are carried out to examine the system behavior under changing profits for the feed-in of RES. With a setup of three energy exchanging regions and a multi-period optimization, the impact of costs and profits are determined.

Keywords: Distributed generation, optimization methods, power system modeling, renewable energy.

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421 Adjusting the Furnace and Converter Temperature of the Sulfur Recovery Units

Authors: Hamid Reza Mahdipoor, Hamid Ganji, Hamed Naderi, Hajar Yousefian, Hooman Javaherizadeh

Abstract:

The modified Claus process is commonly used in oil refining and gas processing to recover sulfur and destroy contaminants formed in upstream processing. A Claus furnace feed containing a relatively low concentration of H2S may be incapable of producing a stable flame. Also, incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons in the feed can lead to deterioration of the catalyst in the reactors due to soot or carbon deposition. Therefore, special consideration is necessary to achieve the appropriate overall sulfur recovery. In this paper, some configurations available to treat lean acid gas streams are described and the most appropriate ones are studied to overcome low H2S concentration problems. As a result, overall sulfur recovery is investigated for feed preheating and hot gas configurations.

Keywords: Sulfur recovery unit, Low H2S content

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420 The Extraction and Stripping of Hg (II) from Produced Water via Hollow Fiber Contactor

Authors: Dolapop Sribudda, Ura Pancharoen

Abstract:

The separation of Hg (II) from produced water by hollow fiber contactors (HFC) was investigation. This system included of two hollow fiber modules in the series connecting. The first module used for the extraction reaction and the second module for stripping reaction. Aliquat336 extractant was fed from the organic reservoirs into the shell side of the first hollow fiber module and continuous to the shell side of the second module. The organic liquid was continuously feed recirculate and back to the reservoirs. The feed solution was pumped into the lumen (tube side) of the first hollow fiber module. Simultaneously, the stripping solution was pumped in the same way in tube side of the second module. The feed and stripping solution was fed which had a countercurrent flow. Samples were kept in the outlet of feed and stripping solution at 1 hour and characterized concentration of Hg (II) by Inductively Couple Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Feed solution was produced water from natural gulf of Thailand. The extractant was Aliquat336 dissolved in kerosene diluent. Stripping solution used was nitric acid (HNO3) and thiourea (NH2CSNH2). The effect of carrier concentration and type of stripping solution were investigated. Results showed that the best condition were 10 % (v/v) Aliquat336 and 1.0 M NH2CSNH2. At the optimum condition, the extraction and stripping of Hg (II) were 98% and 44.2%, respectively.

Keywords: Hg (II), hollow fiber contactor, produced water, wastewater treatment.

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419 Using Reverse Osmosis Membrane for Chromium Removal from Aqueous Solution

Authors: S. A. Mousavi Rad, S. A. Mirbagheri, T. Mohammadi

Abstract:

In this paper, removal of chromium(VI) from aqueous solution has been researched using reverse osmosis. The influence of transmembrane pressure and feed concentration on permeate flux, water recovery, permeate concentration, and salt rejection was studied. The results showed that according to the variation of transmembrane pressure and feed concentration, the permeate flux and salt rejection were in the range 19.17 to 58.75 l/m2.min and 99.51 to 99.8 %, respectively. The highest permeate flux, 58.75 l/m2.min, and water recovery, 42.47 %, were obtained in the highest pressure and the lowest feed concentration. On the other hand, the lowest permeate concentration, 0.01 mg/l, and the highest salt rejection, 99.8 %, were obtained in the highest pressure and the lowest feed concentration.

Keywords: solution, Chromium, Removal, Reverse osmosis.

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418 The Heat and Mass Transfer Phenomena in Vacuum Membrane Distillation for Desalination

Authors: Bhausaheb L. Pangarkar, M. G. Sane, Saroj B. Parjane, Rajendra M. Abhang, Mahendra Guddad

Abstract:

Vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) process can be used for water purification or the desalination of salt water. The process simply consists of a flat sheet hydrophobic micro porous PTFE membrane and diaphragm vacuum pump without a condenser for the water recovery or trap. The feed was used aqueous NaCl solution. The VMD experiments were performed to evaluate the heat and mass transfer coefficient of the boundary layer in a membrane module. The only operating parameters are feed inlet temperature, and feed flow rate were investigated. The permeate flux was strongly affected by the feed inlet temperature, feed flow rate, and boundary layer heat transfer coefficient. Since lowering the temperature polarization coefficient is essential enhance the process performance considerable and maximizing the heat transfer coefficient for maximizes the mass flux of distillate water. In this paper, the results of VMD experiments are used to measure the boundary layer heat transfer coefficient, and the experimental results are used to reevaluate the empirical constants in the Dittus- Boelter equation.

Keywords: Desalination, heat and mass transfer coefficient, temperature polarization, membrane distillation

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417 Experimental Study on Slicing of Sapphire with Fixed Abrasive Diamond Wire Saw

Authors: Mengjun Zhang, Yuli Sun, Dunwen Zuo, Chunxiang Xie, Chunming Zhang

Abstract:

Experimental study on slicing of sapphire with fixed abrasive diamond wire saw was conducted in this paper. The process parameters were optimized through orthogonal experiment of three factors and four levels. The effects of wire speed, feed speed and tension pressure on the surface roughness were analyzed. Surface roughness in cutting direction and feed direction were both detected. The results show that feed speed plays the most significant role on the surface roughness of sliced sapphire followed by wire speed and tension pressure. The optimized process parameters are as follows: wire speed 1.9 m/s, feed speed 0.187 mm/min and tension pressure 0.18 MPa. In the end, the results were verified by analysis of variance.

Keywords: Fixed abrasive, diamond wire saw, slicing, sapphire, orthogonal experiment.

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416 Performance of Air Gap Membrane Distillation for Desalination of Ground Water and Seawater

Authors: Bhausaheb L. Pangarkar, M.G. Sane

Abstract:

Membrane distillation (MD) is a rising technology for seawater or brine desalination process. In this work, an air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) performance was investigated for aqueous NaCl solution along with natural ground water and seawater. In order to enhance the performance of the AGMD process in desalination, that is, to get more flux, it is necessary to study the effect of operating parameters on the yield of distillate water. The influence of operational parameters such as feed flow rate, feed temperature, feed salt concentration, coolant temperature and air gap thickness on the membrane distillation (MD) permeation flux have been investigated for low and high salt solution. the natural application of ground water and seawater over 90 h continuous operation, scale deposits observed on the membrane surface and reduction in flux represents 23% for ground water and 60% for seawater, in 90 h. This reduction was eliminated (less than 14 %) by acidification of feed water. Hence, promote the research attention in apply of AGMD for the ground water as well as seawater desalination over today-s conventional RO operation.

Keywords: MD, ground water, seawater, AGMD.

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415 Application of Feed Forward Neural Networks in Modeling and Control of a Fed-Batch Crystallization Process

Authors: Petia Georgieva, Sebastião Feyo de Azevedo

Abstract:

This paper is focused on issues of nonlinear dynamic process modeling and model-based predictive control of a fed-batch sugar crystallization process applying the concept of artificial neural networks as computational tools. The control objective is to force the operation into following optimal supersaturation trajectory. It is achieved by manipulating the feed flow rate of sugar liquor/syrup, considered as the control input. A feed forward neural network (FFNN) model of the process is first built as part of the controller structure to predict the process response over a specified (prediction) horizon. The predictions are supplied to an optimization procedure to determine the values of the control action over a specified (control) horizon that minimizes a predefined performance index. The control task is rather challenging due to the strong nonlinearity of the process dynamics and variations in the crystallization kinetics. However, the simulation results demonstrated smooth behavior of the control actions and satisfactory reference tracking.

Keywords: Feed forward neural network, process modelling, model predictive control, crystallization process.

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