Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Archana Panchapakesan Iyer

17 PCR based Detection of Food Borne Pathogens

Authors: Archana Panchapakesan Iyer, Taha Abdullah Kumosani

Abstract:

Many high-risk pathogens that cause disease in humans are transmitted through various food items. Food-borne disease constitutes a major public health problem. Assessment of the quality and safety of foods is important in human health. Rapid and easy detection of pathogenic organisms will facilitate precautionary measures to maintain healthy food. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a handy tool for rapid detection of low numbers of bacteria. We have designed gene specific primers for most common food borne pathogens such as Staphylococci, Salmonella and E.coli. Bacteria were isolated from food samples of various food outlets and identified using gene specific PCRs. We identified Staphylococci, Salmonella and E.coli O157 using gene specific primers by rapid and direct PCR technique in various food samples. This study helps us in getting a complete picture of the various pathogens that threaten to cause and spread food borne diseases and it would also enable establishment of a routine procedure and methodology for rapid identification of food borne bacteria using the rapid technique of direct PCR. This study will also enable us to judge the efficiency of present food safety steps taken by food manufacturers and exporters.

Keywords: food borne pathogens, PCR, food safety, rapiddetection.

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16 Experimental Investigation of Natural Frequency and Forced Vibration of Euler-Bernoulli Beam under Displacement of Concentrated Mass and Load

Authors: Aref Aasi, Sadegh Mehdi Aghaei, Balaji Panchapakesan

Abstract:

This work aims to evaluate the free and forced vibration of a beam with two end joints subjected to a concentrated moving mass and a load using the Euler-Bernoulli method. The natural frequency is calculated for different locations of the concentrated mass and load on the beam. The analytical results are verified by the experimental data. The variations of natural frequency as a function of the location of the mass, the effect of the forced frequency on the vibrational amplitude, and the displacement amplitude versus time are investigated. It is discovered that as the concentrated mass moves toward the center of the beam, the natural frequency of the beam and the relative error between experimental and analytical data decreases. There is a close resemblance between analytical data and experimental observations.

Keywords: Euler-Bernoulli beam, natural frequency, forced vibration, experimental setup.

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15 Design of Low Noise Amplifiers for 10 GHz Application

Authors: Makesh Iyer, T. Shanmuganantham

Abstract:

This work deals with the designing of an efficient low noise amplifier for 10.00 GHz applications. The amplifier is designed using Gallium Arsenide High Electron Mobility Transistor (GaAs HEMT) ATF – 36077 with inductive source degeneration technique which is one of the techniques to improve the stability of the potentially unstable device and make it unconditionally stable. Also, different substrates are used for designing the LNA to identify the suitable substrate that gives optimum results. It is observed that the noise immunity is more in Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) designed using RT Duroid 5880 substrate. This design resulted in noise figure of 0.859 dB and power gain of 15.530 dB. The comparative analysis of the LNA design is discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Low noise amplifier, substrate, distributed components, gain, noise figure.

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14 All-Pairs Shortest-Paths Problem for Unweighted Graphs in O(n2 log n) Time

Authors: Udaya Kumar Reddy K. R, K. Viswanathan Iyer

Abstract:

Given a simple connected unweighted undirected graph G = (V (G), E(G)) with |V (G)| = n and |E(G)| = m, we present a new algorithm for the all-pairs shortest-path (APSP) problem. The running time of our algorithm is in O(n2 log n). This bound is an improvement over previous best known O(n2.376) time bound of Raimund Seidel (1995) for general graphs. The algorithm presented does not rely on fast matrix multiplication. Our algorithm with slight modifications, enables us to compute the APSP problem for unweighted directed graph in time O(n2 log n), improving a previous best known O(n2.575) time bound of Uri Zwick (2002).

Keywords: Distance in graphs, Dynamic programming, Graphalgorithms, Shortest paths.

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13 Increased Capacity of Information Hiding in LSB-s Method for Text and Image

Authors: H.B.Kekre, Archana Athawale, Pallavi N.Halarnkar

Abstract:

Steganography, derived from Greek, literally means “covered writing". It includes a vast array of secret communications methods that conceal the message-s very existence. These methods include invisible inks, microdots, character arrangement, digital signatures, covert channels, and spread spectrum communications. This paper proposes a new improved version of Least Significant Bit (LSB) method. The approach proposed is simple for implementation when compared to Pixel value Differencing (PVD) method and yet achieves a High embedding capacity and imperceptibility. The proposed method can also be applied to 24 bit color images and achieve embedding capacity much higher than PVD.

Keywords: Information Hiding, LSB Matching, PVD Steganography.

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12 Preparation and Bioevaluation of DOTA-Cyclic RGD Peptide Dimer Labeled with 68Ga

Authors: Archana Mukherjee, Aruna Korde, Sudipta Chakraborty, H. D. Sarma, Grace Samuel, M. R. A. Pillai

Abstract:

Radiolabeled cyclic RGD peptides targeting integrin αvβ3 are reported as promising agents for the early diagnosis of metastatic tumors. With an aim to improve tumor uptake and retention of the peptide, cyclic RGD peptide dimer E[c (RGDfK)] 2 (E = Glutamic acid, f = phenyl alanine, K = lysine) coupled to the bifunctional chelator DOTA was custom synthesized and radiolabelled with 68Ga. Radiolabelling of cyclic RGD peptide dimer with 68Ga was carried out using HEPES buffer and biological evaluation of the complex was done in nude mice bearing HT29 tumors.

Keywords: 68Ga peptides, Angiogenesis imaging, Cyclic RGD peptides, PET Imaging.

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11 Monotonic and Cyclic J-integral Estimation for Through-Wall Cracked Straight Pipes

Authors: Rohit, S. Vishnuvardhan, P. Gandhi, Nagesh R. Iyer

Abstract:

The evaluation of energy release rate and centre Crack Opening Displacement (COD) for circumferential Through-Wall Cracked (TWC) pipes is an important issue in the assessment of critical crack length for unstable fracture. The ability to predict crack growth continues to be an important component of research for several structural materials. Crack growth predictions can aid the understanding of the useful life of a structural component and the determination of inspection intervals and criteria. In this context, studies were carried out at CSIR-SERC on Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) piping components subjected to monotonic as well as cyclic loading to assess the damage for crack growth due to low-cycle fatigue in circumferentially TWC pipes.

Keywords: 304LN stainless steel, cyclic J-integral, Elastic- Plastic Fracture Mechanics, J-integral, Through-wall crack

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10 Vector Control of Multimotor Drive

Authors: Archana S. Nanoty, A. R. Chudasama

Abstract:

Three-phase induction machines are today a standard for industrial electrical drives. Cost, reliability, robustness and maintenance free operation are among the reasons these machines are replacing dc drive systems. The development of power electronics and signal processing systems has eliminated one of the greatest disadvantages of such ac systems, which is the issue of control. With modern techniques of field oriented vector control, the task of variable speed control of induction machines is no longer a disadvantage. The need to increase system performance, particularly when facing limits on the power ratings of power supplies and semiconductors, motivates the use of phase number other than three, In this paper a novel scheme of connecting two, three phase induction motors in parallel fed by two inverters; viz. VSI and CSI and their vector control is presented.

Keywords: Field oriented control, multiphase induction motor, power electronics converter.

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9 Design and Optimization of a Microstrip Patch Antenna for Increased Bandwidth

Authors: Ankit Jain, Archana Agrawal

Abstract:

With the ever-increasing need for wireless communication and the emergence of many systems, it is important to design broadband antennas to cover a wide frequency range. The aim of this paper is to design a broadband patch antenna, employing the three techniques of slotting, adding directly coupled parasitic elements, and fractal EBG structures. The bandwidth is improved from 9.32% to 23.77%. A wideband ranging from 4.15 GHz to 5.27 GHz is obtained. Also a comparative analysis of embedding EBG structures at different heights is also done. The composite effect of integrating these techniques in the design provides a simple and efficient method for obtaining low profile, broadband, high gain antenna. By the addition of parasitic elements the bandwidth was increased to only 18.04%. Later on by embedding EBG structures the bandwidth was increased up to 23.77%. The design is suitable for variety of wireless applications like WLAN and Radar Applications.

Keywords: Bandwidth, broadband, EBG structures, parasitic elements, Slotting.

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8 Estimating an Optimal Neighborhood Size in the Spherical Self-Organizing Feature Map

Authors: Alexandros Leontitsis, Archana P. Sangole

Abstract:

This article presents a short discussion on optimum neighborhood size selection in a spherical selforganizing feature map (SOFM). A majority of the literature on the SOFMs have addressed the issue of selecting optimal learning parameters in the case of Cartesian topology SOFMs. However, the use of a Spherical SOFM suggested that the learning aspects of Cartesian topology SOFM are not directly translated. This article presents an approach on how to estimate the neighborhood size of a spherical SOFM based on the data. It adopts the L-curve criterion, previously suggested for choosing the regularization parameter on problems of linear equations where their right-hand-side is contaminated with noise. Simulation results are presented on two artificial 4D data sets of the coupled Hénon-Ikeda map.

Keywords: Parameter estimation, self-organizing feature maps, spherical topology.

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7 EPR Hiding in Medical Images for Telemedicine

Authors: K. A. Navas, S. Archana Thampy, M. Sasikumar

Abstract:

Medical image data hiding has strict constrains such as high imperceptibility, high capacity and high robustness. Achieving these three requirements simultaneously is highly cumbersome. Some works have been reported in the literature on data hiding, watermarking and stegnography which are suitable for telemedicine applications. None is reliable in all aspects. Electronic Patient Report (EPR) data hiding for telemedicine demand it blind and reversible. This paper proposes a novel approach to blind reversible data hiding based on integer wavelet transform. Experimental results shows that this scheme outperforms the prior arts in terms of zero BER (Bit Error Rate), higher PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio), and large EPR data embedding capacity with WPSNR (Weighted Peak Signal to Noise Ratio) around 53 dB, compared with the existing reversible data hiding schemes.

Keywords: Biomedical imaging, Data security, Datacommunication, Teleconferencing.

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6 Stress Intensity Factors for Plates with Collinear and Non-Aligned Straight Cracks

Authors: Surendran M, Palani G. S, Nagesh R. Iyer

Abstract:

Multi-site damage (MSD) has been a challenge to aircraft, civil and power plant structures. In real life components are subjected to cracking at many vulnerable locations such as the bolt holes. However, we do not consider for the presence of multiple cracks. Unlike components with a single crack, these components are difficult to predict. When two cracks approach one another, their stress fields influence each other and produce enhancing or shielding effect depending on the position of the cracks. In the present study, numerical studies on fracture analysis have been conducted by using the developed code based on the modified virtual crack closure integral (MVCCI) technique and finite element analysis (FEA) software ABAQUS for computing SIF of plates with multiple cracks. Various parametric studies have been carried out and the results have been compared with literature where ever available and also with the solution, obtained by using ABAQUS. By conducting extensive numerical studies expressions for SIF have been obtained for collinear cracks and non-aligned cracks.

Keywords: Crack interaction, Fracture mechanics, Multiple site damage, stress intensity factor, collinear cracks, non-aligned cracks.

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5 Evaluation of the ANN Based Nonlinear System Models in the MSE and CRLB Senses

Authors: M.V Rajesh, Archana R, A Unnikrishnan, R Gopikakumari, Jeevamma Jacob

Abstract:

The System Identification problem looks for a suitably parameterized model, representing a given process. The parameters of the model are adjusted to optimize a performance function based on error between the given process output and identified process output. The linear system identification field is well established with many classical approaches whereas most of those methods cannot be applied for nonlinear systems. The problem becomes tougher if the system is completely unknown with only the output time series is available. It has been reported that the capability of Artificial Neural Network to approximate all linear and nonlinear input-output maps makes it predominantly suitable for the identification of nonlinear systems, where only the output time series is available. [1][2][4][5]. The work reported here is an attempt to implement few of the well known algorithms in the context of modeling of nonlinear systems, and to make a performance comparison to establish the relative merits and demerits.

Keywords: Multilayer neural networks, Radial Basis Functions, Clustering algorithm, Back Propagation training, Extended Kalmanfiltering, Mean Square Error, Nonlinear Modeling, Cramer RaoLower Bound.

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4 Case Study Approach Using Scenario Analysis to Analyze Unabsorbed Head Office Overheads

Authors: K. C. Iyer, T. Gupta, Y. M. Bindal

Abstract:

Head office overhead (HOOH) is an indirect cost and is recovered through individual project billings by the contractor. Delay in a project impacts the absorption of HOOH cost allocated to that particular project and thus diminishes the expected profit of the contractor. This unabsorbed HOOH cost is later claimed by contractors as damages. The subjective nature of the available formulae to compute unabsorbed HOOH is the difficulty that contractors and owners face and thus dispute it. The paper attempts to bring together the rationale of various HOOH formulae by gathering contractor’s HOOH cost data on all of its project, using case study approach and comparing variations in values of HOOH using scenario analysis. The case study approach uses project data collected from four construction projects of a contractor in India to calculate unabsorbed HOOH costs from various available formulae. Scenario analysis provides further variations in HOOH values after considering two independent situations mainly scope changes and new projects during the delay period. Interestingly, one of the findings in this study reveals that, in spite of HOOH getting absorbed by additional works available during the period of delay, a few formulae depict an increase in the value of unabsorbed HOOH, neglecting any absorption by the increase in scope. This indicates that these formulae are inappropriate for use in case of a change to the scope of work. Results of this study can help both parties in deciding on an appropriate formula more objectively, considering the events on a project causing the delay and contractor's position in respect of obtaining new projects.

Keywords: Absorbed and unabsorbed overheads, head office overheads, scenario analysis, scope variation

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3 Mathematical Modeling of Wind Energy System for Designing Fault Tolerant Control

Authors: Patil Ashwini, Archana Thosar

Abstract:

This paper addresses the mathematical model of wind energy system useful for designing fault tolerant control. To serve the demand of power, large capacity wind energy systems are vital. These systems are installed offshore where non planned service is very costly. Whenever there is a fault in between two planned services, the system may stop working abruptly. This might even lead to the complete failure of the system. To enhance the reliability, the availability and reduce the cost of maintenance of wind turbines, the fault tolerant control systems are very essential. For designing any control system, an appropriate mathematical model is always needed. In this paper, the two-mass model is modified by considering the frequent mechanical faults like misalignments in the drive train, gears and bearings faults. These faults are subject to a wear process and cause frictional losses. This paper addresses these faults in the mathematics of the wind energy system. Further, the work is extended to study the variations of the parameters namely generator inertia constant, spring constant, viscous friction coefficient and gear ratio; on the pole-zero plot which is related with the physical design of the wind turbine. Behavior of the wind turbine during drive train faults are simulated and briefly discussed.

Keywords: Mathematical model of wind energy system, stability analysis, shaft stiffness, viscous friction coefficient, gear ratio, generator inertia, fault tolerant control.

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2 Stereo Motion Tracking

Authors: Yudhajit Datta, Jonathan Bandi, Ankit Sethia, Hamsi Iyer

Abstract:

Motion Tracking and Stereo Vision are complicated, albeit well-understood problems in computer vision. Existing softwares that combine the two approaches to perform stereo motion tracking typically employ complicated and computationally expensive procedures. The purpose of this study is to create a simple and effective solution capable of combining the two approaches. The study aims to explore a strategy to combine the two techniques of two-dimensional motion tracking using Kalman Filter; and depth detection of object using Stereo Vision. In conventional approaches objects in the scene of interest are observed using a single camera. However for Stereo Motion Tracking; the scene of interest is observed using video feeds from two calibrated cameras. Using two simultaneous measurements from the two cameras a calculation for the depth of the object from the plane containing the cameras is made. The approach attempts to capture the entire three-dimensional spatial information of each object at the scene and represent it through a software estimator object. In discrete intervals, the estimator tracks object motion in the plane parallel to plane containing cameras and updates the perpendicular distance value of the object from the plane containing the cameras as depth. The ability to efficiently track the motion of objects in three-dimensional space using a simplified approach could prove to be an indispensable tool in a variety of surveillance scenarios. The approach may find application from high security surveillance scenes such as premises of bank vaults, prisons or other detention facilities; to low cost applications in supermarkets and car parking lots.

Keywords: Kalman Filter, Stereo Vision, Motion Tracking, Matlab, Object Tracking, Camera Calibration, Computer Vision System Toolbox.

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1 Mechanical Properties of Ultra High Performance Concrete

Authors: Prabhat Ranjan Prem, B.H.Bharatkumar, Nagesh R Iyer

Abstract:

A research program is conducted to evaluate the mechanical properties of Ultra High Performance Concrete, target compressive strength at the age of 28 days being more than 150 MPa. The methodology to develop such mix has been explained. The material properties, mix design and curing regime are determined. The material attributes are understood by studying the stress strain behaviour of UHPC cylinders under uniaxial compressive loading. The load –crack mouth opening displacement (cmod) of UHPC beams, flexural strength and fracture energy was evaluated using third point loading test. Compressive strength and Split tensile strength results are determined to find out the compressive and tensile behaviour. Residual strength parameters are presented vividly explaining the flexural performance, toughness of concrete.Durability studies were also done to compare the effect of fibre to that of a control mix For all the studies the Mechanical properties were evaluated by varying the percentage and aspect ratio of steel fibres The results reflected that higher aspect ratio and fibre volume produced drastic changes in the cube strength, cylinder strength, post peak response, load-cmod, fracture energy flexural strength, split tensile strength, residual strength and durability. In regards to null application of UHPC in India, an initiative is undertaken to comprehend the mechanical behaviour of UHPC, which will be vital for longer run in commercialization for structural applications.

Keywords: Ultra High Performance Concrete, Reinforcement Index, Compressive Strength, Tensile Strength, Flexural Strength, Residual Strength, Fracture Energy, Stress-Strain Relationships, Load-Crack Mouth Opening Displacement and Durability.

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