Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 636

Search results for: physicochemical property

636 Sequence-based Prediction of Gamma-turn Types using a Physicochemical Property-based Decision Tree Method

Authors: Chyn Liaw, Chun-Wei Tung, Shinn-Jang Ho, Shinn-Ying Ho

Abstract:

The γ-turns play important roles in protein folding and molecular recognition. The prediction and analysis of γ-turn types are important for both protein structure predictions and better understanding the characteristics of different γ-turn types. This study proposed a physicochemical property-based decision tree (PPDT) method to interpretably predict γ-turn types. In addition to the good prediction performance of PPDT, three simple and human interpretable IF-THEN rules are extracted from the decision tree constructed by PPDT. The identified informative physicochemical properties and concise rules provide a simple way for discriminating and understanding γ-turn types.

Keywords: Classification and regression tree (CART), γ-turn, Physicochemical properties, Protein secondary structure.

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635 Jamun Juice Extraction Using Commercial Enzymes and Optimization of the Treatment with the Help of Physicochemical, Nutritional and Sensory Properties

Authors: Payel Ghosh, Rama Chandra Pradhan, Sabyasachi Mishra

Abstract:

Jamun (Syzygium cuminii L.) is one of the important indigenous minor fruit with high medicinal value. The jamun cultivation is unorganized and there is huge loss of this fruit every year. The perishable nature of the fruit makes its postharvest management further difficult. Due to the strong cell wall structure of pectin-protein bonds and hard seeds, extraction of juice becomes difficult. Enzymatic treatment has been commercially used for improvement of juice quality with high yield. The objective of the study was to optimize the best treatment method for juice extraction. Enzymes (Pectinase and Tannase) from different stains had been used and for each enzyme, best result obtained by using response surface methodology. Optimization had been done on the basis of physicochemical property, nutritional property, sensory quality and cost estimation. According to quality aspect, cost analysis and sensory evaluation, the optimizing enzymatic treatment was obtained by Pectinase from Aspergillus aculeatus strain. The optimum condition for the treatment was 44 oC with 80 minute with a concentration of 0.05% (w/w). At these conditions, 75% of yield with turbidity of 32.21NTU, clarity of 74.39%T, polyphenol content of 115.31 mg GAE/g, protein content of 102.43 mg/g have been obtained with a significant difference in overall acceptability.

Keywords: Jamun, enzymatic treatment, physicochemical property, sensory analysis, optimization.

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634 Study of Ether Species Effects on Physicochemical Properties of Palm Oil Ether Monoesters as Novel Biodiesels

Authors: Hejun Guo, Shenghua Liu

Abstract:

Five palm oil ether monoesters utilized as novel biodiesels were synthesized and structurally identified in the paper. The investigation was made on the effect of ether species on physicochemical properties of the palm oil ether monoesters. The results showed that density, kinematic viscosity, smoke point, and solidifying point increase linearly with their –CH2 group number in certain relationships. Cetane number is enhanced whereas heat value decreases linearly with –CH2 group number. In addition, the influencing regularities of the volumetric content of the palm oil ether monoesters on the fuel properties were also studied when the ether monoesters are used as diesel fuel additives.

Keywords: Biodiesel, palm oil ether monoester, ether species, physicochemical property.

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633 Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Iranian Native Fresh Barberry Fruit

Authors: Samira Berenji Ardestani, Hamid Reza Akhavan

Abstract:

Gamma irradiation greatly reduces the potential microbiological risk of fresh fruits, resulting in improved microbial safety as well as extending their shelf life. The effects of 0.5-2 kGy gamma doses on some physicochemical, microbial and sensory properties of fresh barberry fruits (Berberis vulgaris) during refrigerated storage for 40 days were evaluated. The total anthocyanin and total phenolic contents of barberry fruits decreased in a dose-dependent manner immediately after irradiation and after subsequent storage. In general, it is recommended that, according to the effect of gamma radiation on physicochemical, microbial and sensorial characteristics, doses of 1.25-2 kGy could be used.

Keywords: Antioxidant property, barberry fruit, chemical properties, gamma irradiation.

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632 Stability of Property (gm) under Perturbation and Spectral Properties Type Weyl Theorems

Authors: M. H. M. Rashid

Abstract:

A Banach space operator T obeys property (gm) if the isolated points of the spectrum σ(T) of T which are eigenvalues are exactly those points λ of the spectrum for which T − λI is a left Drazin invertible. In this article, we study the stability of property (gm), for a bounded operator acting on a Banach space, under perturbation by finite rank operators, by nilpotent operators, by quasi-nilpotent operators, or more generally by algebraic operators commuting with T.

Keywords: Weyl’s theorem, Weyl spectrum, polaroid operators, property (gm), property (m).

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631 Prediction of Protein Subchloroplast Locations using Random Forests

Authors: Chun-Wei Tung, Chyn Liaw, Shinn-Jang Ho, Shinn-Ying Ho

Abstract:

Protein subchloroplast locations are correlated with its functions. In contrast to the large amount of available protein sequences, the information of their locations and functions is less known. The experiment works for identification of protein locations and functions are costly and time consuming. The accurate prediction of protein subchloroplast locations can accelerate the study of functions of proteins in chloroplast. This study proposes a Random Forest based method, ChloroRF, to predict protein subchloroplast locations using interpretable physicochemical properties. In addition to high prediction accuracy, the ChloroRF is able to select important physicochemical properties. The important physicochemical properties are also analyzed to provide insights into the underlying mechanism.

Keywords: Chloroplast, Physicochemical properties, Proteinlocations, Random Forests.

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630 Analysis of Physicochemical Properties on Prediction of R5, X4 and R5X4 HIV-1 Coreceptor Usage

Authors: Kai-Ti Hsu, Hui-Ling Huang, Chun-Wei Tung, Yi-Hsiung Chen, Shinn-Ying Ho

Abstract:

Bioinformatics methods for predicting the T cell coreceptor usage from the array of membrane protein of HIV-1 are investigated. In this study, we aim to propose an effective prediction method for dealing with the three-class classification problem of CXCR4 (X4), CCR5 (R5) and CCR5/CXCR4 (R5X4). We made efforts in investigating the coreceptor prediction problem as follows: 1) proposing a feature set of informative physicochemical properties which is cooperated with SVM to achieve high prediction test accuracy of 81.48%, compared with the existing method with accuracy of 70.00%; 2) establishing a large up-to-date data set by increasing the size from 159 to 1225 sequences to verify the proposed prediction method where the mean test accuracy is 88.59%, and 3) analyzing the set of 14 informative physicochemical properties to further understand the characteristics of HIV-1coreceptors.

Keywords: Coreceptor, genetic algorithm, HIV-1, SVM, physicochemical properties, prediction.

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629 Progressive Changes in Physicochemical Constituent of Rainwater: A Case Study at Oyoko, a Rural Community in Ghana

Authors: J. O. Yeboah, K Aboraa, K. Kodom

Abstract:

The chemical and physical characteristics of rainwater harvested from a typical rooftop were progressively studied. The samples of rainwater collected were analyzed for pH, major ion concentrations, TDS, turbidity, conductivity. All the Physicochemical constituents fell within the WHO guideline limits at some points as rainfall progresses except the pH. All the components of rainwater quality measured during the study showed higher concentrations during the early stages of rainfall and reduce as time progresses. There was a downward trend in terms of pH as rain progressed, with 18% of the samples recording pH below the WHO limit of 6.5-8.0. It was observed that iron concentration was above the WHO threshold value of 0.3 mg/l on occasions of heavy rains. The results revealed that most of physicochemical characteristics of rainwater samples were generally below the WHO threshold, as such, the rainwater characteristics showed satisfactory conditions in terms of physicochemical constituents.

Keywords: Conductivity, pH, physicochemistry, rainwater quality, TDS.

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628 Comparative Analysis of Commercial Property and Stock-Market Investments in Nigeria

Authors: Bello Nurudeen Akinsola

Abstract:

The study analyzed the risk and returns of commercial-property in Southwestern Nigeria and selected stocksmarket investment between 2000 and 2009; compared the inflation hedging characteristics and diversification potentials of investing in commercial-property and selected stock- market investment. Primary data were collected on characteristics, rental and capital values of commercial- properties from their property managers through the use of questionnaire. Secondary data on stock prices and dividends on banking, insurance and conglomerates sectors were sourced from the Nigerian Stock Exchange (2000-2009). The result showed that average return on all the selected stock- investments was higher than that of commercial-property. As regards risk, commercial-property indicated lower risk, compared to stocks. Also the stock-investment had better inflation hedging capacity than commercial-properties; combination of both had diversification potentials. The study concluded that stock-market investment offered attractive higher return than commercial-property although with higher risk and there could be diversification benefits in combining commercial-property with stock- investment.

Keywords: Commercial-Property, Return, Risk, Stock Market

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627 Technology Assessment: Exploring Possibilities to Encounter Problems Faced by Intellectual Property through Blockchain

Authors: M. Ismail, E. Grifell-Tatjé, A. Paz

Abstract:

A significant discussion on the topic of blockchain as a solution to the issues of intellectual property highlights the relevance that this topic holds. Some experts label this technology as destructive since it holds immense potential to change course of traditional practices. The extent and areas to which this technology can be of use are still being researched. This paper provides an in-depth review on the intellectual property and blockchain technology. Further it explores what makes blockchain suitable for intellectual property, the practical solutions available and the support different governments are offering. This paper further studies the framework of universities in context of its outputs and how can they be streamlined using blockchain technology. The paper concludes by discussing some limitations and future research question.

Keywords: Blockchain, decentralization, open innovation, intellectual property, patents, university-industry relationship.

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626 Effect of adding Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extracts of Cinnamomum tamala (Bay Leaf) on Nutraceutical Property of Tofu

Authors: Sudip Ghosh, Probir Kumar Ghosh, Paramita Bhattacharjee

Abstract:

Supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of Cinnamomum tamala (bay) leaves obtained at 55°C, 512 bar was found to have appreciable nutraceutical properties and was successfully employed as value-added ingredients in preparation of tofu. The bay leaf formulated tofu sample was evaluated for physicochemical properties (pH, texture analysis and lipid peroxidation), proximate analysis, phytochemical properties (total phenol content, antioxidant properties and total reducing sugar), microbial load and sensory profile analysis for a storage period of ten days, vis-à-vis an experimental control sample. These assays established the superiority of the tofu sample formulated with supercritical carbon dioxide extract of bay leaf over the control sample. Bay leaf extract formulated tofu is a new green functional food with promising nutraceutical benefits. 

Keywords: Cinnamomum tamala, Physicochemical properties Phytochemical properties, Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, Tofu.

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625 The Importance of Intellectual Property for Universities of Technology in South Africa: Challenges Faced and Proposed Way Forward

Authors: Martha E. Ikome, John M. Ikome

Abstract:

Intellectual property should be a day-to-day business decision due to its value, but increasingly, a number of institution are still not aware of the importance. Intellectual Property (IP) and its value are often not adequately appreciated. In the increasingly knowledge-driven economy, IP is a key consideration in day-to-day business decisions because new ideas and products appear almost daily in the market, which results in continuous innovation and research. Therefore, this paper will focus on the importance of IP for universities of technology and also further demonstrates how IP can become an economic tool and the challenges faced by these universities in implementing an IP system.

Keywords: Intellectual property, institutions, challenges, protection.

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624 A Study on Physicochemical Analysis of Road and Railway Track Side Soil Samples of Amritsar (Punjab) and Their Genotoxic Effects

Authors: R. Kaur, Y. B. Pakade, J. K. Katnoria

Abstract:

Considering the serious health hazards of air pollutants from automobiles, the present study was aimed to estimate the genotoxic/tumor inducing potential of three soil samples collected from junctions of Bus stand (BS), Crystal (CT) and Railway station (RS) of Amritsar, Punjab (India) using Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay (AlRCAA) and potato disc tumor assay (PDTA). The genotoxic potential in AlRCAA was 41.27% and 41.26% for BS; 37.89% and 43.38% for RS and 33.76% and 37.83% for CT during in situ and root dip treatments, respectively. The maximum number of tumors were induced in RS sample (64) followed by BS (21) and CT (9) during PDTA. The physicochemical parameters of soil sample were also studied and the concentration of lead was found to be 95.21 mg/Kg in RS, 35.30 mg/Kg in BS and 24.59 mg/Kg in CT samples.

Keywords: Automobiles, genotoxicity, Physicochemical parameters, pollutants.

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623 Intellectual Property Protection of CRISPR Related Technologies

Authors: Zheng Miao, Dennis Fernandez

Abstract:

CRISPR research has the potential to completely transform life science, agriculture, live-stock and the health care industry. The Intellectual Property derived from its research has raised significant attention in the academic as well as the biopharmaceutical industry culminating an urgent need for strategic IP protection. We review the rudimentary concepts and key competitors of CRISPR technologies as well as the paramount strategies for intellectual property protection. Further, we elaborate on prosecution issues related to CRISPR patents as well as possible solutions to various patent laws, interferences and litigation. Finally, we address how the bioinformatics of the CRISPR technology begs an inquiry into issues of privacy and a host of ethical concerns.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, CRISPR, biotechnology, intellectual property.

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622 Physicochemical Analysis of Soxhlet Extracted Oils from Selected Northern Nigerian Seeds

Authors: Abdulhamid Abubakar, Sani Ibrahim, Fakai I. Musa

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential use of the selected seed oils. The oil was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus and the physicochemical characteristics of the oil determined using standard methods. The following results were obtained for the physicochemical parameters analysed: for Egusi seed oil, Oil yield 53.20%, Saponification value 178.03±1.25 mgKOH/g, Iodine value 49.10±0.32 g I2/100g, Acid value 4.30±0.86 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 5.80±0.27 meq/kg were obtained. For Pawpaw seed oil, Oil yield 40.10%, Saponification value 24.13±3.93 mgKOH/g, Iodine value 24.87±0.19 g I2/100g, Acid value 9.46±0.40 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 3.12±1.22 meq/kg were obtained. For Sweet orange seed oil, Oil yield 43.10%, Saponification value 106.30±2.37 mgKOH/g, Iodine value 37.08±0.04 g I2/100g, Acid value 7.59±0.77 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 2.21±0.46 meq/kg were obtained. From the obtained values of the determined parameters, the oils can be extracted from the three selected seeds in commercial quantities and that the egusi and sweet orange seed oils may be utilized in the industrial soap production.

Keywords: Carica papaya, Citrus sinensis, iodine value, peroxide value, physicochemical.

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621 The Problems of Legal Regulation of Intellectual Property Rights in Innovation Activities in Russia (Institutional Approach)

Authors: Zhanna Mingaleva, Irina Mirskikh

Abstract:

Part IV of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation dedicated to legal regulation of Intellectual property rights came into force in 2008. It is a first attempt of codification in Intellectual property sphere in Russia. That is why a lot of new norms appeared. The main problem of the Russian Civil Code (part IV) is that many rules (norms of Law) contradict the norms of International Intellectual property Law (i.e. protection of inventions, creations, ideas, know-how, trade secrets, innovations). Intellectual property rights protect innovations and creations and reward innovative and creative activity. Intellectual property rights are international in character and in that respect they fit in rather well with the economic reality of the global economy. Inventors prefer not to take out a patent for inventions because it is a very difficult procedure, it takes a lot of time and is very expensive. That-s why they try to protect their inventions as ideas, know-how, confidential information. An idea is the main element of any object of Intellectual property (creation, invention, innovation, know-how, etc.). But ideas are not protected by Civil Code of Russian Federation. The aim of the paper is to reveal the main problems of legal regulation of Intellectual property in Russia and to suggest possible solutions. The authors of this paper have raised these essential issues through different activities. Through the panel survey, questionnaires which were spread among the participants of intellectual activities the main problems of implementation of innovations, protecting of the ideas and know-how were identified. The implementation of research results will help to solve economic and legal problems of innovations, transfer of innovations and intellectual property.1

Keywords: Innovation activities, intellectual property rights, know-how, patents, indicators of innovation activities

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620 Economic Neoliberalism: Property Right and Redistribution Policy

Authors: Aleksandar Savanović

Abstract:

In this paper, we will analyze the relationship between the neo-liberal concept of property rights and redistribution policy. This issue is back in the focus of interest due to the crisis 2008. The crisis has reaffirmed the influence of the state on the free-market processes. The interference of the state with property relations reopened a classical question: is it legitimate to redistribute resources of a man in favor of another man with taxes? The dominant view is that the neoliberal philosophy of natural rights is incompatible with redistributive measures. In principle, this view can be accepted. However, when we look into the details of the theory of natural rights proposed by some coryphaei of neoliberal philosophy, such as Hayek, Nozick, Buchanan and Rothbard, we can see that it is not such an unequivocal view. 

Keywords: Economic neoliberalism, natural law, property, redistribution

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619 Property Aggregation and Uncertainty with Links to the Management and Determination of Critical Design Features

Authors: Steven Whittle, Ingrida Valiusaityte

Abstract:

Within the domain of Systems Engineering the need to perform property aggregation to understand, analyze and manage complex systems is unequivocal. This can be seen in numerous domains such as capability analysis, Mission Essential Competencies (MEC) and Critical Design Features (CDF). Furthermore, the need to consider uncertainty propagation as well as the sensitivity of related properties within such analysis is equally as important when determining a set of critical properties within such a system. This paper describes this property breakdown in a number of domains within Systems Engineering and, within the area of CDFs, emphasizes the importance of uncertainty analysis. As part of this, a section of the paper describes possible techniques which may be used within uncertainty propagation and in conclusion an example is described utilizing one of the techniques for property and uncertainty aggregation within an aircraft system to aid the determination of Critical Design Features.

Keywords: Complex Systems, Critical Design Features, Property Aggregation, Uncertainty.

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618 Targeting the Pulmonary Delivery via Optimizing Physicochemical Characteristics of Instilled Liquid and Exploring Distribution of Produced Liquids by Bench-Top Models and Scintigraphy of Rabbits- Lungs

Authors: Mohammad Nasri, Hossein Mirshekarpour

Abstract:

We aimed to investigate how can target and optimize pulmonary delivery distribution by changing physicochemical characteristics of instilled liquid.Therefore, we created a new liquids group: a. eligible for desired distribution within lung because of assorted physicochemical characteristics b. capable of being augmented with a broad range of chemicals inertly c. no interference on respiratory function d. compatible with airway surface liquid We developed forty types of new liquid,were composed of Carboxymethylcellulose sodium,Glycerin and different types of Polysorbates.Viscosity was measured using a Programmable Rheometer and surface tension by KRUSS Tensiometer.We subsequently examined the liquids and delivery protocols by simple and branched glass capillary tube models of airways.Eventually,we explored pulmonary distribution of liquids being augmented with technetium-99m in mechanically ventilated rabbits.We used a single head large field of view gamma camera.Kinematic viscosity between 0.265Stokes and 0.289Stokes,density between 1g/cm3 and 1.5g/cm3 and surface tension between 25dyn/cm and 35dyn/cm were the most acceptable.

Keywords: Pulmonary delivery, Liquid instillation into airway, Physicochemical characteristics, Optimal distribution.

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617 Persistence of Termination for Non-Overlapping Term Rewriting Systems

Authors: Munehiro Iwami

Abstract:

A property is called persistent if for any many-sorted term rewriting system , has the property if and only if term rewriting system , which results from by omitting its sort information, has the property. In this paper,we show that termination is persistent for non-overlapping term rewriting systems and we give the example as application of this result. Furthermore we obtain that completeness is persistent for non-overlapping term rewriting systems.

Keywords: Theory of computing, Model-based reasoning, termrewriting system, termination

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616 W3-Miner: Mining Weighted Frequent Subtree Patterns in a Collection of Trees

Authors: R. AliMohammadzadeh, M. Haghir Chehreghani, A. Zarnani, M. Rahgozar

Abstract:

Mining frequent tree patterns have many useful applications in XML mining, bioinformatics, network routing, etc. Most of the frequent subtree mining algorithms (i.e. FREQT, TreeMiner and CMTreeMiner) use anti-monotone property in the phase of candidate subtree generation. However, none of these algorithms have verified the correctness of this property in tree structured data. In this research it is shown that anti-monotonicity does not generally hold, when using weighed support in tree pattern discovery. As a result, tree mining algorithms that are based on this property would probably miss some of the valid frequent subtree patterns in a collection of trees. In this paper, we investigate the correctness of anti-monotone property for the problem of weighted frequent subtree mining. In addition we propose W3-Miner, a new algorithm for full extraction of frequent subtrees. The experimental results confirm that W3-Miner finds some frequent subtrees that the previously proposed algorithms are not able to discover.

Keywords: Semi-Structured Data Mining, Anti-Monotone Property, Trees.

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615 Assessment of Physicochemical Characteristics and Heavy Metals Concentration in Freshwater from Jega River, Kebbi State, Nigeria

Authors: D. Y. Bawa, M. I. Ribah, I. S. Jega, V. O. Oyedepo

Abstract:

This study was conducted to determine the physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal concentration (Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn)) in freshwater from Jega river. 30 water samples were collected in two 1-liter sterile plastic containers from three designated sampling points, namely; Station A (before the bridge; upstream), Station B (at the bridge where human activities such as washing of cars, motorbike, clothes, bathing and other household materials are concentrated), Station C (after the bridge; downstream) fortnightly, between March and July 2014. Results indicated that the highest pH mean value of 7.08 ± 1.12 was observed in station C, the highest conductivity with the mean 58.75 ± 7.87 µs/cm was observed at station A, the highest mean value of the water total hardness was observed at station A (54 ± 16.11 mg/L), the highest mean value of nitrate deposit was observed in station A (1.66 ± 1.33 mg/L), the highest mean value of alkalinity was observed at station B (51.33 ± 6.66 mg/L) and the highest mean (39.56 ± 3.24 mg/L) of total dissolved solids was observed at station A. The highest concentration mean value of Fe was observed in station C (65.33 ± 4.50 mg/L), the highest concentrations of Cd was observed in station C (0.99 ± 0.36 mg/L), the mean value of 2.13 ± 1.99 mg/L was the highest concentration of Zn observed in station B, the concentration of Pb was not detected (ND) and the highest concentration of Cu with the mean value of 0.43 ± 0.16 mg/L was observed in station B, while the lowest concentration was observed at station C (0.27 ± 0.26 mg/L). Statistical analysis shows no significant difference (P > 0.05) among the sampling stations for both the physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal concentrations. The results were found to be within the internationally acceptable standard limits.

Keywords: Assessment, freshwater, heavy metal concentration, physicochemical.

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614 A Formal Property Verification for Aspect-Oriented Programs in Software Development

Authors: Moustapha Bande, Hakima Ould-Slimane, Hanifa Boucheneb

Abstract:

Software development for complex systems requires efficient and automatic tools that can be used to verify the satisfiability of some critical properties such as security ones. With the emergence of Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP), considerable work has been done in order to better modularize the separation of concerns in the software design and implementation. The goal is to prevent the cross-cutting concerns to be scattered across the multiple modules of the program and tangled with other modules. One of the key challenges in the aspect-oriented programs is to be sure that all the pieces put together at the weaving time ensure the satisfiability of the overall system requirements. Our paper focuses on this problem and proposes a formal property verification approach for a given property from the woven program. The approach is based on the control flow graph (CFG) of the woven program, and the use of a satisfiability modulo theories (SMT) solver to check whether each property (represented par one aspect) is satisfied or not once the weaving is done.

Keywords: Aspect-oriented programming, control flow graph, satisfiability modulo theories, property verification.

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613 Novel Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Oral Delivery of Oxyresveratrol: Effect of the Formulation Parameters on the Physicochemical Properties and in vitro Release

Authors: Y. Sangsen, K. Likhitwitayawuid, B. Sritularak, K. Wiwattanawongsa, R. Wiwattanapatapee

Abstract:

Novel solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were developed to improve oral bioavailability of oxyresveratrol (OXY). The SLNs were prepared by a high speed homogenization technique, at an effective speed and time, using Compritol® 888 ATO (5% w/w) as the solid lipid. The appropriate weight proportions (0.3% w/w) of OXY affected the physicochemical properties of blank SLNs. The effects of surfactant types on the properties of the formulations such as particle size and entrapment efficacy were also investigated. Conclusively, Tween 80 combined with soy lecithin was the most appropriate surfactant to stabilize OXY-loaded SLNs. The mean particle size of the optimized formulation was 134.40 ± 0.57 nm. In vitro drug release study, the selected S2 formulation showed a retarded release profile for OXY with no initial burst release compared to OXY suspension in the simulated gastrointestinal fluids. Therefore, these SLNs could provide a suitable system to develop for the oral OXY delivery.

Keywords: Solid lipid nanoparticles, Physicochemical properties, in vitro drug release, Oxyresveratrol.

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612 Physicochemical Characterizations of Marine and River Sediments in the North of France

Authors: Abriak Nor Edine, Zentar Rachid, Achour Raouf, Tran Ngoc Thanh

Abstract:

This work is undertaken to develop a methodology to enhance the management of dredged marine and river sediments in the North of France. The main objective of this study is to determine the main characteristics of these sediments. In this order, physical, mineralogical and chemical properties of both types of sediments are measured. Moreover, their potential impacts on the environment are assessed throughout leaching tests. From the obtained results, the potential of their use in road engineering is discussed.

Keywords: Marine sediments, River sediments, Physicochemical characterizations, Environmental characterizations.

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611 Analysis of Behaviour of Real Estate Rates in India- A Case Study of Pune City

Authors: Sayali Sandbhor, Ravindra Bapat, N. B. Chaphalkar

Abstract:

Decisions for investment, buying and selling of properties depend upon the market value of that property. Issues arise in arriving at the actual value of the property as well as computing the rate of returns from the estate. Addressing valuation related issues through an understanding of behavior of real property rates provide the means to explore the quality of past decisions and to make valid future decisions. Pune, an important city in India, has witnessed a high rate of growth in past few years. Increased demand for housing and investment in properties has led to increase in the rates of real estate. An attempt has been made to study the change and behavior of rates of real estate and factors influencing the same in Pune city.

Keywords: Real estate, valuation, property rates, trend analysis

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610 Article 5 (3) of the Brussels I Regulation and Its Applicability in the Case of Intellectual Property Rights Infringement on the Internet

Authors: Nataliya Hitsevich

Abstract:

Article 5(3) of the Brussels I Regulation provides that a person domiciled in a Member State may be sued in another Member State in matters relating to tort, delict or quasi-delict, in the courts for the place where the harmful events occurred or may occur. For a number of years Article 5 (3) of the Brussels I Regulation has been at the centre of the debate regarding the intellectual property rights infringement over the Internet. Nothing has been done to adapt the provisions relating to non-internet cases of infringement of intellectual property rights to the context of the Internet. The author’s findings indicate that in the case of intellectual property rights infringement on the Internet, the plaintiff has the option to sue either: the court of the Member State of the event giving rise to the damage: where the publisher of the newspaper is established; the court of the Member State where the damage occurred: where defamatory article is distributed. However, it must be admitted that whilst infringement over the Internet has some similarity to multi-State defamation by means of newspapers, the position is not entirely analogous due to the cross-border nature of the Internet. A simple example which may appropriately illustrate its contentious nature is a defamatory statement published on a website accessible in different Member States, and available in different languages. Therefore, we need to answer the question: how these traditional jurisdictional rules apply in the case of intellectual property rights infringement over the Internet? Should these traditional jurisdictional rules be modified?

Keywords: Intellectual property rights, infringement, Internet, jurisdiction.

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609 Characterization of Monoids by a Generalization of Flatness Property

Authors: Mahdiyeh Abbasi, Akbar Golchin

Abstract:

It is well-known that, using principal weak flatness property, some important monoids are characterized, such as regular monoids, left almost regular monoids, and so on. In this article, we define a generalization of principal weak flatness called GP-Flatness, and will characterize monoids by this property of their right (Rees factor) acts. Also we investigate new classes of monoids called generally regular monoids and generally left almost regular monoids.

Keywords: G-left stabilizing, GP-flatness, generally regular, principal weak flatness.

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608 A Model Predicting the Microbiological Qualityof Aquacultured Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) According to Physicochemical Data: An Application in Western Greece Fish Aquaculture

Authors: Joan Iliopoulou-Georgudaki, Chris Theodoropoulos, Danae Venieri, Maria Lagkadinou

Abstract:

Monitoring of microbial flora in aquacultured sea bream, in relation to the physicochemical parameters of the rearing seawater, ended to a model describing the influence of the last to the quality of the fisheries. Fishes were sampled during eight months from four aqua farms in Western Greece and analyzed for psychrotrophic, H2S producing bacteria, Salmonella sp., heterotrophic plate count (PCA), with simultaneous physical evaluation. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, TDS, salinity, NO3 - and NH4 + ions were recorded. Temperature, dissolved oxygen and conductivity were correlated, respectively, to PCA, Pseudomonas sp. and Shewanella sp. counts. These parameters were the inputs of the model, which was driving, as outputs, to the prediction of PCA, Vibrio sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Shewanella sp. counts, and fish microbiological quality. The present study provides, for the first time, a ready-to-use predictive model of fisheries hygiene, leading to an effective management system for the optimization of aquaculture fisheries quality.

Keywords: Microbiological, model, physicochemical, Seabream.

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607 Physicochemical Characterization of MFI–Ceramic Hollow Fibres Membranes for CO2 Separation with Alkali Metal Cation

Authors: A. Alshebani, Y. Swesi, S. Mrayed, F. Altaher

Abstract:

This paper present some preliminary work on the preparation and physicochemical caracterization of nanocomposite MFI-alumina structures based on alumina hollow fibres. The fibers are manufactured by a wet spinning process. α-alumina particles were dispersed in a solution of polysulfone in NMP. The resulting slurry is pressed through the annular gap of a spinneret into a precipitation bath. The resulting green fibres are sintered. The mechanical strength of the alumina hollow fibres is determined by a three-point-bending test while the pore size is characterized by bubble-point testing. The bending strength is in the range of 110 MPa while the average pore size is 450 nm for an internal diameter of 1 mm and external diameter of 1.7 mm. To characterize the MFI membranes various techniques were used for physicochemical characterization of MFI–ceramic hollow fibres membranes: The nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy combined with X emission microanalysis. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Microanalysis by the X-ray were used to observe the morphology of the hollow fibre membranes (thickness, infiltration into the carrier, defects, homogeneity). No surface film, has been obtained, as observed by SEM and EDX analysis and confirmed by high temperature variation of N2 and CO2 gas permeances before cation exchange. Local analysis and characterise (SEM and EDX) and overall (by ICP elemental analysis) were conducted on two samples exchanged to determine the quantity and distribution of the cation of cesium on the cross section fibre of the zeolite between the cavities.

Keywords: Physicochemical characterization of MFI, Ceramic hollow fibre, CO2, Ion-exchange.

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