Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1366

# Search results for: exchanging one element

##### 1366 New Scheme in Determining nth Order Diagrams for Cross Multiplication Method via Combinatorial Approach

Authors: Sharmila Karim, Haslinda Ibrahim, Zurni Omar

Abstract:

In this paper, a new recursive strategy is proposed for determining $\frac{(n-1)!}{2}$ of $n$th order diagrams. The generalization of $n$th diagram for cross multiplication method were proposed by Pavlovic and Bankier but the specific rule of determining $\frac{(n-1)!}{2}$ of the $n$th order diagrams for square matrix is yet to be discovered. Thus using combinatorial approach, $\frac{(n-1)!}{2}$ of the $n$th order diagrams will be presented as $\frac{(n-1)!}{2}$ starter sets. These starter sets will be generated based on exchanging one element. The advantages of this new strategy are the discarding process was eliminated and the sign of starter set is alternated to each others.

##### 1365 Mapping of C* Elements in Finite Element Method using Transformation Matrix

Authors: G. H. Majzoob, B. Sharifi Hamadani

Abstract:

Mapping between local and global coordinates is an important issue in finite element method, as all calculations are performed in local coordinates. The concern arises when subparametric are used, in which the shape functions of the field variable and the geometry of the element are not the same. This is particularly the case for C* elements in which the extra degrees of freedoms added to the nodes make the elements sub-parametric. In the present work, transformation matrix for C1* (an 8-noded hexahedron element with 12 degrees of freedom at each node) is obtained using equivalent C0 elements (with the same number of degrees of freedom). The convergence rate of 8-noded C1* element is nearly equal to its equivalent C0 element, while it consumes less CPU time with respect to the C0 element. The existence of derivative degrees of freedom at the nodes of C1* element along with excellent convergence makes it superior compared with it equivalent C0 element. Downloads 2961
##### 1364 On Convergence of Affine Thin Plate Bending Element

Abstract:

In the present paper the displacement-based nonconforming quadrilateral affine thin plate bending finite element ARPQ4 is presented, derived directly from non-conforming quadrilateral thin plate bending finite element RPQ4 proposed by Wanji and Cheung [19]. It is found, however, that element RPQ4 is only conditionally unisolvent. The new element is shown to be inherently unisolvent. This convenient property results in the element ARPQ4 being more robust and thus better suited for computations than its predecessor. The convergence is proved and the rate of convergence estimated. The mathematically rigorous proof of convergence presented in the paper is based on Stummel-s generalized patch test and the consideration of the element approximability condition, which are both necessary and sufficient for convergence.

##### 1363 The Effect of Geometry Dimensions on the Earthquake Response of the Finite Element Method

Authors: Morteza Jiryaei Sharahi

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of width and height of the model on the earthquake response in the finite element method is discussed. For this purpose an earth dam as a soil structure under earthquake has been considered. Various dam-foundation models are analyzed by Plaxis, a finite element package for solving geotechnical problems. The results indicate considerable differences in the seismic responses.

Keywords: Geometry dimensions, finite element, earthquake

##### 1362 Predicting Crack Initiation Due to Ratchetting in Rail Heads Using Critical Element Analysis

Abstract:

This paper presents a strategy to predict the lifetime of rails subjected to large rolling contact loads that induce ratchetting strains in the rail head. A critical element concept is used to calculate the number of loading cycles needed for crack initiation to occur in the rail head surface. In this technique the finite element method (FEM) is used to determine the maximum equivalent ratchetting strain per load cycle, which is calculated by combining longitudinal and shear stains in the critical element. This technique builds on a previously developed critical plane concept that has been used to calculate the number of cycles to crack initiation in rolling contact fatigue under ratchetting failure conditions. The critical element concept simplifies the analytical difficulties of critical plane analysis. Finite element analysis (FEA) is used to identify the critical element in the mesh, and then the strain values of the critical element are used to calculate the ratchetting rate analytically. Finally, a ratchetting criterion is used to calculate the number of cycles to crack initiation from the ratchetting rate calculated.

##### 1361 Optimization of Element Type for FE Model and Verification of Analyses with Physical Tests

Authors: M. Tufekci, C. Guven

Abstract:

In Automotive Industry, sliding door systems that are also used as body closures are safety members. Extreme product tests are realized to prevent failures in design process, but these tests realized experimentally result in high costs. Finite element analysis is an effective tool used for design process. These analyses are used before production of prototype for validation of design according to customer requirement. In result of this, substantial amount of time and cost is saved. Finite element model is created for geometries that are designed in 3D CAD programs. Different element types as bar, shell and solid, can be used for creating mesh model. Cheaper model can be created by selection of element type, but combination of element type that was used in model, number and geometry of element and degrees of freedom affects the analysis result. Sliding door system is a good example which used these methods for this study. Structural analysis was realized for sliding door mechanism by using FE models. As well, physical tests that have same boundary conditions with FE models were realized. Comparison study for these element types, were done regarding test and analyses results then optimum combination was achieved. Downloads 1779
##### 1360 Using Cooperation Approaches at Different Levels of Artificial Bee Colony Method

Authors: Vahid Zeighami, Mohsen Ghasemi, Reza Akbari

Abstract:

In this work, a Multi-Level Artificial Bee Colony (called MLABC) for optimizing numerical test functions is presented. In MLABC, two species are used. The first species employs n colonies where each of them optimizes the complete solution vector. The cooperation between these colonies is carried out by exchanging information through a leader colony, which contains a set of elite bees. The second species uses a cooperative approach in which the complete solution vector is divided to k sub-vectors, and each of these sub-vectors is optimized by a colony. The cooperation between these colonies is carried out by compiling sub-vectors into the complete solution vector. Finally, the cooperation between two species is obtained by exchanging information. The proposed algorithm is tested on a set of well-known test functions. The results show that MLABC algorithm provides efficiency and robustness to solve numerical functions.

##### 1359 Finite Element Analysis of Thermally-Induced Bistable Plate Using Four Plate Elements

Authors: Jixiao Tao, Xiaoqiao He

Abstract:

The present study deals with the finite element (FE) analysis of thermally-induced bistable plate using various plate elements. The quadrilateral plate elements include the 4-node conforming plate element based on the classical laminate plate theory (CLPT), the 4-node and 9-node Mindlin plate element based on the first-order shear deformation laminated plate theory (FSDT), and a displacement-based 4-node quadrilateral element (RDKQ-NL20). Using the von-Karman’s large deflection theory and the total Lagrangian (TL) approach, the nonlinear FE governing equations for plate under thermal load are derived. Convergence analysis for four elements is first conducted. These elements are then used to predict the stable shapes of thermally-induced bistable plate. Numerical test shows that the plate element based on FSDT, namely the 4-node and 9-node Mindlin, and the RDKQ-NL20 plate element can predict two stable cylindrical shapes while the 4-node conforming plate predicts a saddles shape. Comparing the simulation results with ABAQUS, the RDKQ-NL20 element shows the best accuracy among all the elements.

##### 1358 Discrete Element Modeling on Bearing Capacity Problems

Authors: N. Li, Y. M. Cheng

Abstract:

In this paper, the classical bearing capacity problem is re-considered from discrete element analysis. In the discrete element approach, the bearing capacity problem is considered from the elastic stage to plastic stage to rupture stage (large displacement). The bearing capacity failure mechanism of a strip footing on soil is investigated, and the influence of micro-parameters on the bearing capacity of soil is also observed. It is found that the distinct element method (DEM) gives very good visualized results, and basically coincides well with that derived by the classical methods.

##### 1357 Wave Interaction with Defects in Pressurized Composite Structures

Authors: R. K. Apalowo, D. Chronopoulos, V. Thierry

Abstract:

A wave finite element (WFE) and finite element (FE) based computational method is presented by which the dispersion properties as well as the wave interaction coefficients for one-dimensional structural system can be predicted. The structural system is discretized as a system comprising a number of waveguides connected by a coupling joint. Uniform nodes are ensured at the interfaces of the coupling element with each waveguide. Then, equilibrium and continuity conditions are enforced at the interfaces. Wave propagation properties of each waveguide are calculated using the WFE method and the coupling element is modelled using the FE method. The scattering of waves through the coupling element, on which damage is modelled, is determined by coupling the FE and WFE models. Furthermore, the central aim is to evaluate the effect of pressurization on the wave dispersion and scattering characteristics of the prestressed structural system compared to that which is not prestressed. Numerical case studies are exhibited for two waveguides coupled through a coupling joint. Downloads 763
##### 1356 Mechanism of Damping in Welded Structures using Finite Element Approach

Authors: B. Singh, B. K. Nanda

Abstract:

The characterization and modeling of the dynamic behavior of many built-up structures under vibration conditions is still a subject of current research. The present study emphasizes the theoretical investigation of slip damping in layered and jointed welded cantilever structures using finite element approach. Application of finite element method in damping analysis is relatively recent, as such, some problems particularly slip damping analysis has not received enough attention. To validate the finite element model developed, experiments have been conducted on a number of mild steel specimens under different initial conditions of vibration. Finite element model developed affirms that the damping capacity of such structures is influenced by a number of vital parameters such as; pressure distribution, kinematic coefficient of friction and micro-slip at the interfaces, amplitude, frequency of vibration, length and thickness of the specimen. Finite element model developed can be utilized effectively in the design of machine tools, automobiles, aerodynamic and space structures, frames and machine members for enhancing their damping capacity. Downloads 1714
##### 1355 Analyzing of Noise inside a Simple Vehicle Cabin using Boundary Element Method

Authors: A. Soltani, M. Karimi Demneh

Abstract:

In this paper, modeling of an acoustic enclosed vehicle cabin has been carried out by using boundary element method. Also, the second purpose of this study is analyzing of linear wave equation in an acoustic field. The resultants of this modeling consist of natural frequencies that have been compared with resultants derived from finite element method. By using numerical method (boundary element method) and after solution of wave equation inside an acoustic enclosed cabin, this method has been progressed to simulate noise inside a simple vehicle cabin. Downloads 2355
##### 1354 A Finite Element Method Simulation for Rocket Motor Material Selection

Authors: T. Kritsana, P. Sawitri, P. Teeratas

Abstract:

This article aims to study the effect of pressure on rocket motor case by Finite Element Method simulation to select optimal material in rocket motor manufacturing process. In this study, cylindrical tubes with outside diameter of 122 mm and thickness of 3 mm are used for simulation. Defined rocket motor case materials are AISI4130, AISI1026, AISI1045, AL2024 and AL7075. Internal pressure used for the simulation is 22 MPa.

The result from Finite Element Method shows that at a pressure of 22 MPa rocket motor case produced by AISI4130, AISI1045 and AL7075 can be used. A comparison of the result between AISI4130, AISI1045 and AL7075 shows that AISI4130 has minimum principal stress and confirm the results of Finite Element Method by the used of calculation method found that, the results from Finite Element Method has good reliability.

##### 1353 Simulation of Non-Linear Behavior of Shear Wall under Seismic Loading

Authors: M. A. Ghorbani, M. Pasbani Khiavi

Abstract:

The seismic response of steel shear wall system considering nonlinearity effects using finite element method is investigated in this paper. The non-linear finite element analysis has potential as usable and reliable means for analyzing of civil structures with the availability of computer technology. In this research the large displacements and materially nonlinear behavior of shear wall is presented with developing of finite element code. A numerical model based on the finite element method for the seismic analysis of shear wall is presented with developing of finite element code in this research. To develop the finite element code, the standard Galerkin weighted residual formulation is used. Two-dimensional plane stress model and total Lagrangian formulation was carried out to present the shear wall response and the Newton-Raphson method is applied for the solution of nonlinear transient equations. The presented model in this paper can be developed for analysis of civil engineering structures with different material behavior and complicated geometry.

##### 1352 Boundary-Element-Based Finite Element Methods for Helmholtz and Maxwell Equations on General Polyhedral Meshes

Authors: Dylan M. Copeland

Abstract:

We present new finite element methods for Helmholtz and Maxwell equations on general three-dimensional polyhedral meshes, based on domain decomposition with boundary elements on the surfaces of the polyhedral volume elements. The methods use the lowest-order polynomial spaces and produce sparse, symmetric linear systems despite the use of boundary elements. Moreover, piecewise constant coefficients are admissible. The resulting approximation on the element surfaces can be extended throughout the domain via representation formulas. Numerical experiments confirm that the convergence behavior on tetrahedral meshes is comparable to that of standard finite element methods, and equally good performance is attained on more general meshes.

##### 1351 Forced Vibration of a Planar Curved Beam on Pasternak Foundation

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the forced vibration analysis of a planar curved beam lying on elastic foundation by using the mixed finite element method. The finite element formulation is based on the Timoshenko beam theory. In order to solve the problems in frequency domain, the element matrices of two nodded curvilinear elements are transformed into Laplace space. The results are transformed back to the time domain by the well-known numerical Modified Durbin’s transformation algorithm. First, the presented finite element formulation is verified through the forced vibration analysis of a planar curved Timoshenko beam resting on Winkler foundation and the finite element results are compared with the results available in the literature. Then, the forced vibration analysis of a planar curved beam resting on Winkler-Pasternak foundation is conducted.

##### 1350 Finite Element Analysis of Composite Frames in Wheelchair under Upward Loading

Abstract:

The finite element analysis is adopted in this primary study. Using the Tsai-Wu criterion and delamination criterion, the stacking sequence [45/04/-454/904]s is the final optimal design for the wheelchair frame. On the contrary, the uni-directional laminates, i.e. [9013]s, [4513]s and [-4513]s, are bad designs due to the higher failure indexes.

##### 1349 Strongly Coupled Finite Element Formulation of Electromechanical Systems with Integrated Mesh Morphing using Radial Basis Functions

Authors: D. Kriebel, J. E. Mehner

Abstract:

The paper introduces a method to efficiently simulate nonlinear changing electrostatic fields occurring in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). Large deflections of the capacitor electrodes usually introduce nonlinear electromechanical forces on the mechanical system. Traditional finite element methods require a time-consuming remeshing process to capture exact results for this physical domain interaction. In order to accelerate the simulation process and eliminate the remeshing process, a formulation of a strongly coupled electromechanical transducer element will be introduced which uses a combination of finite-element with an advanced mesh morphing technique using radial basis functions (RBF). The RBF allows large geometrical changes of the electric field domain while retain high element quality of the deformed mesh. Coupling effects between mechanical and electrical domains are directly included within the element formulation. Fringing field effects are described accurate by using traditional arbitrary shape functions.

##### 1348 Free Vibration Analysis of Conical Helicoidal Rods Having Elliptical Cross Sections Positioned in Different Orientation

Abstract:

In this study, the free vibration analysis of conical helicoidal rods with two different elliptically oriented cross sections is investigated and the results are compared by the circular cross-section keeping the net area for all cases equal to each other. Problems are solved by using the mixed finite element formulation. Element matrices based on Timoshenko beam theory are employed. The finite element matrices are derived by directly inserting the analytical expressions (arc length, curvature, and torsion) defining helix geometry into the formulation. Helicoidal rod domain is discretized by a two-noded curvilinear element. Each node of the element has 12 DOFs, namely, three translations, three rotations, two shear forces, one axial force, two bending moments and one torque. A parametric study is performed to investigate the influence of elliptical cross sectional geometry and its orientation over the natural frequencies of the conical type helicoidal rod. Downloads 995
##### 1347 Defect-Based Urgency Index for Bridge Maintenance Ranking and Prioritization

Abstract:

Bridge condition assessment and rating provide essential information needed for bridge management. This paper reviews bridge inspection and condition rating practices and introduces a defect-based urgency index. The index is estimated at the element-level based on the extent and severity of the different defects typical to the bridge element. The urgency index approach has the following advantages: (1) It facilitates judgment submission, i.e. instead of rating the bridge element with a specific linguistic overall expression (which can be subjective and used differently by different people), the approach is based on assessing the defects; (2) It captures multiple defects that can be present within a deteriorated element; and (3) It reflects how critical the element is through quantifying critical defects and their severity. The approach can be further developed and validated. It is expected to be useful for practical purposes as an early-warning system for critical bridge elements.

##### 1346 Performance Boundaries for Interactive Finite Element Applications

Authors: Jaewon Jang, Gregory R. Miller

Abstract:

This paper presents work characterizing finite element performance boundaries within which live, interactive finite element modeling is feasible on current and emerging systems. These results are based on wide-ranging tests performed using a prototype finite element program implemented specifically for this study, thereby enabling the unified investigation of numerous direct and iterative solver strategies and implementations in a variety of modeling contexts. The results are intended to be useful for researchers interested in interactive analysis by providing baseline performance estimates, to give guidance in matching solution strategies to problem domains, and to spur further work addressing the challenge of extending the present boundaries. Downloads 1189
##### 1345 Finite Element Analysis of Crack Welding Process

Authors: Thomas Jin-Chee Liu

Abstract:

The numerical simulation of the crack welding process is reported in this paper. The thermo-electro-structural coupled-field finite element analysis is adopted to investigate the welding process of crack surfaces. In the simulation, the pressure-dependent and temperature-dependent electrical contact conditions are considered. From the results, the crack surfaces can melt and weld together under the compressive load and electric current. The contact pressure effect must be considered in the finite element analysis to obtain more practical results.

##### 1344 Numerical Modelling of Dry Stone Masonry Structures Based on Finite-Discrete Element Method

Authors: Ž. Nikolić, H. Smoljanović, N. Živaljić

Abstract:

This paper presents numerical model based on finite-discrete element method for analysis of the structural response of dry stone masonry structures under static and dynamic loads. More precisely, each discrete stone block is discretized by finite elements. Material non-linearity including fracture and fragmentation of discrete elements as well as cyclic behavior during dynamic load are considered through contact elements which are implemented within a finite element mesh. The application of the model was conducted on several examples of these structures. The performed analysis shows high accuracy of the numerical results in comparison with the experimental ones and demonstrates the potential of the finite-discrete element method for modelling of the response of dry stone masonry structures. Downloads 1174
##### 1343 A FE-Based Scheme for Computing Wave Interaction with Nonlinear Damage and Generation of Harmonics in Layered Composite Structures

Authors: R. K. Apalowo, D. Chronopoulos

Abstract:

A Finite Element (FE) based scheme is presented for quantifying guided wave interaction with Localised Nonlinear Structural Damage (LNSD) within structures of arbitrary layering and geometric complexity. The through-thickness mode-shape of the structure is obtained through a wave and finite element method. This is applied in a time domain FE simulation in order to generate time harmonic excitation for a specific wave mode. Interaction of the wave with LNSD within the system is computed through an element activation and deactivation iteration. The scheme is validated against experimental measurements and a WFE-FE methodology for calculating wave interaction with damage. Case studies for guided wave interaction with crack and delamination are presented to verify the robustness of the proposed method in classifying and identifying damage. Downloads 285
##### 1342 Seismic Safety Evaluation of Weir Structures Using the Finite and Infinite Element Method

Authors: Ho Young Son, Bu Seog Ju, Woo Young Jung

Abstract:

This study presents the seismic safety evaluation of weir structure subjected to strong earthquake ground motions, as a flood defense structure in civil engineering structures. The seismic safety analysis procedure was illustrated through development of Finite Element (FE) and InFinite Element (IFE) method in ABAQUS platform. The IFE model was generated by CINPS4, 4-node linear one-way infinite model as a sold continuum infinite element in foundation areas of the weir structure and then nonlinear FE model using friction model for soil-structure interactions was applied in this study. In order to understand the complex behavior of weir structures, nonlinear time history analysis was carried out. Consequently, it was interesting to note that the compressive stress gave more vulnerability to the weir structure, in comparison to the tensile stress, during an earthquake. The stress concentration of the weir structure was shown at the connection area between the weir body and stilling basin area. The stress both tension and compression was reduced in IFE model rather than FE model of weir structures.

##### 1341 An Adaptive Least-squares Mixed Finite Element Method for Pseudo-parabolic Integro-differential Equations

Authors: Zilong Feng, Hong Li, Yang Liu, Siriguleng He

Abstract:

In this article, an adaptive least-squares mixed finite element method is studied for pseudo-parabolic integro-differential equations. The solutions of least-squares mixed weak formulation and mixed finite element are proved. A posteriori error estimator is constructed based on the least-squares functional and the posteriori errors are obtained.

##### 1340 Comparison of Finite-Element and IEC Methods for Cable Thermal Analysis under Various Operating Environments

Authors: M. S. Baazzim, M. S. Al-Saud, M. A. El-Kady

Abstract:

In this paper, steady-state ampacity (current carrying capacity) evaluation of underground power cable system by using analytical and numerical methods for different conditions (depth of cable, spacing between phases, soil thermal resistivity, ambient temperature, wind speed), for two system voltage level were used 132 and 380 kV. The analytical method or traditional method that was used is based on the thermal analysis method developed by Neher-McGrath and further enhanced by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and published in standard IEC 60287. The numerical method that was used is finite element method and it was recourse commercial software based on finite element method.

##### 1339 Torsional Statics of Circular Nanostructures: Numerical Approach

Authors: M.Z. Islam, C.W. Lim

Abstract:

Based on the standard finite element method, a new finite element method which is known as nonlocal finite element method (NL-FEM) is numerically implemented in this article to study the nonlocal effects for solving 1D nonlocal elastic problem. An Eringen-type nonlocal elastic model is considered. In this model, the constitutive stress-strain law is expressed interms of integral equation which governs the nonlocal material behavior. The new NL-FEM is adopted in such a way that the postulated nonlocal elastic behavior of material is captured by a finite element endowed with a set of (cross-stiffness) element itself by the other elements in mesh. An example with their analytical solutions and the relevant numerical findings for various load and boundary conditions are presented and discussed in details. It is observed from the numerical solutions that the torsional deformation angle decreases with increasing nonlocal nanoscale parameter. It is also noted that the analytical solution fails to capture the nonlocal effect in some cases where numerical solutions handle those situation effectively which prove the reliability and effectiveness of numerical techniques.

Keywords: NL-FEM, nonlocal elasticity, nanoscale, torsion.

##### 1338 A Reconfigurable Processing Element Implementation for Matrix Inversion Using Cholesky Decomposition

Authors: Aki Happonen, Adrian Burian, Erwin Hemming

Abstract:

Fixed-point simulation results are used for the performance measure of inverting matrices using a reconfigurable processing element. Matrices are inverted using the Cholesky decomposition algorithm. The reconfigurable processing element is capable of all required mathematical operations. The fixed-point word length analysis is based on simulations of different condition numbers and different matrix sizes. Downloads 1456
##### 1337 Design of Synchronous Torque Couplers

Authors: M. H. Nagrial, J. Rizk, A. Hellany

Abstract:

This paper presents the design, analysis and development of permanent magnet (PM) torque couplers. These couplers employ rare-earth magnets. Based on finite element analysis and earlier analytical works both concentric and face-type synchronous type couplers have been designed and fabricated. The experimental performance has good correlation with finite element calculations. Downloads 2829