Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 653

Search results for: food borne pathogens

653 PCR based Detection of Food Borne Pathogens

Authors: Archana Panchapakesan Iyer, Taha Abdullah Kumosani

Abstract:

Many high-risk pathogens that cause disease in humans are transmitted through various food items. Food-borne disease constitutes a major public health problem. Assessment of the quality and safety of foods is important in human health. Rapid and easy detection of pathogenic organisms will facilitate precautionary measures to maintain healthy food. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a handy tool for rapid detection of low numbers of bacteria. We have designed gene specific primers for most common food borne pathogens such as Staphylococci, Salmonella and E.coli. Bacteria were isolated from food samples of various food outlets and identified using gene specific PCRs. We identified Staphylococci, Salmonella and E.coli O157 using gene specific primers by rapid and direct PCR technique in various food samples. This study helps us in getting a complete picture of the various pathogens that threaten to cause and spread food borne diseases and it would also enable establishment of a routine procedure and methodology for rapid identification of food borne bacteria using the rapid technique of direct PCR. This study will also enable us to judge the efficiency of present food safety steps taken by food manufacturers and exporters.

Keywords: food borne pathogens, PCR, food safety, rapiddetection.

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652 Sterility Examination and Comparative Analyses of Inhibitory Effect of Honey on Some Gram Negative and Gram Positive Food Borne Pathogens in South West Nigeria

Authors: F. O. Omoya

Abstract:

Food borne illnesses have been reported to be a global health challenge. Annual incidences of food–related diseases involve 76 million cases, of which only 14 million can be traced to known pathogens. Poor hygienic practices have contributed greatly to this. It has been reported that in the year 2000 about 2.1 million people died from diarrheal diseases, hence, there is a need to ensure food safety at all level. This study focused on the sterility examination and inhibitory effect of honey samples on selected gram negative and gram positive food borne pathogen from South West Nigeria. The laboratory examinations revealed the presence of some bacterial and fungal contaminations of honey samples and that inhibitory activity of the honey sample was more pronounced on the gram negative bacteria than the gram positive bacterial isolates. Antibiotic sensitivity test conducted on the different bacterial isolates also showed that honey was able to inhibit the proliferation of the tested bacteria than the employed antibiotics.

Keywords: Food borne illness, gram positive and gram negative bacteria, honey, and inhibitory activity.

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651 Food Safety Culture Paramount Than Traditional Food Safety System and Food Safety Culture in South African Food Industries

Authors: Oluwatosin A. Ijabadeniyi

Abstract:

The fact that traditional food safety system in the absence of food safety culture is inadequate has recently become a cause of concern for food safety professionals and other stakeholders. Focusing on implementation of traditional food safety system i.e HACCP prerequisite program and HACCP without the presence of food safety culture in the food industry has led to the processing, marketing and distribution of contaminated foods. The results of this are regular out breaks of food borne illnesses and recalls of foods from retail outlets with serious consequences to the consumers and manufacturers alike. This article will consider the importance of food safety culture, the cases of outbreaks and recalls that occurred when companies did not make food safety culture a priority. Most importantly, the food safety cultures of some food industries in South Africa were assessed from responses to questionnaires from food safety/food industry professionals in Durban South Africa. The article was concluded by recommending that both food industry employees and employers alike take food safety culture seriously.

Keywords: Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), food borne illnesses, food safety culture, food safety system, HACCP.

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650 Formal Models of Sanitary Inspections Teams Activities

Authors: Tadeusz Nowicki, Radosław Pytlak, Robert Waszkowski, Jerzy Bertrandt, Anna Kłos

Abstract:

This paper presents methods for formal modeling of activities in the area of sanitary inspectors outbreak of food-borne diseases. The models allow you to measure the characteristics of the activities of sanitary inspection and as a result allow improving the performance of sanitary services and thus food security.

Keywords: Food-borne disease, epidemic, sanitary inspection, mathematical models.

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649 Some Immunological Characteristics of Tick- Borne Encephalitis in Perm Region

Authors: Some Immunological Characteristics of Tick- Borne Encephalitis in Perm Region

Abstract:

It is shown that the relationship of tick-borne encephalitis virus with the human body comes in two ways, the development of acute infection with the outcome in convalescence and long stay by the virus in the body, its persistence in the nervous tissue with periodic reactivation and prolonged circulating immunoglobulin M. In spite of the fact that tick-borne encephalitis virus has a tropism for nerve tissue, involvement in the process of blood cells is an integral component of the infection. Comprehensive study of the relation of factors of innate and adaptive immunity in the tick-borne encephalitis providing insight into the features of chronic disease.

Keywords: Tick-borne encephalitis, phagocytic activity, a progressive.

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648 Safety Assessment of Traditional Ready-to-Eat Meat Products Vended at Retail Outlets in Kebbi and Sokoto States, Nigeria

Authors: M. I. Ribah, M. Jibir, Y. A. Bashar, S. S. Manga

Abstract:

Food safety is a significant and growing public health problem in the world and Nigeria as a developing country, since food-borne diseases are important contributors to the huge burden of sickness and death of humans. In Nigeria, traditional ready-to-eat meat products (RTE-MPs) like balangu, tsire, guru and dried meat products like kilishi, dambun nama, banda, were reported to be highly appreciated because of their eating qualities. The consumption of these products was considered as safe due to the treatments that are usually involved during their production process. However, during processing and handling, the products could be contaminated by pathogens that could cause food poisoning. Therefore, a hazard identification for pathogenic bacteria on some traditional RTE-MPs was conducted in Kebbi and Sokoto States, Nigeria. A total of 116 RTE-MPs (balangu-38, kilishi-39 and tsire-39) samples were obtained from retail outlets and analyzed using standard cultural microbiological procedures in general and selective enrichment media to isolate the target pathogens. A six-fold serial dilution was prepared and using the pour plating method, colonies were counted. Serial dilutions were selected based on the prepared pre-labeled Petri dishes for each sample. A volume of 10-12 ml of molten Nutrient agar cooled to 42-45°C was poured into each Petri dish and 1 ml each from dilutions of 102, 104 and 106 for every sample was respectively poured on a pre-labeled Petri plate after which colonies were counted. The isolated pathogens were identified and confirmed after series of biochemical tests. Frequencies and percentages were used to describe the presence of pathogens. The General Linear Model was used to analyze data on pathogen presence according to RTE-MPs and means were separated using the Tukey test at 0.05 confidence level. Of the 116 RTE-MPs samples collected, 35 (30.17%) samples were found to be contaminated with some tested pathogens. Prevalence results showed that Escherichia coli, salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus were present in the samples. Mean total bacterial count was 23.82×106 cfu/g. The frequency of individual pathogens isolated was; Staphylococcus aureus 18 (15.51%), Escherichia coli 12 (10.34%) and Salmonella 5 (4.31%). Also, among the RTE-MPs tested, the total bacterial counts were found to differ significantly (P < 0.05), with 1.81, 2.41 and 2.9×104 cfu/g for tsire, kilishi, and balangu, respectively. The study concluded that the presence of pathogenic bacteria in balangu could pose grave health risks to consumers, and hence, recommended good manufacturing practices in the production of balangu to improve the products’ safety.

Keywords: Ready-to-eat meat products, retail outlets, safety assessment, public health.

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647 Exploratory Tests of Crude Bacteriocins from Autochthonous Lactic Acid Bacteria against Food-Borne Pathogens and Spoilage Bacteria

Authors: M. Naimi, M. B. Khaled

Abstract:

The aim of the present work was to test in vitro inhibition of food pathogens and spoilage bacteria by crude bacteriocins from autochthonous lactic acid bacteria. Thirty autochthonous lactic acid bacteria isolated previously, belonging to the genera: Lactobacillus, Carnobacterium, Lactococcus, Vagococcus, Streptococcus, and Pediococcus, have been screened by an agar spot test and a well diffusion assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative harmful bacteria: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa under conditions means to reduce lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide effect to select bacteria with high bacteriocinogenic potential. Furthermore, crude bacteriocins semiquantification and heat sensitivity to different temperatures (80, 95, 110°C, and 121°C) were performed. Another exploratory test concerning the response of St. aureus ATCC 6538 to the presence of crude bacteriocins was realized. It has been observed by the agar spot test that fifteen candidates were active toward Gram-positive targets strains. The secondary screening demonstrated an antagonistic activity oriented only against St. aureus ATCC 6538, leading to the selection of five isolates: Lm14, Lm21, Lm23, Lm24, and Lm25 with a larger inhibition zone compared to the others. The ANOVA statistical analysis reveals a small variation of repeatability: Lm21: 0.56%, Lm23: 0%, Lm25: 1.67%, Lm14: 1.88%, Lm24: 2.14%. Conversely, slight variation was reported in terms of inhibition diameters: 9.58± 0.40, 9.83± 0.46 and 10.16± 0.24 8.5 ± 0.40 10 mm for, Lm21, Lm23, Lm25, Lm14and Lm24, indicating that the observed potential showed a heterogeneous distribution (BMS = 0.383, WMS = 0.117). The repeatability coefficient calculated displayed 7.35%. As for the bacteriocins semiquantification, the five samples exhibited production amounts about 4.16 for Lm21, Lm23, Lm25 and 2.08 AU/ml for Lm14, Lm24. Concerning the sensitivity the crude bacteriocins were fully insensitive to heat inactivation, until 121°C, they preserved the same inhibition diameter. As to, kinetic of growth , the µmax showed reductions in pathogens load for Lm21, Lm23, Lm25, Lm14, Lm24 of about 42.92%, 84.12%, 88.55%, 54.95%, 29.97% in the second trails. Inversely, this pathogen growth after five hours displayed differences of 79.45%, 12.64%, 11.82%, 87.88%, 85.66% in the second trails, compared to the control. This study showed potential inhibition to the growth of this food pathogen, suggesting the possibility to improve the hygienic food quality.

Keywords: Exploratory test, lactic acid bacteria, crude bacteriocins, spoilage, pathogens.

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646 Bacteriological Quality of Commercially Prepared Fermented Ogi (Akamu) Sold in Some Parts of South Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Alloysius C. Ogodo, Ositadinma C. Ugbogu, Uzochukwu G. Ekeleme

Abstract:

Food poisoning and infection by bacteria are of public health significance to both developing and developed countries. Samples of ogi (akamu) prepared from white and yellow variety of maize sold in Uturu and Okigwe were analyzed together with the laboratory prepared ogi for bacterial quality using the standard microbiological methods. The analyses showed that both white and yellow variety had total bacterial counts (cfu/g) of 4.0 ×107 and 3.9 x 107 for the laboratory prepared ogi while the commercial ogi had 5.2 x 107 and 4.9 x107, 4.9 x107 and 4.5 x107, 5.4 x107 and 5.0 x107 for Eke-Okigwe, Up-gate and Nkwo-Achara market respectively. The Staphylococcal counts ranged from 2.0 x 102 to 5.0 x102 and 1.0 x 102 to 4.0 x102 for the white and yellow variety from the different markets while Staphylococcal growth was not recorded on the laboratory prepared ogi. The laboratory prepared ogi had no Coliform growth while the commercially prepared ogi had counts of 0.5 x103 to 1.6 x 103 for white variety and 0.3 x 103 to 1.1 x103 for yellow variety respectively. The Lactic acid bacterial count of 3.5x106 and 3.0x106 was recorded for the laboratory ogi while the commercially prepared ogi ranged from 3.2x106 to 4.2x106 (white variety) and 3.0 x106 to 3.9 x106 (yellow). The presence of bacteria isolates from the commercial and laboratory fermented ogi showed that Lactobacillus sp, Leuconostoc sp and Citrobacter sp were present in all the samples, Micrococcus sp and Klebsiella sp were isolated from Eke- Okigwe and ABSU-up-gate markets varieties respectively, E. coli and Staphylococcus sp were present in Eke-Okigwe and Nkwo- Achara markets while Salmonella sp were isolated from the three markets. Hence, there are chances of contracting food borne diseases from commercially prepared ogi. Therefore, there is the need for sanitary measures in the production of fermented cereals so as to minimize the rate of food borne pathogens during processing and storage.

Keywords: Bacterial quality, fermentation, maize, Ogi.

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645 The Effect of Lime Stabilization on E. coli Destruction and Heavy Metal Bioavailability in Sewage Sludge for Agricultural Utilization

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, M. Grifoni, A. Pera, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa

Abstract:

The addition of lime as Ca(OH)2 to sewage sludge to destroy pathogens (Escherichia coli), was evaluated also in relation to heavy metal bioavailability. The obtained results show that the use of calcium hydroxide at the dose of 3% effectively destroyed pathogens ensuring the stability at high pH values over long period and the duration of the sewage sludge stabilization. In general, lime addition decreased the total extractability of heavy metals indicating a reduced bioavailability of these elements. This is particularly important for a safe utilization in agricultural soils to reduce the possible transfer of heavy metals to the food chain.

Keywords: Biological sludge, Ca(OH)2, copper, pathogens, sanitation, zinc.

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644 Ports and Airports: Gateways to Vector-Borne Diseases in Portugal Mainland

Authors: Maria C. Proença, Maria T. Rebelo, Maria J. Alves, Sofia Cunha

Abstract:

Vector-borne diseases are transmitted to humans by mosquitos, sandflies, bugs, ticks, and other vectors. Some are re-transmitted between vectors, if the infected human has a new contact when his levels of infection are high. The vector is infected for lifetime and can transmit infectious diseases not only between humans but also from animals to humans. Some vector borne diseases are very disabling and globally account for more than one million deaths worldwide. The mosquitoes from the complex Culex pipiens sl. are the most abundant in Portugal, and we dispose in this moment of a data set from the surveillance program that has been carried on since 2006 across the country. All mosquitos’ species are included, but the large coverage of Culex pipiens sl. and its importance for public health make this vector an interesting candidate to assess risk of disease amplification. This work focus on ports and airports identified as key areas of high density of vectors. Mosquitoes being ectothermic organisms, the main factor for vector survival and pathogen development is temperature. Minima and maxima local air temperatures for each area of interest are averaged by month from data gathered on a daily basis at the national network of meteorological stations, and interpolated in a geographic information system (GIS). The range of temperatures ideal for several pathogens are known and this work shows how to use it with the meteorological data in each port and airport facility, to focus an efficient implementation of countermeasures and reduce simultaneously risk transmission and mitigation costs. The results show an increased alert with decreasing latitude, which corresponds to higher minimum and maximum temperatures and a lower amplitude range of the daily temperature.

Keywords: Human health, risk assessment, risk management, vector-borne diseases.

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643 Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis Pathogens in Malaysian Hospitals: Determining Empiric Antibiotic

Authors: Nazedah Ain Ibrahim, Mohamed Mansor Manan

Abstract:

Information regarding early onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) pathogens may vary between regions. Global perspectives showed Group B Streptococcal (GBS) as the most common causative pathogens, but the widespread use of intrapartum antibiotics has changed the pathogens pattern towards gram negative microorganisms, especially E. coli. Objective of this study is to describe the pathogens isolated, to assess current treatment and risk of EONS. Records of 899 neonates born in three General Hospitals between 2009 until 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Proven was found in 22 (3%) neonates. The majority was isolated with gram positive organisms, 17 (2.3%). All grams positive and most gram negative organisms showed sensitivity to the tested antibiotics. Only two rare gram negative organisms showed total resistant. Male was possible risk of proven EONS. Although proven EONS remains uncommon in Malaysia, nonetheless, the effect of intrapartum antibiotics still required continuous surveillance.

Keywords: Early onset neonatal sepsis, neonates, pathogens, gram positive, gram negative.

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642 Perception of Hygiene Knowledge among Staff Working in Top Five Famous Restaurants of Male’

Authors: Zulaikha Reesha Rashaad

Abstract:

One of the major factors which can contribute greatly to success of catering businesses is to employ food and beverage staff having sound hygiene knowledge. Individuals having sound knowledge of hygiene has a higher chance of following safe food practices in food production. One of the leading causes of food poisoning and food borne illnesses has been identified as lack of hygiene knowledge among food and beverage staff working in catering establishments and restaurants. This research aims to analyze the hygiene knowledge among food and beverage staff working in top five restaurants of Male’, in relation to their age, educational background, occupation and training. The research uses quantitative and descriptive methods in data collection and in data analysis. Data was obtained through random sampling technique with self-administered survey questionnaires which was completed by 60 respondents working in 5 different restaurants operating at top level in Male’. The respondents of the research were service staff and chefs working in these restaurants. The responses to the questionnaires have been analyzed by using SPSS. The results of the research indicated that age, education level, occupation and training correlated with hygiene knowledge perception scores.

Keywords: Food and beverage staff, food poisoning, food production, hygiene knowledge.

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641 Antimicrobial Agents Produced by Yeasts

Authors: T. Buyuksirit, H. Kuleasan

Abstract:

Natural antimicrobials are used to preserve foods that can be found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Antimicrobial substances are natural or artificial agents that produced by microorganisms or obtained semi/total chemical synthesis are used at low concentrations to inhibit the growth of other microorganisms. Food borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms are inactivated by the use of antagonistic microorganisms and their metabolites. Yeasts can produce toxic proteins or glycoproteins (toxins) that cause inhibition of sensitive bacteria and yeast species. Antimicrobial substance producing phenotypes belonging different yeast genus were isolated from different sources. Toxins secreted by many yeast strains inhibiting the growth of other yeast strains. These strains show antimicrobial activity, inhibiting the growth of mold and bacteria. The effect of antimicrobial agents produced by yeasts can be extremely fast, and therefore may be used in various treatment procedures. Rapid inhibition of microorganisms is possibly caused by microbial cell membrane lipopolysaccharide binding and in activation (neutralization) effect. Antimicrobial agents inhibit the target cells via different mechanisms of action.

Keywords: Antimicrobial agents, Glycoprotein, Toxic protein, Yeast.

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640 Determining Food Habits in Süleymanpasa Town of Tekirdag City, Turkey

Authors: Emine Yilmaz, Ismail Yilmaz, Harun Uran

Abstract:

Food-borne problems have been placed among the most leading problems of the society especially in recent years. This state arises as a problem which affects the society wholly such as the supply of food stuffs that are necessary for an individual to perform his physiological and biological functions, their amount, compound, their effects on health and distribution by individuals. This study was conducted in order to determine the sensitivities and criteria of people, who have different socio-economic backgrounds and live in Süleymanpasa Town of Tekirdag City, in their preference of food stuffs. The research data were collected by means of Interview Technique with individuals within the scope of the study (300) and applying surveys with convenience sampling. According to the research results, quality appears in the first rank among the factors by which consumers are affected while buying food stuffs. Consumers stated that they try to be careful with not buying food sold outdoors. The most preferred food among the ones being sold outdoor were found to be breakfast food. Also, food stuff which consumers become the most selective for while buying was determined to be meat and meat products. Due to general knowledge about the food stuff consumed in human nutrition may affect their health negatively; consumers expressed that they are very relevant with their diets and this circumstances affects their purchase preferences.  

Keywords: Consumption, food safety, consumer behavior, purchase preferences.

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639 Papain Immobilized Polyurethane Film as Antimicrobial Food Package

Authors: M. Cynthya, V. Prabhawathi, D. Mukesh

Abstract:

Food contamination occurs during post process handling. This leads to spoilage and growth of pathogenic microorganisms in the food, thereby reducing its shelf life or spreading of food borne diseases. Several methods are tried and one of which is use of antimicrobial packaging. Here, papain, a protease enzyme, is covalently immobilized with the help of glutarldehyde on polyurethane and used as a food wrap to protect food from microbial contamination. Covalent immobilization of papain was achieved at a pH of 7.4; temperature of 4°C; glutaraldehyde concentration of 0.5%; incubation time of 24h; and 50mg of papain. The formation of -C=Nobserved in the Fourier transform infrared spectrum confirmed the immobilization of the enzyme on the polymer. Immobilized enzyme retained higher activity than the native free enzyme. The modified polyurethane showed better reduction of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm than bare polymer film (eight folds reduction in live colonies, two times reduction in protein and 6 times reduction in carbohydrates). The efficacy of this was studied by wrapping it over S. aureus contaminated cottage cheese (paneer) and cheese and stored at a temperature of 4°C for 7days. The modified film reduced the bacterial contamination by eight folds when compared to the bare film. FTIR also indicated reduction in lipids, sugars and proteins in the biofilm.

Keywords: Cheese, Papain, polyurethane, Staphylococcus aureus.

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638 Rapid Detection System of Airborne Pathogens

Authors: Shigenori Togashi, Kei Takenaka

Abstract:

We developed new processes which can collect and detect rapidly airborne pathogens such as the avian flu virus for the pandemic prevention. The fluorescence antibody technique is known as one of high-sensitive detection methods for viruses, but this needs up to a few hours to bind sufficient fluorescence dyes to viruses for detection. In this paper, we developed a mist-labeling can detect substitution viruses in a short time to improve the binding rate of fluorescent dyes and substitution viruses by the micro reaction process. Moreover, we developed the rapid detection system with the above “mist labeling”. The detection system set with a sampling bag collecting patient’s breath and a cartridge can detect automatically pathogens within 10 minutes.

Keywords: Viruses, Sampler, Mist, Detection, Fluorescent dyes, Microreaction.

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637 Antibacterial Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Table Olives against Skin Pathogens

Authors: M. Shafighi, Z. Emami, M. Shahsanaei, E. Khaliliyan

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of LAB isolated from Iranian native olives on the opportunistic skin pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Lactic Acid Bacteria were isolated from the brine of each sample in the prior of time. The samples were spread on MRS agar for isolation of lactobacillus and for lactococcus. 28 strains of labs were isolated. The labs were centrifuged, the supernatant was strewed and pellet was used to inoculation in wells or at blank disks. 20μl of each pellet was inoculated to blank disks and 40μl of each pellet was inoculated to each well. The result of disk and well diffusion agar against these pathogens were confirmed each other. The size of inhibition zone was different according to the type of bacteria, the method and the concentrations of labs.

Keywords: Olive, Probiotic, Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), P.aeroginosa and S.aureus

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636 The Impact of the Cell-Free Solution of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Cadaverine Production by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in Lysine-Decarboxylase Broth

Authors: Fatih Özogul, Nurten Toy, Yesim Özogul

Abstract:

The influences of cell-free solutions (CFSs) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on cadaverine and other biogenic amines production by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated in lysine decarboxylase broth (LDB) using HPLC. Cell free solutions were prepared from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris, Pediococcus acidilactici and Streptococcus thermophiles. Two different concentrations that were 50% and 25% CFS and the control without CFSs were prepared. Significant variations on biogenic amine production were observed in the presence of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus (P < 0.05). The function of CFS on biogenic amine production by foodborne pathogens varied depending on strains and specific amine. Cadaverine formation by L. monocytogenes and S. aureus in control were 500.9 and 948.1 mg/L, respectively while the CFSs of LAB induced 4-fold lower cadaverine production by L. monocytogenes and 7-fold lower cadaverine production by S. aureus. The CFSs resulted in strong decreases in cadaverine and putrescine production by L. monocytogenes and S. aureus, although remarkable increases were observed for histamine, spermidine, spermine, serotonin, dopamine, tyramine and agmatine in the presence of LAB in lysine decarboxylase broth.

Keywords: Cell-free solution, lactic acid bacteria, cadaverine, food borne-pathogen.

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635 Food Deserts and the Sociology of Space: Distance to Food Retailers and Food Insecurity in an Urban American Neighborhood

Authors: Brian J. Thomas

Abstract:

Recent changes in food retailing structure have led to the development of large supercenters in suburban areas of the United States. These changes have led some authors to suggest that there are food deserts in some urban areas, where food is difficult to access, especially for disadvantaged consumers. This study tests the food desert hypothesis by comparing the distance from food retailers to food secure and food insecure households in one urban, Midwest neighborhood. This study utilizes GIS to compare household survey respondent locations against the location of various types of area food retailers. Results of this study indicate no apparent difference between food secure and insecure households in the reported importance of distance on the decision to shop at various retailers. However, there were differences in the spatial relationship between households and retailers. Food insecure households tended to be located slightly farther from large food retailers and slightly closer to convenience stores. Furthermore, food insecure households reported traveling slightly farther to their primary food retailer. The differences between the two groups was, however, relatively small.

Keywords: Food desert, food retailer, food security, sociology.

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634 A New Stability Analysis and Stabilization of Discrete-Time Switched Linear Systems Using Vector Norms Approach

Authors: Marwen Kermani, Anis Sakly, Faouzi M'sahli

Abstract:

In this paper, we aim to investigate a new stability analysis for discrete-time switched linear systems based on the comparison, the overvaluing principle, the application of Borne-Gentina criterion and the Kotelyanski conditions. This stability conditions issued from vector norms correspond to a vector Lyapunov function. In fact, the switched system to be controlled will be represented in the Companion form. A comparison system relative to a regular vector norm is used in order to get the simple arrow form of the state matrix that yields to a suitable use of Borne-Gentina criterion for the establishment of sufficient conditions for global asymptotic stability. This proposed approach could be a constructive solution to the state and static output feedback stabilization problems.

Keywords: Discrete-time switched linear systems, Global asymptotic stability, Vector norms, Borne-Gentina criterion, Arrow form state matrix, Arbitrary switching, State feedback controller, Static output feedback controller.

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633 The Effect of Damping Treatment for Noise Control on Offshore Platforms Using Statistical Energy Analysis

Authors: Ji Xi, Cheng Song Chin, Ehsan Mesbahi

Abstract:

Structure-borne noise is an important aspect of offshore platform sound field. It can be generated either directly by vibrating machineries induced mechanical force, indirectly by the excitation of structure or excitation by incident airborne noise. Therefore, limiting of the transmission of vibration energy throughout the offshore platform is the key to control the structureborne noise. This is usually done by introducing damping treatment to the steel structures. Two types of damping treatment using onboard are presented. By conducting a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) simulation on a jack-up rig, the noise level in the source room, the neighboring rooms, and remote living quarter cabins are compared before and after the damping treatments been applied. The results demonstrated that, in the source neighboring room and living quarter area, there is a significant noise reduction with the damping treatment applied, whereas in the source room where air-borne sound predominates that of structure-borne sound, the impact is not obvious. The conclusion on effective damping treatment in the offshore platform is made which enable acoustic professionals to implement noise control during the design stage for offshore crews’ hearing protection and habitant comfortability.

Keywords: Statistical energy analysis, damping treatment, noise control, offshore platform.

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632 An Assessment of Food Control System and Development Perspective: The Case of Myanmar

Authors: Wai Yee Lin, Masahiro Yamao

Abstract:

Food control measures are critical in fostering food safety management of a nation. However, no academic study has been undertaken to assess the food control system of Myanmar up to now. The objective of this research paper was to assess the food control system with in depth examination of five key components using desktop analysis and short survey from related food safety program organizations including regulators and inspectors. Study showed that the existing food control system is conventional, mainly focusing on primary health care approach while relying on reactive measures. The achievements of food control work have been limited to a certain extent due to insufficienttechnical capacity that is needed to upgrade staffs, laboratory equipment and technical assistance etc. associated with various sectors. Assessing food control measures is the first step in the integration of food safety management, this paper could assist policy makers in providing information for enhancing the safety and quality of food produced and consumed in Myanmar.

Keywords: Food Control, Food Policy, Legislation, Management

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631 The Antibacterial Efficacy of Gold Nanoparticles Derived from Gomphrena celosioides and Prunus amygdalus (Almond) Leaves on Selected Bacterial Pathogens

Authors: M. E. Abalaka, S. Y. Daniyan, S. O. Adeyemo, D. Damisa

Abstract:

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have gained increasing interest in recent times. This is greatly due to their special features, which include unusual optical and electronic properties, high stability and biological compatibility, controllable morphology and size dispersion, and easy surface functionalization. In typical synthesis, AuNPs were produced by reduction of gold salt AuCl4 in an appropriate solvent. A stabilizing agent was added to prevent the particles from aggregating. The antibacterial activity of different sizes of gold nanoparticles was investigated against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas pneumonia using the disk diffusion method in a Müeller–Hinton Agar. The Au-NPs were effective against all bacteria tested. That the Au-NPs were successfully synthesized in suspension and were used to study the antibacterial activity of the two medicinal plants against some bacterial pathogens suggests that Au-NPs can be employed as an effective bacteria inhibitor and may be an effective tool in medical field. The study clearly showed that the Au-NPs exhibiting inhibition towards the tested pathogenic bacteria in vitro could have the same effects in vivo and thus may be useful in the medical field if well researched into.

Keywords: Gold Nanoparticles, Gomphrena celesioides, Prunus amygdalus, Pathogens.

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630 Food Security in Nigeria: An Examination of Food Availability and Accessibility in Nigeria

Authors: Chimaobi Valentine Okolo, Chizoba Obidigbo

Abstract:

As a basic physiology need, threat to sufficient food production is threat to human survival. Food security has been an issue that has gained global concern. This paper looks at the food security in Nigeria by assessing the availability of food and accessibility of the available food. The paper employed multiple linear regression technique and graphic trends of growth rates of relevant variables to show the situation of food security in Nigeria. Results of the tests revealed that population growth rate was higher than the growth rate of food availability in Nigeria for the earlier period of the study. Commercial bank credit to agricultural sector, foreign exchange utilization for food and the Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF) contributed significantly to food availability in Nigeria. Food prices grew at a faster rate than the average income level, making it difficult to access sufficient food. It implies that prior to the year 2012; there was insufficient food to feed the Nigerian populace. However, continued credit to the food and agricultural sector will ensure sustained and sufficient production of food in Nigeria. Microfinance banks should make sufficient credit available to smallholder farmer. Government should further control and subsidize the rising price of food to make it more accessible by the people.

Keywords: Food security, food availability and food accessibility.

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629 The Effect of Fast Food Globalisation on Students’ Food Choice

Authors: Ijeoma Chinyere Ukonu

Abstract:

This research seeks to investigate how the globalisation of fast food has affected students’ food choice. A mixed method approach was used in this research; basically involving quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative method uses a self-completion questionnaire to randomly sample one hundred and four students; while the qualitative method uses a semi structured interview technique to survey four students on their knowledge and choice to consume fast food. A cross tabulation of variables and the Kruskal Wallis nonparametric test were used to analyse the quantitative data; while the qualitative data was analysed through deduction of themes, and trends from the interview transcribe. The findings revealed that globalisation has amplified the evolution of fast food, popularising it among students. Its global presence has affected students’ food choice and preference. Price, convenience, taste, and peer influence are some of the major factors affecting students’ choice of fast food. Though, students are familiar with the health effect of fast food and the significance of using food information labels for healthy choice making, their preference of fast food is more than homemade food.

Keywords: Fast food, food choice, globalisation, students.

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628 Environmental Friendly Polyurethane Coatings Based On Hyperbranched Resin

Authors: Ashraf M. Elsaid, Magd M. Badr, Mohamed S. Selim

Abstract:

Water borne polyurethane (PU) based on newly prepared hyperbranched poly (amine-ester) (HBPAE) was applied and evaluated as organic coating material. HBPAE was prepared through one-pot synthesis between trimethylol propane as a core and AB2 branched monomer which was obtained via Michal addition of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and diethanol amine (DEA). PU was prepared from HBPAE using different ratios of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) to form cured coating film. The prepared HBPAE was characterized using; GPC, FT-IR and 1H-NMR. The mechanical properties (impact, hardness, adhesion, and flexibility), thermal properties (DSC and TGA) and chemical resistance of the applied film were estimated. The results indicated 50% of TDI is the selected ratio. This formulation represents a promising candidate to be used as coating material.

Keywords: Curing, Hyperbranched polymer, Polyurethane, Urethane-acrylates, water borne Coatings.

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627 Determination of in Vitro Susceptibility of the Typhoid Pathogens to Synergistic Action of Euphorbia Hirta, Euphorbia Heterophylla and Phyllanthus Niruri for Possible Development of Effective Anti-Typhoid Drugs

Authors: Abalaka, M. E., Daniyan, S. Y., Adeyemo, S. O.

Abstract:

Studies were carried out to determine the in vitro susceptibility of the typhoid pathogens to combined action of Euphorbia hirta, Euphorbia heterophylla and Phyllanthus niruri. Clinical isolates of the typhoid bacilli were subjected to susceptibility testing using agar diffusion technique and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determined with tube dilution technique. These isolates, when challenged with doses of the extracts from the three medicinal plants showed zones of inhibition as wide as 26±0.2mm, 22±0.1mm and 18±0.0mm respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) revealed organisms inhibited at varying concentrations of extracts: E. hirta (S. typhi 0.250mg/ml, S. paratyphi A 0.125mg/ml, S. paratyphi B 0.185mg/ml and S. paratyphi C 0.225mg/ml), E. heterophylla (S. typhi 0.280mg/ml, S. paratyphi A 0.150mg/ml, S. paratyphi B 0.200mg/ml and S. paratyphi C 0.250mg/ml) and P. niruri (S. typhi 0.150mg/ml, S. paratyphi A 0.100mg/ml, S. paratyphi B 0.115mg/ml and S. paratyphi C 0.125mg/ml). The results of the synergy between the three plants in the ration of 1:1:1 showed very low MICs for the test pathogens as follows S. typhi 0.025mg/ml, S. paratyphi A 0.080mg/ml, S. paratyphi B 0.015mg/ml and S. paratyphi C 0.10mg/ml with the diameter zone of inhibition (DZI) ranging from 35±0.2mm, 28±0.4mm, 20±0.1mm and 32±0.3mm respectively. The secondary metabolites were identified using simple methods and HPLC. Organic components such as anthroquinones, different alkaloids, tannins, 6-ethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2,2,4-trimethyl and steroids were identified. The prevalence of Salmonellae, a deadly infectious disease, is still very high in parts of Nigeria. The synergistic action of these three plants is very high. It is concluded that pharmaceutical companies should take advantage of these findings to develop new anti-typhoid drugs from these plants.

Keywords: A Prevalence, Susceptibility, Synergistic, Typhoid pathogens.

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626 IT System in the Food Supply Chain Safety: Application in SMEs Sector

Authors: Mohsen Shirani, Micaela Demichela

Abstract:

Food supply chain is one of the most complex supply chain networks due to its perishable nature and customer oriented products, and food safety is the major concern for this industry. IT system could help to minimize the production and consumption of unsafe food by controlling and monitoring the entire system. However, there have been many issues in adoption of IT system in this industry specifically within SMEs sector. With this regard, this study presents a novel approach to use IT and tractability systems in the food supply chain, using application of RFID and central database.

Keywords: Food Supply Chain, IT System, Food Safety, SME.

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625 Integration of FMEA and Human Factor in the Food Chain Risk Assessment

Authors: Mohsen Shirani, Micaela Demichela

Abstract:

During the last decades, a number of food crises such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), Mad-Cow disease, Dioxin in chicken food, Food-and-Mouth Disease (FMD), have certainly inflected the reliability of the food industry. Consequently, the trend in applying different scientific methods of risk assessment in food safety has obtained more attentions in the academic and practice. However, lack of practical approach considering entire food supply chain is tangible in the academic literature. In this regard, this paper aims to apply risk assessment tool (FMEA) with integration of Human Factor along the entire supply chain of food production and test the method in a case study of Diary production, and analyze its results.

Keywords: Food Risk Assessment, FMEA, Human Factor.

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624 Food Package Design to Preserve Food Temperature

Authors: Sugiono, W. Ardiatna, H. Firdaus, N. Kusnandar, B. Utomo, J. A. Kadar

Abstract:

It is desirable that most human food is warm when eaten, including when food is obtained by taking it away from the point of sale in disposable food packaging. However, such packaging does not retain heat for a long time, which is necessary to ensure the food remains warm when eaten. The study looked for single-use food packaging that could retain the heat of the food for a long time. The methodology for obtaining such packaging is either by modifying available packages on the market or by making new ones with materials that are easily obtained locally, then testing by loading the local food and measuring its temperature and the length of time until it reaches the lowest acceptable temperature for hot food (56°C). Packages made of plastic boxes lined with thin aluminum foil on the inside are the best way to keep food warm for up to 44 minutes from the time it is put in the package to the time the required temperature is reached. Moreover, packaging made of local common food paper, where the food was put in a transparent plastic bag inside the package, was found to be the simplest package that could retain heat for 82.31% as long as the best packaging could, in this study. Plastic boxes with thin aluminum foil inside were the best single-use food packaging in this study that served to keep hot food warm and fit for consumption.

Keywords: Aluminum foil, hot food, local food, packaging.

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