Search results for: fruit quality.
3002 Effect of Gibberellic Acid and 2,4- Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid on Fruit Development and Fruit Quality of Wax Apple
Authors: Nguyen Minh Tuan, Yen Chung–Ruey
Abstract:This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of gibberellic acid and 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on flower number, fruit growth and fruit quality of wax apple. GA3 and 2,4-D were applied at small bud and petal fall stage. Number of flower, fruit set, fruit drop, fruit crack, fruit growth and fruit quality were recorded. Results indicated that spraying with 10 ppm GA3 had the best results in number of flower. GA3 spray at 30 ppm gave the faster rate of fruit growth than the other treatments. Fruit set, fruit size as well as fruit weight markedly improved by spraying 30 ppm GA3, followed by 10 ppm GA3 compared to untreated control. Moreover, spray GA3 at 30 ppm was the most effective and increased total soluble solids, reduced titratable acidity and fruit drop. On the other hand, it was noticed that with 10 ppm 2,4-D application also enhanced the fruit growth rate, improved physiological and biochemical characters of fruit compared to untreated control. It was concluded that both GA3 and 2,4-D spray have positive effects on fruit development, reduced fruit drop, fruit crack and improved fruit quality of wax apple under field conditions.
Keywords: Wax apple, GA3, 2, 4-D, fruit growth, fruit quality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5267
3001 Effect of S-Girdling on Fruit Growth and Fruit Quality of Wax Apple
Authors: Minh Tuan, Nguyen, Chung –Ruey, Yen
Abstract:The study was performed to evaluate the effect of Sgirdling, fruit thinning plus bagging with 2,4-D application, fruit thinning plus bagging on growth and quality of wax apple fruit. Girdling was applied three week before flowering. The 2,4-D was sprayed at the small bud and petal fall stage. The effect of all treatments on fruit growth was measured weekly. The physical and biochemical quality characteristics of the fruits were recorded. The results showed that no significant effect on number of bud among treatments. S-girdling, 2,4-D application produced the lowest bud drop, fruit drop compared to untreated control. Moreover, S-girdling enhanced faster fruit growth producing the best final fruit length and diameter than the control treatment. It was also observed that Sgirdling greatly increased fruit set, fruit weight as well as total soluble solid, reduced fruit crack, and titratable acidity. In conclusion, S-girdling had a distinctive and significant effect on most of the fruit quality characteristics assessed. Application 2,4-D was also recommended as the industry norm to increase fruit set, and fruit quality in wax apple.
Keywords: Wax apple, S-girdling, 2, 4-D, fruit bagging, fruit thinning.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2839
3000 Response of Wax Apple Cultivars by Applied S-Girdling on Fruit Development and Fruit Quality
Authors: Nguyen Minh, Tuan, Chung-Ruey, Yen, Bui Lan, Anh
The study was carried out to evaluated effect of S-gridling on fruit growth and quality of wax apple. The study was laid in Random completed block design with four replicated. Four treatment were applied as follows: S-girdling, fruit thinning plus bagging with 2,4-D sprayed, fruit thinning plus bagging and the control treatment. 2,4D was sprayed at the small bud and petal fall stage. Girdling was applied three week before flowering. The effect of all treatments on fruit growth was measured weekly. Number of flower, fruit set, fruit drop, fruit crack, and fruit quality were recorded. The result indicated that S-girdling, 2,4D application produced the lowest bud drop, fruit drop compared to untreated control. S-girdling improved faster fruit growth producing the best final fruit length and diameter compared to untreated control. S-girdling also markedly enhanced fruit set, fruit weight, and total soluble solid, reduced fruit crack, titratable acidity. On the other hand, it was noticed that with 2,4-D application also increased the fruit growth rate, improved physiological and biochemical characters of fruit than control treatment. It was concluded that S-girdling was recommended as the industry norm to increase fruit set, fruit quality in wax apple. 2,4D application had a distinctive and significant effect on most of the fruit quality characteristics assessed.
Keywords: S-girdling, 2, 4D, wax apple, fruit growth, fruit quality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1817
2999 Response of Wax Apple Cultivars by Applied GA3 and 2,4-D on Fruit Growth and Fruit Quality
Authors: Minh Tuan, Nguyen, Chung-Ruey Yen
Abstract:The experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of GA3, 2,4-D on fruit growth and fruit quality of wax apple. The experiment consisted of Red A, Monulla, Atu, Red B cultivars. GA3 and 2,4-D were applied at the small bud and petal fall stage. Physiological, biochemical characters of fruit were recoded. The result showed application of GA3, 2,4-D greatly response in increasing fruit set for all treatment as compared to control. Fruit weight, fruit size were increased at 10 ppm 2,4-D in ‘Red A’, ‘Red B’, however it was also enhancing at 10 ppm GA3 in ‘Monulla’, ‘Atu’. For ‘Monulla’, ‘Atu’ fruit crack reduced by 10 ppm 2,4-D application, but ‘Red B’, ‘Red A’ gave least fruit crack at 10 and 30 ppm GA3, respectively. ‘Monulla’, ‘Atu’ and ‘Red B’ resulted in response well to 10 ppm GA3 on improving TSS, whereas application of 30 ppm GA3 greatly enhancing TSS in ‘Red A’. For ‘Atu’ titratable acidity markedly reduced by 10 ppm GA3 application, but spraying with 30 ppm GA3 greatly response in reducing titratable acidity in ‘Red A’, ‘Red B’ and ‘Monulla’. It was concluded that GA3, 2,4-D can be an effective tool to enhancing fruit set, fruit growth as well as improving fruit quality of wax apple.
Keywords: Wax apple, GA3, 2, 4-D, fruit growth, fruit quality. Abbreviations: GA3, gibberellic acid; 2, 4-D, 2, 4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2513
2998 Effect of Various Pollen Sources to Ability Fruit Set and Quality in ‘Long Red B’ Wax Apple
Authors: Nguyen Minh Tuan, Yen Chung-Ruey
By hand pollination was conducted to evaluated different pollen sources and their affects on fruit set and quality of wax apple. The following parameters were recorded: fruit set, seed set, fruit characteristics. Results showed that fruit set percentage with seed were significantly high in ‘Long Red B’ when ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’ were used as pollen parents. Pollen of ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’ resulted in high fruit weight, fruit diameter, fruit length, bigger flesh thickness, better total soluble solids as compared with other pollens. The observation of pollen-growth in vitro revealed that pollen germination at 15% sucrose concentration are required for optimum pollen germination with the high pollen germination were found in ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’. From the result, we concluded that ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’ were proved to be good pollinizers in ‘Long Red B’. Therefore, artificial cross-pollination using ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’ as pollinizers were strongly recommended for ‘Long Red B’ cultivar in wax apple orchard.
Keywords: Wax apple, pollination, pollen source, in vitro, fruit quality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1882
2997 Effect of Plant Biostimulants on Fruit Set, Yield, and Quality Attributes of “Farbaly” Apricot Cultivar
Authors: A. Tarantino, F. Lops, G. Disciglio, E. Tarantino
Abstract:Apulia region (southern Italy) is excellent for heavy production of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Fruit quality is a combination of physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics. The present experiment was laid in the commercial orchard in Cerignola (Foggia district, Apulia region, 41°15’49’’N; 15°53’59’’E; 126 a.s.l.) during the 2014-2015 season. The experiment consisted of the use of three biostimulant treatments (Hendophyt®, Ergostim® and Radicon®) compared with untreated control on ‘Farbaly’ apricot cultivar, in order to evaluate the vegeto-productive and fruit qualitative attributes. Foliar spray of biostimulants was applied at different times during the growth season (at red ball, fruit setting and fruit development stages). Experimental data showed some specific differences among the biostimulant treatments, which fruit set, growth and productivity were affected. Moderate influences were found regarding the qualitative attributes of fruits. The soluble solid content was positively affected by Hendophyt® treatment. Antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in Hendophyt® and Radicon® treatments respect to the untreated control.
Keywords: Prunus Armeniaca L., biostimulants, fruit set, fruit quality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1086
2996 Tomato Fruit Quality of Different Cultivars Growth in Lithuania
Authors: A. Radzevičius, P. Viškelis, J. Viškelis, R. Bobinaitė, R. Karklelienė, D. Juškevičienė
Two cultivars ('Rutuliai', 'Saint Perrie') and five hybrids ('Tolstoi', 'Brooklyn', 'Tocayo', 'Benito', 'Tourist') of edible tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were investigated at the LRCAF Institute of Horticulture. The following fruit quality parameters were evaluated: the amount of lycopene, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, total and inverted sugar, sucrose, dry matter soluble solids in fresh tomato matter, also were determined fruit skin and flesh firmness, color indexes (CIE L*a*b*) and calculated hue angle (h°) with chroma (C).
Keywords: Carotenoids, cultivar, nutrition, tomato.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2701
2995 Influence of Maturation Degree of Arbutus (Arbutus unedo L.) Fruits in Spirit Composition and Quality
Authors: Goreti Botelho, Filomena Gomes, Fernanda M. Ferreira, Ilda Caldeira
Abstract:The strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) is a small tree or shrub from botanical Ericaceae family that grows spontaneously nearby the Mediterranean basin and produce edible red fruits. A traditional processed fruit application, in Mediterranean countries, is the production of a spirit (known as aguardente de medronho, in Portugal) obtained from the fermented fruit. The main objective of our study was to contribute to the knowledge about the influence of the degree of maturation of fruits in the volatile composition and quality of arbutus spirit. The major volatiles in the three distillates fractions (head, heart and tail) obtained from fermentation of two different fruit maturation levels were quantified by GC-FID analysis and ANOVA one-way was performed. Additionally, the total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic compounds of both arbutus fruit spirits were determined, by ABTS and Folin-Ciocalteau method, respectively. The methanol concentration is higher (1022.39 g/hL a.a.) in the spirit made from fruits with highest total soluble solids, which is a value above the legal limit (1000 g/hL a.a.). Overall, our study emphasizes, for the first time, the influence of maturation degree of arbutus fruits in the spirit volatile composition and quality.
Keywords: Arbutus fruit, maturation, quality, spirit.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2200
2994 Investigation on Yield and Fruit Quality of Some Cultivated Strawberry in Iran
Authors: Hossein Ali Asadi Gharneh, Kazem Arzani, Abdolali Shojaeian
Abstract:fifteen cultivars of Strawberries (Queen Eliza, Sequia, Paros, Mcdonance, Selva, Chandler, Mrak, Ten beauty, Aliso, Pajero, Kordestan, Camarosa, Blackmore, Gaviota and Fresno) were investigated in 2011, under hydroponic system condition. Yield and fruit Firmness was determinate. Chemical analyses of soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), ascorbic acid (AA) and pH were done. 4 cultivars (Aliso, Selva, Paros and Gaviota) yielded more than 250 g/plant, while cultivar Black more, Fresno and Kordestan produced less than 100g/plant. The amounts of fruit firmness indicated that 'Camarosa' fruit was firmer than others cultivars. Cultivar 'Fresno' had the highest pH (3.27). Ttitratable acidity varied from 1.03g/l00g for cultivar 'Sequia' and 'Gaviota' to 1.48g/l00g for cultivar 'Chandler'. Fresno, Kordestan, Aliso and Chandler showed the highest soluble solid concentration. Ascorbic acid averaged for most cultivars between 30.26 and 79.73 mg/100gf.w. Present results showed that different cultivars of strawberry contain highly variable in fruit quality.
Keywords: Yield, Fruit quality, Ascorbic acid, Hydroponic systemProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2122
2993 Effect of Synthetic Queen Mandibular Pheromone on Pollination of Cotton by Honey Bees, Apis mellifera
Authors: M. Keshlaf, R. Mensah, O. Nicetic, R. Spooner-Hart
The effectiveness of a commercial bee attractant, synthetic honey bee queen mandibular pheromone (Fruit Boost®) for enhancing pollination of Gossypium hirsutum was evaluated in a transgenic (Bt) cotton crop. The study assessed the number of bee visitations to blossoms of plants treated with Fruit Boost® as well, as effects on fruit set, yield, and lint quality. Bee activity on plots sprayed with pheromone concentrations of 50 and 500 queen equivalents (QEQ) /ha did not differ significantly from water-only control, on the day of application or the subsequent day. Application of the pheromone did not increase fruit set, yield, or lint quality. Two consecutive pheromone applications, applied two days apart, were not significantly different from a single application for any parameter.
Keywords: Apis mellifera, cotton, pollination, QMP pheromoneProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2111
2992 The Quality Maintenance and Extending Storage Life of Mango Fruit after Postharvest Treatments
Authors: Orathai Wongmetha, Lih-Shang Ke
The quality attributes and storage life of 'Jinhwang' mango fruit can be effectively maintained with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) application and/or chitosan coating. 'Jinhwang' mango fruit was treated with 5 μl l-1 1-MCP for 12 h, dipped with 0.5 % chitosan, 5 μl l-1 1-MCP combine with 0.5 % chitosan and untreated (control) then stored at 10oC. Mango treated with 1-MCP maintained firmness, sucrose and starch content. Chitosan coating delayed firmness loss, sucrose content and the fruit decay when compare with control. Application of 1-MCP combine with chitosan also delayed firmness loss, sucrose content and starch content during storage. Furthermore, chitosan coating and combine treatment prolonged storage life of mango up to 29 days after storage while 1-MCP extended to 28 days after storage. Therefore, using all application of chitosan coating or 1-MCP combine with chitosan or 1-MCP in mango at 10oC is a feasible technology for maintains quality and prolongs storage life in order to expand marketability and export options.
Keywords: 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), chitosan, quality, storage lifeProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3822
2991 Interaction of Elevated Carbon Dioxide and Temperature on Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) Growth and Fruit Yield
Authors: Himali N. Balasooriya, Kithsiri B. Dassanayake, Saman Seneweera, Said Ajlouni
Increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] and ambient temperature associated with changing climatic conditions will have significant impacts on agriculture crop productivity and quality. Independent effects of the above two environmental variables on the growth, yield and quality of strawberry were well documented. Higher temperatures over the optimum range (20-25ºC) lead to crop failures, while elevated [CO2] stimulated plant growth and yield but compromised the physical quality of fruits. However, there is very limited understanding of the interaction between these variables on the plant growth, yield and quality. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the interactive effect of high temperature and elevated [CO2] on growth, yield and quality of strawberries. Strawberry cultivars ‘Albion’ and ‘San Andreas’ were grown under six different combinations of two temperatures (25 and 30ºC) and three [CO2] (400, 650 and 950 µmol mol-1) in controlled-environmental growth chambers. Plant growth measurements such as plant height, canopy area, number of flowers, and fruit yield were measured during phonological development. Photosynthesis and transpiration, the ratio of intercellular to atmospheric [CO2] (Ci/Ca) were measured to estimate the physiological adjustment to climate stress. The impact of temperature and [CO2] interaction on growth and yield of strawberry was significant (p < 0.05). Across both cultivars, highest fruit yields were observed at 650 µmol mol-1 [CO2], which was particularly clear at 25°C. The fruit yield gradually decreased at 30°C under all the treatment combinations. However, photosynthesis rates were highest at 650 µmol mol-1 [CO2] but no increment was found at 900 µmol mol-1 [CO2]. Interestingly, Ci/Ca ratio increased with increasing atmospheric [CO2] which was predominant at high temperature. Similarly, fruit yield was substantially reduced at high [CO2] under high temperature. Our findings suggest that increased Ci/Ca ratio at high temperature is likely reduces the photosynthesis and thus yield response to elevated [CO2].
Keywords: Atmospheric [CO2], fruit yield, strawberry, temperature.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 779
2990 Effect of Passive Modified Atmosphere in Different Packaging Materials on Fresh-Cut Mixed Fruit Salad Quality during Storage
Authors: I. Krasnova, L. Dukalska, D. Seglina, K. Juhnevica, E. Sne, D. Karklina
Abstract:Experiments were carried out at the Latvia State Institute of Fruit-Growing in 2011. Fresh-cut minimally processed apple and pear mixed salad were packed by passive modified atmosphere (MAP) in PP containers, which were hermetically sealed by breathable conventional BOPP PropafreshTM P2GAF, and Amcor Agrifresh films. Biodegradable NatureFlexTM NVS INNOVIA Films and VC999 BioPack PLA films coated with a barrier of pure silicon oxide (SiOx) were used to compare the fresh-cut produce quality with this packed in conventional packaging films. Samples were cold stored at temperature +4.0±0.5 °C up to 10 days. The quality of salad was evaluated by physicochemical properties – weight losses, moisture, firmness, the effect of packaging modes on the colour, dynamics in headspace atmosphere concentration (CO2 and O2), titratable acidity values, as well as by microbiological contamination (yeasts, moulds and total bacteria count) of salads, analyzing before packaging and after 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 storage days.
Keywords: Biodegradable packaging, conventional, fresh-cut fruit saladProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3788
2989 Morphological Characteristics and Pollination Requirement in Red Pitaya (Hylocereus spp.)
Authors: Dinh Ha, Tran, Chung - Ruey Yen
This study explored the morphological characteristics and effects of pollination methods on fruit set and characteristics in 4 red pitaya (Hylocereus spp.) clones. The distinctive morphological recognition and classification among pitaya clones were confirmed by the stem, flower and fruit features. The fruit production season was indicated from the beginning of May to the end of August – the beginning of September with 6-7 flowering cycles per year. The floral stage took from 15-19 days and fruit duration spent 30–32 days. VN White, fully self-compatible, obtained high fruit set rates (80.0–90.5%) in all pollination treatments and the maximum fruit weight (402.6g) in hand self- and (403.4g) in open-pollination. Chaozhou 5 was partially self-compatible while Orejona and F11 were completely self-incompatible. Hand cross-pollination increased significantly fruit set (95.8; 88.4 and 90.2%) and fruit weight (374.2; 281.8 and 416.3 g) in Chaozhou 5, Orejona, and F11, respectively. TSS contents were not much influenced by pollination methods.
Keywords: Hylocereus spp., morphology, floral phenology, pollination requirement.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3377
2988 Morphological Characteristics and Pollination Requirement in Red Pitaya (Hylocereus spp.)
Authors: Dinh - Ha Tran, Chung - Ruey Yen
This study explored the morphological characteristics and effects of pollination methods on fruit set and characteristics in 4 red pitaya (Hylocereus spp.) clones. The distinctive morphological recognition and classification among pitaya clones were confirmed by the stem, flower and fruit features. The fruit production season was indicated from the beginning of May to the end of August – the beginning of September with 6-7 flowering cycles per year. The floral stage took from 15-19 days and fruit duration spent 30–32 days. VN White, fully self-compatible, obtained high fruit set rates (80.0–90.5%) in all pollination treatments and the maximum fruit weight (402.6g) in hand self- and (403.4g) in open-pollination. Chaozhou 5 was partially self-compatible while Orejona and F11 were completely self-incompatible. Hand cross-pollination increased significantly fruit set (95.8; 88.4 and 90.2%) and fruit weight (374.2; 281.8 and 416.3g) in Chaozhou 5, Orejona and F11, respectively. TSS contents were not much influcenced by pollination methods.
Keywords: Hylocereus spp., morphology, floral phenology, pollination requirement.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2760
2987 Tomato Ripeness Influence on Fruit Quality
Authors: A. Radzevičius, P. Viškelis, R. Karklelienė, J. Viškelis, Č. Bobinas, E. Dambrauskienė andS. Sakalauskienė
Tomato nutrition value, color, flavor of their fruits and products depends mainly on lycopene, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, sugars and their ratio. The two most important carotenoids in fruits of tomato are lycopene, which determined fruits red color, and β- carotene, which accounts for approximately 7% of the tomato carotenoids. Therefore, tomato products and their quality can be well characterized by the content of these elements.Maturity at harvest is very important to composition and quality of tomatoes. This is especially a problem with tomatoes picked green since it is difficult to differentiate between mature and immature-green fruits. Typical and advanced mature-green tomatoes will usually attain a much better flavor than those picked at the immature or partially mature stages.To better understand the synthesis of biochemical compounds, their concentration should be compared not only at the last stage of maturity, but also during all fruit ripening period in different varieties.
Keywords: quality, ripeness, tomato, varietyProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2856
2986 Effects of Multilayer Coating of Chitosan and Polystyrene Sulfonate on Quality of ‘Nam Dok Mai No.4’ Mango
Authors: N. Hadthamard, P. Chaumpluk, M. Buanong, P. Boonyaritthongchai, C. Wongs-Aree
Abstract:Ripe ‘Nam Dok Mai’ mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an important exported fruit of Thailand, but rapidly declined in the quality attributes mainly by infection of anthracnose and stem end rot diseases. Multilayer coating is considered as a developed technique to maintain the postharvest quality of mangoes. The utilization of alternated coating by matching oppositely electrostatic charges between 0.1% chitosan and 0.1% polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) was studied. A number of the coating layers (layer by layer) were applied on mature green ‘Nam Dok Mai No.4’ mangoes prior to storage at 25 oC, 65-70% relative humidity (RH). There were significant differences in some quality attributes of mangoes coated by 3½ layers, 4½ layers and 5½ layers. In comparison to coated mangoes, uncoated fruits were higher in weight loss, total soluble solids, respiration rate, ethylene production and disease incidence except the titratable acidity. Coating fruit at 3½ layers exhibited the ripening delay and reducing disease infection without off flavour. On the other hand, fruit coated with 5½ layers comprised the lowest acceptable score, caused by exhibiting disorders from fermentation at the end of storage. As a result, multilayer coating between chitosan and PSS could effectively maintain the postharvest quality of mango, but number of coating layers should be thoroughly considered.
Keywords: Multilayer, chitosan, polystyrene sulfonate, Nam Dok Mai No.4.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 692
2985 Fruit Growing in Romania and Its Role for Rural Communities’ Development
Authors: Maria Toader, Gheorghe Valentin Roman
The importance of fruit trees and bushes growing for Romania is due the concordance that exists between the different ecological conditions in natural basins, and the requirements of different species and varieties. There are, in Romania, natural areas dedicated to the main trees species: plum, apple, pear, cherry, sour cherry, finding optimal conditions for harnessing the potential of fruitfulness, making fruit quality both in terms of ratio commercial, and content in active principles. The share of fruits crops in the world economy of agricultural production is due primarily to the role of fruits in nourishment for human, and in the prevention and combating of diseases, in increasing the national income of cultivator countries and to improve comfort for human life. For Romania, the perspectives of the sector are positive, and are due to European funding opportunities, which provide farmers a specialized program that meets the needs of development and modernization of fruit growing industry, cultivation technology and equipment, organization and grouping of producers, creating storage facilities, conditioning, marketing and the joint use of fresh fruit. This paper shows the evolution of fruit growing, in Romania compared to other states. The document presents the current situation of the main tree species both in terms of surface but also of the productions and the role that this activity may have for the development of rural communities.
Keywords: Fruit growing, fruits trees, productivity, rural development.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1190
2984 Optimization of Methods for Development of Fermented-Distillate of Passion Fruit Beverage
Authors: Luciana C. Azevedo, Reinaldo S. Dantas, Antonio G. B. De Sá, Adalberto M. Filho, Patrícia M. Azoubel
Abstract:Fermented beverages have high expression in the market for beverages in general, is increasingly valued in situations where the characteristic aroma and flavor of the material that gave rise to them are kept after processing. This study aimed to develop a distilled beverage from passion fruit, and assess, by sensory tests and chromatographic profile, the influence of different treatments (FM1- spirit with pulp addiction and FM2 – spirit with bigger ratio of pulp in must) in the setting of volatiles in the fruit drink, and performing chemical characterization taking into account the main parameters of quality established by the legislation. The chromatograms and the first sensorial tests had indicated that sample FM1 possess better characteristics of aroma, as much of how much quantitative the qualitative point of view. However, it analyzes it sensorial end (preference test) disclosed the biggest preference of the cloth provers for sample FM2-2 (note 7.93), being the attributes of decisive color and flavor in this reply, confirmed for the observed values lowest of fixed and total acidity in the samples of treatment FM2.
Keywords: Fermented-distilled drink, fruit spirits, passion fruit.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1724
2983 Mineral and Some Physico-Chemical Composition of 'Karayemis' (Prunus laurocerasus L.) Fruits Grown in Northeast Turkey
Authors: İsmail Hakkı Kalyoncu, Nilda Ersoy, Ayşe Yalcın Elidemir, Cansu Dolek
Abstract:Some physico-chemical characteristics and mineral composition of 'Karayemis' (Prunus laurocerasus L.) fruits which grown naturally in Norteast Turkey was studied. 28 minerals ( Al, Mg, B, Mn, Co, Na, Ca, Ni, Cd, P, Cr, Pb, Cu, S, Fe, Zn, K, Sr, Li, As, V, Ag, Ba, Br, Ga, In, Se, Ti) were analyzed and 19 minerals were present at ascertainable levels. Karayemis fruit was richest in potassium (7938.711 ppm), magnesium (1242.186 ppm) and calcium (1158.853 ppm). And some physico-chemical characteristics of Karayemis fruit was investigated. Fruit length, fruit width, fruit thickness, fruit weight, total soluble solids, colour, protein, crude ash, crude fiber, crude oil values were determined as 2.334 cm, 1.884 cm, 2.112 cm, 5.35 g, 20.1 %, S99M99Y99, 0.29 %, 0.22 %, 6.63 % and 0.001 %, respectively. The seed of fruit mean weight, length, width and thickness were found to be 0.41 g, 1.303 cm, 0.921 cm and 0.803, respectively.
Keywords: Prunus laurocerasus L., physico-chemical properties, nutritional properties.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2317
2982 An Integrated Experimental and Numerical Approach to Develop an Electronic Instrument to Study Apple Bruise Damage
Authors: Paula Pascoal-Faria, Rúben Pereira, Elodie Pinto, Miguel Belbut, Ana Rosa, Inês Sousa, Nuno Alves
Apple bruise damage from harvesting, handling, transporting and sorting is considered to be the major source of reduced fruit quality, resulting in loss of profits for the entire fruit industry. The three factors which can physically cause fruit bruising are vibration, compression load and impact, the latter being the most common source of bruise damage. Therefore, prediction of the level of damage, stress distribution and deformation of the fruits under external force has become a very important challenge. In this study, experimental and numerical methods were used to better understand the impact caused when an apple is dropped from different heights onto a plastic surface and a conveyor belt. Results showed that the extent of fruit damage is significantly higher for plastic surface, being dependent on the height. In order to support the development of a biomimetic electronic device for the determination of fruit damage, the mechanical properties of the apple fruit were determined using mechanical tests. Preliminary results showed different values for the Young’s modulus according to the zone of the apple tested. Along with the mechanical characterization of the apple fruit, the development of the first two prototypes is discussed and the integration of the results obtained to construct the final element model of the apple is presented. This work will help to reduce significantly the bruise damage of fruits or vegetables during the entire processing which will allow the introduction of exportation destines and consequently an increase in the economic profits in this sector.
Keywords: Apple, fruit damage, impact during crop and post-crop, mechanical characterization of the apple, numerical evaluation of fruit bruise damage, electronic device.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1187
2981 Jamun Juice Extraction Using Commercial Enzymes and Optimization of the Treatment with the Help of Physicochemical, Nutritional and Sensory Properties
Authors: Payel Ghosh, Rama Chandra Pradhan, Sabyasachi Mishra
Abstract:Jamun (Syzygium cuminii L.) is one of the important indigenous minor fruit with high medicinal value. The jamun cultivation is unorganized and there is huge loss of this fruit every year. The perishable nature of the fruit makes its postharvest management further difficult. Due to the strong cell wall structure of pectin-protein bonds and hard seeds, extraction of juice becomes difficult. Enzymatic treatment has been commercially used for improvement of juice quality with high yield. The objective of the study was to optimize the best treatment method for juice extraction. Enzymes (Pectinase and Tannase) from different stains had been used and for each enzyme, best result obtained by using response surface methodology. Optimization had been done on the basis of physicochemical property, nutritional property, sensory quality and cost estimation. According to quality aspect, cost analysis and sensory evaluation, the optimizing enzymatic treatment was obtained by Pectinase from Aspergillus aculeatus strain. The optimum condition for the treatment was 44 oC with 80 minute with a concentration of 0.05% (w/w). At these conditions, 75% of yield with turbidity of 32.21NTU, clarity of 74.39%T, polyphenol content of 115.31 mg GAE/g, protein content of 102.43 mg/g have been obtained with a significant difference in overall acceptability.
Keywords: Jamun, enzymatic treatment, physicochemical property, sensory analysis, optimization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1409
2980 Characterization of Banana (Musa spp.) Pseudo-Stem and Fruit-Bunch-Stem as a Potential Renewable Energy Resource
Authors: Nurhayati Abdullah, Fauziah Sulaiman, Muhamad Azman Miskam, Rahmad Mohd Taib
Banana pseudo-stem and fruit-bunch-stem are agricultural residues that can be used for conversion to bio-char, biooil, and gases by using thermochemical process. The aim of this work is to characterize banana pseudo-stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem through proximate analysis, elemental analysis, chemical analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and heating calorific value. The ash contents of the banana pseudo-stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are 11.0 mf wt.% and 20.6 mf wt.%; while the carbon content of banana pseudo-stem and fruit-bunch-stem are 37.9 mf wt.% and 35.58 mf wt.% respectively. The molecular formulas for banana stem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are C24H33NO26 and C19H29NO33 respectively. The measured higher heating values of banana pseudostem and banana fruit-bunch-stem are 15.5MJ/kg and 12.7 MJ/kg respectively. By chemical analysis, the lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose contents in the samples will also be presented. The feasibility of the banana wastes to be a feedstock for thermochemical process in comparison with other biomass will be discussed in this paper.
Keywords: Banana Waste, Biomass, Renewable Energy, Thermo-chemical Characteristics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 8576
2979 Biospeckle Supported Fruit Bruise Detection
Authors: Adilson M. Enes, Juliana A. Fracarolli, Inácio M. Dal Fabbro, Silvestre Rodrigues
This research work proposed a study of fruit bruise detection by means of a biospeckle method, selecting the papaya fruit (Carica papaya) as testing body. Papaya is recognized as a fruit of outstanding nutritional qualities, showing high vitamin A content, calcium, carbohydrates, exhibiting high popularity all over the world, considering consumption and acceptability. The commercialization of papaya faces special problems which are associated to bruise generation during harvesting, packing and transportation. Papaya is classified as climacteric fruit, permitting to be harvested before the maturation is completed. However, by one side bruise generation is partially controlled once the fruit flesh exhibits high mechanical firmness. By the other side, mechanical loads can set a future bruise at that maturation stage, when it can not be detected yet by conventional methods. Mechanical damages of fruit skin leave an entrance door to microorganisms and pathogens, which will cause severe losses of quality attributes. Traditional techniques of fruit quality inspection include total soluble solids determination, mechanical firmness tests, visual inspections, which would hardly meet required conditions for a fully automated process. However, the pertinent literature reveals a new method named biospeckle which is based on the laser reflectance and interference phenomenon. The laser biospeckle or dynamic speckle is quantified by means of the Moment of Inertia, named after its mechanical counterpart due to similarity between the defining formulae. Biospeckle techniques are able to quantify biological activities of living tissues, which has been applied to seed viability analysis, vegetable senescence and similar topics. Since the biospeckle techniques can monitor tissue physiology, it could also detect changes in the fruit caused by mechanical damages. The proposed technique holds non invasive character, being able to generate numerical results consistent with an adequate automation. The experimental tests associated to this research work included the selection of papaya fruit at different maturation stages which were submitted to artificial mechanical bruising tests. Damages were visually compared with the frequency maps yielded by the biospeckle technique. Results were considered in close agreement.
Keywords: Biospeckle, papaya, mechanical damages, vegetable bruising.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2428
2978 The Effect of Soil Contamination on Chemical Composition and Quality of Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Fruits
Authors: Violina R. Angelova, Sava G. Tabakov, Aleksander B. Peltekov, Krasimir I. Ivanov
A field study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and quality of the Aronia fruits, as well as the possibilities of Aronia cultivation on soils contaminated with heavy metals. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works (NFMW) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The study included four varieties of Aronia; Aron variety, Hugin variety, Viking variety and Nero variety. The Aronia was cultivated according to the conventional technology on areas at a different distance from the source of pollution NFMW- Plovdiv (1 km, 3.5 km, and 15 km). The concentrations of macroelements, microelements, and heavy metals in Aronia fruits were determined. The dry matter content, ash, sugars, proteins, and fats were also determined. Aronia is a crop that is tolerant to heavy metals and can successfully be grown on soils contaminated with heavy metals. The increased content of heavy metals in the soil leads to less absorption of the nutrients (Ca, Mg and P) in the fruit of the Aronia. Soil pollution with heavy metals does not affect the quality of the Aronia fruit varieties.
Keywords: Aronia, chemical composition, fruits, quality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 833
2977 Some Physico-chemical and Nutritional Properties of Russion Olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) Fruit Grown in Turkey
Authors: Nilda Ersoy, Ismail Hakki Kalyoncu, Ayse Yalcin Elidemir, Inci Tolay
In this research, several physical and chemical properties and mineral contents of Russion olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) fruit grown in Turkey were determined. In the fruit, length, width, thickness, weight were determined as 2.866cm, 1.880cm, 1.870cm, 2.90g; total soluble solids and colour were determined as 13.14% and S33O60Y99, respectively. In the seed, mean length, width, thickness, and weight were found to be 2.420cm, 0.508cm, 0.503cm, and 0.38g, respectively. In the fruit, 28 minerals (K, P, Ca, Na, Mg, S, Pb, Ba, Ga, As, In, Ti, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, B, Cd, Se, Li, Sr, Al, Ni, Ag, V, Cr, Bi) were analyzed and 19 minerals were present at detectable levels. Russion olive fruit was richest in potassium (10296.906ppm), Mg (762.314ppm), P (609.694ppm), Ca (547.647ppm), and Na (222.749ppm).
Keywords: Nutritional properties, Physico-chemical properties, Russion olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.)Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3243
2976 Use of Fruit Beetles, Waxworms Larvae and Tiger Worms in Waste Conditioning for Composting
Authors: Waleed S. Alwaneen
Abstract:In many countries, cow dung is used as farm manure and for biogas production. Several bacterial strains associated with cow dung such as Campylobacter, Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli cause serious human diseases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the use of insect larvae including fruit beetle, waxworms and tiger worms to improve the breakdown of agricultural wastes and reduce their pathogen loads. Fresh cow faeces were collected from a cattle farm and distributed into plastic boxes (100 g/box). Each box was provided with 10 larvae of fruit beetle, Waxworms and Tiger worms, respectively. There were 3 replicates in each treatment including the control. Bacteria were isolated weekly from both control and cow faeces to which larvae were added to determine the bacterial populations. Results revealed that the bacterial load was higher in the cow faeces treated with fruit beetles than in the control, while the bacterial load was lower in the cow faeces treated with waxworms and tiger worms than in the control. The activities of the fruit beetle larvae led to the cow faeces being liquefied which provided a more conducive growing media for bacteria. Therefore, higher bacterial load in the cow faeces treated with fruit beetle might be attributed to the liquefaction of cow faeces.
Keywords: Fruit beetle, waxworms, tiger worms, waste conditioning, composting.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 808
2975 Effects of Temperature and Enzyme Concentration on Quality of Pineapple and Pawpaw Blended Juice
Authors: Ndidi F. Amulu, Calistus N. Ude, Patrick E. Amulu, Nneka N. Uchegbu
Abstract:The effects of temperature and enzyme concentration on the quality of mixed pineapple and pawpaw blended fruits juice were studied. Extracts of the two fruit juices were separately treated at 70 for 15 min each so as to inactivate micro-organisms. They were analyzed and blended in different proportions of 70% pawpaw and 30% pineapple, 60% pawpaw and 40% pineapple, 50% pineapple and 50% pawpaw, 40% pawpaw and 60% pineapple. The characterization of the fresh pawpaw and pineapple juice before blending showed that the juices have good quality. The high water content of the product may have affected the viscosity, vitamin C content and total soluble solid of the blended juice to be low. The effects of the process parameters on the quality showed that better quality of the blended juice can be obtained within the optimum temperature range of (50-70 °C) and enzyme concentration range (0.12-0.18 w/v). The ratio of mix 60% pineapple juice: 40% pawpaw juice has better quality. This showed that pawpaw and pineapple juices can blend effectively to produce a quality juice.
Keywords: Clarification, pawpaw, pineapple, viscosity, vitamin C.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1591
2974 Inulin and Fructooligosaccharides Incorporated Functional Fruit Bars
Authors: P.Megala, T.V.Hymavathi
Abstract:Papaya and banana bars were developed incorporating inulin (IN) and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) (Liquid and Powder form) in various proportions. The control bars were standardized using 70% fruit pulp, 30% sugar, 0.3% citric acid while the treated bars were standardized with 70% fruit pulp, 15% sugar, 15% of IN and FOS and 0.3% citric acid. Among the various proportions tested, papaya bars with 90% FOS (Powder) + 10% IN and banana bars with 90% FOS (liquid) + 10% IN were sensorially best accepted. The study revealed that addition of IN and FOS improved the sensory scores. The Physico-chemical and proximatecomposition analysis revealed slight changes in brix°, total sugars, reducing sugars, nonreducing sugars, moisture, protein, fat, vitamin C, ash, iron, zinc, calcium and crude fibre between control and treated fruit bars. Further the glycemic index of papaya bar was reduced from 65 to 54 when treated with FOS and IN.
Keywords: Banana, fructooligosaccharides, functional fruit bars, inulin, papayaProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2286
2973 Effect on Yield and Yield Components of Different Irrigation Levels in Edible Seed Pumpkin Growing
Authors: Musa Seymen, Duran Yavuz, Nurcan Yavuz, Önder Türkmen
Edible seed pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) is one of the important edibles preferred by consumer in Turkey due to its higher nutrient contents. However, there is almost very few study on water consumption and irrigation water requirement of confectionary edible seed pumpkin in Turkey. Therefore, a 2-year study (2013-2014) was conducted to determine the effects of irrigation levels on the seed yield and yield components of drip-irrigated confectionary edible seed pumpkin under Turkey conditions. In the study, the experimental design was made in randomized blocks with three replications. Treatments consisted of five irrigation water levels that compensated for the 100% (I100, full irrigation), 75% (I75), 50% (I50), 25% (I25) and 0% (I0, no irrigation) of crop water requirements at 14-day irrigation intervals. Seasonal evapotranspiration of treatments varied from 194.2 to 625.2 mm in 2013 and from 208.6 to 556.6 mm in 2014. In both years, the highest seasonal evapotranspiration was obtained in I100 treatment. Average across years, the seed yields ranged between 1090 (I100) and 422 (I0) kg ha-1. The irrigation treatments were found to significantly affect the yield parameters such as the seed yield, oil seed yield number of seeds per fruit, seed size, seed width, fruit size, fruit width and fruit index.
Keywords: Irrigation level, edible seed pumpkin, seed quality, seed yield.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1374