Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 801

Search results for: carbon nanofiber

801 Experimental Investigation of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Operated with Nanofiber and Nanofiber/Nanoparticle

Authors: Kevser Dincer, Basma Waisi, M. Ozan Ozdemir, Ugur Pasaogullari, Jeffrey McCutcheon

Abstract:

Nanofibers are defined as fibers with diameters less than 100 nanometers. In this study, behaviours of activated carbon nanofiber (ACNF), carbon nanofiber (CNF), polyacrylonitrile/ carbon nanotube (PAN/CNT), polyvinyl alcohol/nanosilver (PVA/Ag) in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are investigated experimentally. This material was used as gas diffusion layer (GDL) in PEM fuel cells. In this study, the electrical conductivities of nanofiber and nanofiber/nanoparticles have been studied to understand their effects on PEM fuel cell performance. According to the experimental results, the maximum electrical conductivity performance of the fuel cell with nanofiber was found to be at PVA/Ag (at UConn condition). The electrical conductivities of CNF, ACNF, PAN/CNT are lower for PEM. The resistance of cell with PVA/Ag is lower than the resistance of cell with PAN/CNT, ACNF, CNF.

Keywords: Proton exchange membrane fuel cells, electrospinning, carbon nanofiber, activate carbon nanofiber, PVA fiber, pan fiber, carbon nanotube, nanoparticle, nanocomposites.

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800 Effect of Amine-Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes on the Properties of CNT-PAN Composite Nanofibers

Authors: O. Eren, N. Ucar, A. Onen, N. Kızıldag, O. F. Vurur, N. Demirsoy, I. Karacan

Abstract:

PAN nanofibers reinforced with amine functionalized carbon nanotubes. The effect of amine functionalization and the effect of concentration of CNT on the conductivity and mechanical and morphological properties of composite nanofibers were examined. 1%CNT-NH2 loaded PAN/CNT nanofiber showed the best mechanical properties. Conductivity increased with the incorporation of carbon nanotubes. While an increase of concentration of CNT increases the diameter of nanofiber, the use of functionalized CNT results to decrease of diameter of nanofiber.

Keywords: Amine functionalized carbon nanotube, electrospinning, nanofiber, polyacrylonitrile.

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799 UV Resistibility of a Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composite

Authors: A. Evcin, N. Çiçek Bezir, R. Duman, N. Duman

Abstract:

Nowadays, a great concern is placed on the harmfulness of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) which attacks human bodies. Nanocarbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and graphene, have been considered promising alternatives to shielding materials because of their excellent electrical conductivities, very high surface areas and low densities. In the present work, carbon nanofibers have been synthesized from solutions of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/ N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) by electrospinning method. The carbon nanofibers have been stabilized by oxidation at 250 °C for 2 h in air and carbonized at 750 °C for 1 h in H2/N2. We present the fabrication and characterization of transparent and ultraviolet (UV) shielding CNF/polymer composites. The content of CNF filler has been varied from 0.2% to 0.6 % by weight. UV Spectroscopy has been performed to study the effect of composition on the transmittance of polymer composites.

Keywords: Electrospinning, carbon nanofiber, characterization, composites, nanofiber, ultraviolet radiation.

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798 Properties of MWCNTs/PAN Nanofiber Sheet Prepared from Chemically Modified MWCNTs

Authors: M. Seneewong-Na-Ayuttaya, T. Pongprayoon

Abstract:

The nanofiber sheet of Multiwall Cabon Nanotube (MWCNTs)/Polyacylonitile (PAN) composites was fabricated from electrospun nanofiber. Firstly the surface of MWCNTs was chemically modified, comparing two different techniques consisting of admicellar polymerization and functionalization to improve the dispersion and prevent the aggregation in the PAN matrix. The modified MWCNTs were characterized by the dispersion in dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent, Laser particle size, and FTRaman. Lastly, DSC, SEM and mechanical properties of the nanofiber sheet were examined. The results show that the mechanical properties of the nanofiber sheet prepared from admicellar polymerization-modified MWCNTs were higher than those of the others.

Keywords: Multiwall carbon nanotube, admicellar polymerization, functionalization, nanofiber sheet.

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797 Characterization of Electrospun Carbon Nanofiber Doped Polymer Composites

Authors: Atilla Evcin, Bahri Ersoy, Süleyman Akpınar, I. Sinan Atlı

Abstract:

Ceramic, polymer and composite nanofibers are nowadays begun to be utilized in many fields of nanotechnology. By the means of dimensions, these fibers are as small as nano scale but because of having large surface area and microstructural characteristics, they provide unique mechanic, optical, magnetic, electronic and chemical properties. In terms of nanofiber production, electrospinning has been the most widely used technique in recent years. In this study, carbon nanofibers have been synthesized from solutions of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/ N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) by electrospinning method. The carbon nanofibers have been stabilized by oxidation at 250 °C for 2 h in air and carbonized at 750 °C for 1 h in H2/N2. Images of carbon nanofibers have been taken with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images have been analyzed to study the fiber morphology and to determine the distribution of the fiber diameter using FibraQuant 1.3 software. Then polymer composites have been produced from mixture of carbon nanofibers and silicone polymer. The final polymer composites have been characterized by X-ray diffraction method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements. These results have been reported and discussed. At result, homogeneous carbon nanofibers with 100-167 nm of diameter were obtained with optimized electrospinning conditions.

Keywords: Electrospinning, characterization, composites, nanofiber.

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796 Two and Three Layer Lamination of Nanofiber

Authors: Roman Knizek, Denisa Karhankova, Ludmila Fridrichova

Abstract:

For their exceptional properties nanofibers, respectively, nanofiber layers are achieving an increasingly wider range of uses. Nowadays nanofibers are used mainly in the field of air filtration where they are removing submicron particles, bacteria, and viruses. Their efficiency is not changed in time, and the power consumption is much lower than that of electrically charged filters. Nanofibers are primarily used for converting and storage of energy in both air and liquid filtration, in food and packaging, protecting the environment, but also in health care which is made possible by their newly discovered properties. However, a major problem of the nanofiber layer is practically zero abrasion resistance; it is, therefore, necessary to laminate the nanofiber layer with another suitable material. Unfortunately, lamination of nanofiber layers is a major problem since the nanofiber layer contains small pores through which it is very difficult for adhesion to pass through. Therefore, there is still only a small percentage of products with these unique fibers 5.

Keywords: Nanofiber layer, nanomembrane, lamination, electrospinning.

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795 Production of Hydrogen and Carbon Nanofiber via Methane Decomposition

Authors: Zhi Zhang, Tao Tang, Guangda Lu, Cheng Qin, Huogen Huang, Shaotao Zheng

Abstract:

High purity hydrogen and the valuable by-product of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be produced by the methane catalytic decomposition. The methane conversion and the performance of CNTs were determined by the choices of catalysts and the condition of decomposition reaction. In this paper, Ni/MgO and Ni/O-D (oxidized diamond) catalysts were prepared by wetness impregnation method. The effects of reaction temperature and space velocity of methane on the methane conversion were investigated in a fixed-bed. The surface area, structure and micrography were characterized with BET, XPS, SEM, EDS technology. The results showed that the conversion of methane was above 8% within 150 min (T=500) for 33Ni/O-D catalyst and higher than 25% within 120 min (T=650) for 41Ni/MgO catalyst. The initial conversion increased with the increasing temperature of the decomposition reaction, but their catalytic activities decreased rapidly while at too higher temperature. To decrease the space velocity of methane was propitious to promote the methane conversion, but not favor of the hydrogen yields. The appearance of carbon resulted from the methane decomposition lied on the support type and the condition of catalytic reaction. It presented as fiber shape on the surface of Ni/O-D at the relatively lower temperature such as 500 and 550, but as grain shape stacked on and overlayed on the surface of the metal nickel while at 650. The carbon fiber can form on the Ni/MgO surface at 650 and the diameter of the carbon fiber increased with the decreasing space velocity.

Keywords: methane, catalytic decomposition, hydrogen, carbon nanofiber

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794 Carbon-Based Electrodes for Parabens Detection

Authors: Aniela Pop, Ianina Birsan, Corina Orha, Rodica Pode, Florica Manea

Abstract:

Carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode has been investigated through voltammetric and amperometric techniques in order to detect parabens from aqueous solutions. The occurrence into environment as emerging pollutants of these preservative compounds has been extensively studied in the last decades, and consequently, a rapid and reliable method for their quantitative quantification is required. In this study, methylparaben (MP) and propylparaben (PP) were chosen as representatives for paraben class. The individual electrochemical detection of each paraben has been successfully performed. Their electrochemical oxidation occurred at the same potential value. Their simultaneous quantification should be assessed electrochemically only as general index of paraben class as a cumulative signal corresponding to both MP and PP from solution. The influence of pH on the electrochemical signal was studied. pH ranged between 1.3 and 9.0 allowed shifting the detection potential value to smaller value, which is very desired for the electroanalysis. Also, the signal is better-defined and higher sensitivity is achieved. Differential-pulsed voltammetry and square-wave voltammetry were exploited under the optimum pH conditions to improve the electroanalytical performance for the paraben detection. Also, the operation conditions were selected, i.e., the step potential, modulation amplitude and the frequency. Chronomaprometry application as the easiest electrochemical detection method led to worse sensitivity, probably due to a possible fouling effect of the electrode surface. The best electroanalytical performance was achieved by pulsed voltammetric technique but the selection of the electrochemical technique is related to the concrete practical application. A good reproducibility of the voltammetric-based method using carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode was determined and no interference effect was found for the cation and anion species that are common in the water matrix. Besides these characteristics, the long life-time of the electrode give to carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode a great potential for practical applications.

Keywords: Carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode, electroanalysis, methylparaben, propylparaben.

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793 Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production on TiO2 by Using Carbon Materials

Authors: Bashir Ahmmad, Kensaku Kanomata, Fumihiko Hirose

Abstract:

The effect of carbon materials on TiO2 for the photocatalytic hydrogen gas production from water / alcohol mixtures was investigated. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), carbon nanofiber (CNF), fullerene (FLN), graphite (GP), and graphite silica (GS) were used as co-catalysts by directly mixing with TiO2. Drastic synergy effects were found with increase in the amount of hydrogen gas by a factor of ca. 150 and 100 for SWNTs and GS with TiO2, respectively. Moreover, the increment factor of hydrogen production reached to 180, when the mixture of SWNTs and TiO2 were smashed in an agate mortar before photocatalytic reactions. The order of H2 gas production for these carbon materials was SWNTs > GS >> MWNTs > FLN > CNF > GP. To maximize the hydrogen production from SWNTs/TiO2, various parameters of experimental condition were changed. Also, a comparison between Pt/TiO2, SWNTs/TiO2 and GS/TiO2 was made for the amount of H2 gas production. Finally, the recyclability of SWNTs/TiO2or GS/TiO2 was tested.

Keywords: Photocatalysis, carbon materials, alcohol reforming, hydrogen production, titanium oxide.

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792 Preparation of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced HDPE Using Dialkylimidazolium as a Dispersing Agent: Effect on Thermal and Rheological Properties

Authors: J. Samuel, S. Al-Enezi, A. Al-Banna

Abstract:

High-density polyethylene reinforced with carbon nanofibers (HDPE/CNF) have been prepared via melt processing using dialkylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (ionic liquid) as a dispersion agent. The prepared samples were characterized by thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses. The samples blended with imidazolium ionic liquid exhibit higher thermal stability. DSC analysis showed clear miscibility of ionic liquid in the HDPE matrix and showed single endothermic peak. The melt rheological analysis of HDPE/CNF composites was performed using an oscillatory rheometer. The influence of CNF and ionic liquid concentration (ranging from 0, 0.5, and 1 wt%) on the viscoelastic parameters was investigated at 200 °C with an angular frequency range of 0.1 to 100 rad/s. The rheological analysis shows the shear-thinning behavior for the composites. An improvement in the viscoelastic properties was observed as the nanofiber concentration increases. The progress in the modulus values was attributed to the structural rigidity imparted by the high aspect ratio CNF. The modulus values and complex viscosity of the composites increased significantly at low frequencies. Composites blended with ionic liquid exhibit slightly lower values of complex viscosity and modulus over the corresponding HDPE/CNF compositions. Therefore, reduction in melt viscosity is an additional benefit for polymer composite processing as a result of wetting effect by polymer-ionic liquid combinations.

Keywords: HDPE, carbon nanofiber, ionic liquid, complex viscosity, modulus.

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791 Properties of Composite Nanofiber Produced by Single and Coaxial Nozzle Method used for Electrospinning Technique

Authors: Onur Ayaz, Nuray Ucar, Elif Bahar, Oguzhan Ucar, Mustafa Oksuz, Aysen Onen, Mehmet Ucar, Ezgi İşmar, Ali Demir

Abstract:

In this study, single nozzle method used for electrospinning technique which composite polymer solution with cellulose nanowiskers (CNW) was treated by ultrasonic sonificator have been compared with coaxial (double) nozzle method, in terms of mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of composite nanofiber. The effect of water content in composite polymer solution on properties of nanofiber has also been examined. It has been seen that single nozzle method which polymer solution does not contain water has better results than that of coaxial method, in terms of mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of nanofiber. However, it is necessary to make an optimization study on setting condition of ultrasonic treatment to get better dispersion of CNW in composite nanofiber and to get better mechanical and thermal properties

Keywords: cellulose nanowhiskers, coaxial nozzle, composite nanofiber, electrospinning

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790 Carbon-Based Electrochemical Detection of Pharmaceuticals from Water

Authors: M. Ardelean, F. Manea, A. Pop, J. Schoonman

Abstract:

The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment and especially in water has gained increasing attention. They are included in emerging class of pollutants, and for most of them, legal limits have not been set-up due to their impact on human health and ecosystem was not determined and/or there is not the advanced analytical method for their quantification. In this context, the development of various advanced analytical methods for the quantification of pharmaceuticals in water is required. The electrochemical methods are known to exhibit the great potential for high-performance analytical methods but their performance is in direct relation to the electrode material and the operating techniques. In this study, two types of carbon-based electrodes materials, i.e., boron-doped diamond (BDD) and carbon nanofiber (CNF)-epoxy composite electrodes have been investigated through voltammetric techniques for the detection of naproxen in water. The comparative electrochemical behavior of naproxen (NPX) on both BDD and CNF electrodes was studied by cyclic voltammetry, and the well-defined peak corresponding to NPX oxidation was found for each electrode. NPX oxidation occurred on BDD electrode at the potential value of about +1.4 V/SCE (saturated calomel electrode) and at about +1.2 V/SCE for CNF electrode. The sensitivities for NPX detection were similar for both carbon-based electrode and thus, CNF electrode exhibited superiority in relation to the detection potential. Differential-pulsed voltammetry (DPV) and square-wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques were exploited to improve the electroanalytical performance for the NPX detection, and the best results related to the sensitivity of 9.959 µA·µM-1 were achieved using DPV. In addition, the simultaneous detection of NPX and fluoxetine -a very common antidepressive drug, also present in water, was studied using CNF electrode and very good results were obtained. The detection potential values that allowed a good separation of the detection signals together with the good sensitivities were appropriate for the simultaneous detection of both tested pharmaceuticals. These results reclaim CNF electrode as a valuable tool for the individual/simultaneous detection of pharmaceuticals in water.

Keywords: Boron-doped diamond electrode, carbon nanofiber-epoxy composite electrode, emerging pollutants, pharmaceuticals.

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789 Optimization of Electrospinning Parameter by Employing Genetic Algorithm in order to Produce Desired Nanofiber Diameter

Authors: S. Saehana, F. Iskandar, M. Abdullah, Khairurrijal

Abstract:

A numerical simulation of optimization all of electrospinning processing parameters to obtain smallest nanofiber diameter have been performed by employing genetic algorithm (GA). Fitness function in genetic algorithm methods, which was different for each parameter, was determined by simulation approach based on the Reneker’s model. Moreover, others genetic algorithm parameter, namely length of population, crossover and mutation were applied to get the optimum electrospinning processing parameters. In addition, minimum fiber diameter, 32 nm, was achieved from a simulation by applied the optimum parameters of electrospinning. This finding may be useful for process control and prediction of electrospun fiber production. In this paper, it is also compared between predicted parameters with some experimental results.

Keywords: Diameter, Electrospinning, GA, Nanofiber.

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788 Nafion Nanofiber Composite Membrane Fabrication for Fuel Cell Applications

Authors: C. N. Okafor, M. Maaza, T. A. E. Mokrani

Abstract:

A proton exchange membrane has been developed for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The nanofiber network composite membranes were prepared by interconnected network of Nafion (perfuorosulfonic acid) nanofibers that have been embedded in an uncharged and inert polymer matrix, by electro-spinning. The spinning solution of Nafion with a low concentration (1 wt% compared to Nafion) of high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide), as a carrier polymer. The interconnected network of Nafion nanofibers with average fiber diameter in the range of 160-700nm, were used to make the membranes, with the nanofiber occupying up to 85% of the membrane volume. The matrix polymer was crosslinked with Norland Optical Adhesive 63 under UV. The resulting membranes showed proton conductivity of 0.10 S/cm at 25°C and 80% RH; and methanol permeability of 3.6 x 10-6 cm2/s.

Keywords: Composite membrane, electrospinning, fuel cell, nanofibers.

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787 Beneficiation of Pyrolitic Carbon Black

Authors: Jefrey Pilusa, Edison Muzenda

Abstract:

This research investigated treatment of crude carbon black produced from pyrolysis of waste tyres in order to evaluate its quality and possible industrial applications. A representative sample of crude carbon black was dry screened to determine the initial particle size distribution. This was followed by pulverizing the crude carbon black and leaching in hot concentrated sulphuric acid for the removal of heavy metals and other contaminants. Analysis of the refined carbon black showed a significant improvement of the product quality compared to crude carbon black. It was discovered that refined carbon black can be further classified into multiple high value products for various industrial applications such as filler, paint pigment, activated carbon and fuel briquettes.

Keywords: Activated Carbon, Briquettes, Fuel, Filler, Pyrolysis.

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786 The Evaluation of Low-Carbon Economy Jiangsu, China

Authors: Qiu Dong-Fang, Li Bao-bao, Min Xing

Abstract:

Low-carbon economy means the energy conservation and emission reduction. How to measure and evaluate the regional low-carbon economy is an important problem which should be solved immediately. This paper proposed the eco-efficiency ratio based on the ecological efficiency to evaluate the current situation of the low-carbon economy in Jiangsu province and to analyze the efficiency of the low-carbon economy in Jiangsu and other provinces, compared both advantages and disadvantages. And then this paper put forward some advices for the government to formulate the correct development policy of low-carbon economy, to improve the technology innovation capacity and the efficiency of resource allocation.

Keywords: Eco-efficiency ratio, Jiangsu, China, low-carbon economy.

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785 Insertion of Thiazolidinediones into Carbon Nanotube

Authors: Behnoush Zare, Mojdeh Akhavan, Ahmad Reza Dehpour

Abstract:

In this study we investigate the insertion of pioglitazone, a Thiazolidinedione, into the two different sizes of Carbon nanotub. It was shown that the insertion of pioglitazone into the carbon nanotube in a water solute environment could be related to the diameter of the nanotube and in the flow of the waters via hydrophilic interactions. This encapsulated drug-carbon nanotube molecule can be further applicable in other investigations in target therapy with these agents regarding to reduce their potential toxic effects.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotube, MD Simulation, Thiazolidinedions

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784 The Carbon Trading Price and Trading Volume Forecast in Shanghai City by BP Neural Network

Authors: Liu Zhiyuan, Sun Zongdi

Abstract:

In this paper, the BP neural network model is established to predict the carbon trading price and carbon trading volume in Shanghai City. First of all, we find the data of carbon trading price and carbon trading volume in Shanghai City from September 30, 2015 to December 23, 2016. The carbon trading price and trading volume data were processed to get the average value of each 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 carbon trading price and trading volume. Then, these data are used as input of BP neural network model. Finally, after the training of BP neural network, the prediction values of Shanghai carbon trading price and trading volume are obtained, and the model is tested.

Keywords: Carbon trading price, carbon trading volume, BP neural network model, Shanghai City.

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783 Investigation on the Feasibility of Composite Coil Spring for Automotive Applications

Authors: D. Abdul Budan, T.S. Manjunatha

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates the feasibility of replacing the metal coil spring with the composite coil spring. Three different types of springs were made using glass fiber, carbon fiber and combination of glass fiber and carbon fiber. The objective of the study is to reduce the weight of the spring. According to the experimental results the spring rate of the carbon fiber spring is 34% more than the glass fiber spring and 45% more than the glass fiber/carbon fiber spring. The weight of the carbon fiber spring is 18% less than the glass fiber spring, 15% less than the Glass fiber/carbon fiber spring and 80% less than the steel spring.

Keywords: Carbon fiber, Glass fiber, Helical composite spring, spring rate.

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782 Produced Gas Conversion of Microwave Carbon Receptor Reforming

Authors: Young Nam Chun, Mun Sup Lim

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide and methane, the major components of biomass pyrolysis/gasification gas and biogas, top the list of substances that cause climate change, but they are also among the most important renewable energy sources in modern society. The purpose of this study is to convert carbon dioxide and methane into high-quality energy using char and commercial activated carbon obtained from biomass pyrolysis as a microwave receptor. The methane reforming process produces hydrogen and carbon. This carbon is deposited in the pores of the microwave receptor and lowers catalytic activity, thereby reducing the methane conversion rate. The deposited carbon was removed by carbon gasification due to the supply of carbon dioxide, which solved the problem of microwave receptor inactivity. In particular, the conversion rate remained stable at over 90% when the ratio of carbon dioxide to methane was 1:1. When the reforming results of carbon dioxide and methane were compared after fabricating nickel and iron catalysts using commercial activated carbon as a carrier, the conversion rate was higher in the iron catalyst than in the nickel catalyst and when no catalyst was used. 

Keywords: Microwave, gas reforming, greenhouse gas, microwave receptor, catalyst.

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781 Raman Spectroscopy of Carbon Nanostructures in Strong Magnetic Field

Authors: M. Kalbac, T. Verhagen, K. Drogowska, J. Vejpravova

Abstract:

One- and two-dimensional carbon nanostructures with sp2 hybridization of carbon atoms (single walled carbon nanotubes and graphene) are promising materials in future electronic and spintronics devices due to specific character of their electronic structure. In this paper we present a comparative study of graphene and single-wall carbon nanotubes by Raman spectro-microscopy in strong magnetic field. This unique method allows to study changes in electronic band structure of the two types of carbon nanostructures induced by a strong magnetic field.

Keywords: Carbon nanostructures, magnetic field, Raman spectroscopy.

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780 Estimation of Carbon Released From Dry Dipterocarp Forest Fire in Thailand

Authors: Ubonwan Chaiyo, Yannick Pizzo, Savitri Garivait

Abstract:

This study focused on the estimation of carbon released to the atmosphere from dry dipterocarp forest (DDF) fires in Thailand. Laboratory experiments were conducted using a cone calorimeter to simulate the DDF fires. The leaf litter collected from DDF in western Thailand was used as biomass fuel. Three different masses of leaf litter were employed, 7g, 10g and 13g, to estimate the carbon released from this type of vegetation fire to the atmosphere. The chemical analysis of the leaf litter showed that the carbon content in the experimental biomass fuel was 46.0±0.1%. From the experiments, it was found that more than 95% of the carbon input was converted to carbon released to the atmosphere, while less than 5% were left in the form of residues, and returned to soil. From the study, the carbon released amounted 440.213±2.243 g/kgdry biomass, and the carbon retained in the residues was 19.786±2.243 g/kgdry biomass. The quantity of biomass fuel consumed to produce 1 g of carbon released was 2.27±0.01gkgdry biomass. Using these experimental data of carbon produced by the DDF fires, it was estimated that this type of fires in 2009 contributed to 4.659 tonnes of carbon released to the atmosphere, and 0.229 tonnes of carbon in the residues to be returned to soil in Thailand.

Keywords: Carbon mass balance, carbon released, tropical dry dipterocarp forest, biomass bunring.

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779 Investigation of the Effect of Phosphorous on the Flame Retardant Polyacrylonitrile Nanofiber

Authors: Mustafa Yılmaz, Ahmet Akar, Nesrin Köken, Nilgün Kızılcan

Abstract:

Commercially available poly(acrylonitrile-co-vinyl acetate) P(AN-VA) or poly(acrylonitrile-co-methyl acrylate) P(AN-MA) are not satisfactory to meet the demand in flame and fire-resistance. In this work, vinylphosphonic acid is used during polymerization of acrylonitrile, vinyl acetate, methacrylic acid to produce fire-retardant polymers. These phosphorus containing polymers are successfully spun in the form of nanofibers. Properties such as water absorption of polymers are also determined and compared with commercial polymers.

Keywords: Flame retardant, nanofiber, polyacrylonitrile, phosphorous compound, membrane.

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778 Statistically Significant Differences of Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide Emission in Photocopying Process

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Kecić S. Vesna, Oros B. Ivana

Abstract:

Experimental results confirmed the temporal variation of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentration during the working shift of the photocopying process in a small photocopying shop in Novi Sad, Serbia. The statistically significant differences of target gases were examined with two-way analysis of variance without replication followed by Scheffe's post hoc test. The existence of statistically significant differences was obtained for carbon monoxide emission which is pointed out with F-values (12.37 and 31.88) greater than Fcrit (6.94) in contrary to carbon dioxide emission (F-values of 1.23 and 3.12 were less than Fcrit).  Scheffe's post hoc test indicated that sampling point A (near the photocopier machine) and second time interval contribute the most on carbon monoxide emission.

Keywords: Analysis of variance, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, photocopying indoor, Scheffe's test

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777 The Low-carbon Transition Exploration of China's Traditional Manufacturing Industries

Authors: Heng Ma

Abstract:

Aiming at the problems existing in low-carbon technology of Chinese manufacturing industries, such as irrational energy structure, lack of technological innovation, financial constraints, this paper puts forward the suggestion that the leading role of the government is combined with the roles of enterprises and market. That is, through increasing the governmental funding the adjustment of the industrial structures and enhancement of the legal supervision are supported. Technological innovation is accelerated by the enterprises, and the carbon trading will be promoted so as to trigger the low-carbon revolution in Chinese manufacturing field.

Keywords: Low-carbon economy, traditional manufacturing industry, industrial structure, carbon emission reduction.

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776 The Effect of Unburned Carbon on Coal Fly Ash toward its Adsorption Capacity for Methyl Violet

Authors: Widi Astuti, Agus Prasetya, Endang Tri Wahyuni, I Made Bendiyasa

Abstract:

Coal fly ash (CFA) generated by coal-based thermal power plants is mainly composed of quartz, mullite, and unburned carbon. In this study, the effect of unburned carbon on CFA toward its adsorption capacity was investigated. CFA with various carbon content was obtained by refluxing it with sulfuric acid having various concentration at various temperature and reflux time, by heating at 400-800°C, and by sieving into 100-mesh in particle size. To evaluate the effect of unburned carbon on CFA toward its adsorption capacity, adsorption of methyl violet solution with treated CFA was carried out. The research shows that unburned carbon leads to adsorption capacity decrease. The highest adsorption capacity of treated CFA was found 5.73 x 10-4mol.g-1.

Keywords: CFA, carbon, methyl violet, adsorption capacity.

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775 Effect of Open Burning on Soil Carbon Stock in Sugarcane Plantation in Thailand

Authors: Wilaiwan Sornpoon, Sébastien Bonnet, Savitri Garivait

Abstract:

Open burning of sugarcane fields is recognized to have a negative impact on soil by degrading its properties, especially soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Better understating the effect of open burning on soil carbon dynamics is crucial for documenting the carbon sequestration capacity of agricultural soils. In this study, experiments to investigate soil carbon stocks under burned and unburned sugarcane plantation systems in Thailand were conducted. The results showed that cultivation fields without open burning during 5 consecutive years enabled to increase the SOC content at a rate of 1.37 Mg ha-1y-1. Also it was found that sugarcane fields burning led to about 15% reduction of the total carbon stock in the 0-30 cm soil layer. The overall increase in SOC under unburned practice is mainly due to the large input of organic material through the use of sugarcane residues. 

Keywords: Soil organic carbon, Soil inorganic carbon, Carbon sequestration, Open burning, Sugarcane.

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774 Efficiency of Modified Granular Activated Carbon Coupled with Membrane Bioreactor for Trace Organic Contaminants Removal

Authors: Mousaab Alrhmoun, Magali Casellas, Michel Baudu, Christophe Dagot

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to improve removal of trace organic contaminants dissolved in activated sludge by the process of filtration with membrane bioreactor combined with modified activated carbon, for a maximum removal of organic compounds characterized by low molecular weight. Special treatment was conducted in laboratory on activated carbon. Tow reaction parameters: the pH of aqueous middle and the type of granular activated carbon were very important to improve the removal and to motivate the electrostatic Interactions of organic compounds with modified activated carbon in addition to physical adsorption, ligand exchange or complexation on the surface activated carbon. The results indicate that modified activated carbon has a strong impact in removal 21 of organic contaminants and in percentage of 100% of the process.

Keywords: Activated carbon, organic contaminants, Membrane bioreactor.

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773 The Effect of Carbon on Molybdenum in the Preparation of Microwave Induced Molybdenum Carbide

Authors: Abd. Rahim Yacob, Mohd Khairul Asyraf Amat Mustajab, Nurshaira Haifa Suhaimi

Abstract:

This study shows the effect of carbon towards molybdenum carbide alloy when exposed to Microwave. This technique is also known as Microwave Induced Alloying (MIA) for the preparation of molybdenum carbide. In this study ammonium heptamolybdate solution and carbon black powder were heterogeneously mixed and exposed to microwave irradiation for 2 minutes. The effect on amount of carbon towards the produced alloy on morphological and oxidation states changes during microwave is presented. In this experiment, it is expected carbon act as a reducing agent with the ratio 2:7 molybdenum to carbon as the optimum for the production of molybdenum carbide alloy. All the morphological transformations and changes in this experiment were followed and characterized using X-Ray Diffraction and FESEM.

Keywords: Carbon, molybdenum carbide, microwave induced alloying.

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772 Carbon Nanotubes with Magnetic Particles

Authors: Svitlana Kopyl, Vladimir Bystrov, Mikhail Maiorov, Manuel Valente, Igor Bdikin, Antonio C.M. Sousa

Abstract:

Magnetic carbon nanotubes composites were obtained by filling carbon nanotubes with paramagnetic iron oxide particles. Detailed investigation of magnetic behaviour of resulting composites was done at different temperatures. Measurements indicate that these functionalized nanotubes are superparamagnetic at room temperature; however, no superparamagnetism was observed at 125 K and 80 K. The blocking temperature TB was estimated at 145 K. These magnetic carbon nanotubes have the potential of being used in a wide range of applications, in particular, the production of nanofluids, which can be controlled and steered by appropriate magnetic fields.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles, magnetization, nanofluids

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