Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: deflection

26 Generalized Vortex Lattice Method for Predicting Characteristics of Wings with Flap and Aileron Deflection

Authors: Mondher Yahyaoui

Abstract:

A generalized vortex lattice method for complex lifting surfaces with flap and aileron deflection is formulated. The method is not restricted by the linearized theory assumption and accounts for all standard geometric lifting surface parameters: camber, taper, sweep, washout, dihedral, in addition to flap and aileron deflection. Thickness is not accounted for since the physical lifting body is replaced by a lattice of panels located on the mean camber surface. This panel lattice setup and the treatment of different wake geometries is what distinguish the present work form the overwhelming majority of previous solutions based on the vortex lattice method. A MATLAB code implementing the proposed formulation is developed and validated by comparing our results to existing experimental and numerical ones and good agreement is demonstrated. It is then used to study the accuracy of the widely used classical vortex-lattice method. It is shown that the classical approach gives good agreement in the clean configuration but is off by as much as 30% when a flap or aileron deflection of 30° is imposed. This discrepancy is mainly due the linearized theory assumption associated with the conventional method. A comparison of the effect of four different wake geometries on the values of aerodynamic coefficients was also carried out and it is found that the choice of the wake shape had very little effect on the results.

Keywords: Aileron deflection, camber-surface-bound vortices, classical VLM, Generalized VLM, flap deflection.

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25 The Effect of the Tool Geometry and Cutting Conditions on the Tool Deflection and Cutting Forces

Authors: A. Fata, B. Nikuei

Abstract:

In this paper by measuring the cutting forces the effect of the tool shape and qualifications (sharp and worn cutting tools of both vee and knife edge profile) and cutting conditions (depth of cut and cutting speed) in the turning operation on the tool deflection and cutting force is investigated. The workpiece material was mild steel and the cutting tool was made of high speed steel. Cutting forces were measured by a dynamometer (type P.E.I. serial No 154). The dynamometer essentially consisted of a cantilever structure which held the cutting tool. Deflection of the cantilever was measured by an L.V.D.T (Mercer 122) deflection indicator. No cutting fluid was used during the turning operations. A modern CNC lathe machine (Okuma LH35-N) was used for the tests. It was noted that worn vee profile tools tended to produce a greater increase in the vertical force component than the axial component, whereas knife tools tended to show a more pronounced increase in the axial component.

Keywords: Cutting force, Tool deflection, Turning, Cuttingconditions.

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24 Deflection Control in Composite Building by Using Belt Truss and Outriggers Systems

Authors: S. Fawzia, T. Fatima

Abstract:

The design of high-rise building is more often dictated by its serviceability rather than strength. Structural Engineers are always striving to overcome challenge of controlling lateral deflection and storey drifts as well as self weight of structure imposed on foundation. One of the most effective techniques is the use of outrigger and belt truss system in Composite structures that can astutely solve the above two issues in High-rise constructions. This paper investigates deflection control by effective utilisation of belt truss and outrigger system on a 60-storey composite building subjected to wind loads. A three dimensional Finite Element Analysis is performed with one, two and three outrigger levels. The reductions in lateral deflection are 34%, 42% and 51% respectively as compared to a model without any outrigger system. There is an appreciable decline in the storey drifts with the introduction of these stiffer arrangements.

Keywords: Composite building, belt truss, deflection, FE model, outrigger truss, 3D analysis.

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23 Non-Linear Load-Deflection Response of Shape Memory Alloys-Reinforced Composite Cylindrical Shells under Uniform Radial Load

Authors: Behrang Tavousi Tehrani, Mohammad-Zaman Kabir

Abstract:

Shape memory alloys (SMA) are often implemented in smart structures as the active components. Their ability to recover large displacements has been used in many applications, including structural stability/response enhancement and active structural acoustic control. SMA wires or fibers can be embedded with composite cylinders to increase their critical buckling load, improve their load-deflection behavior, and reduce the radial deflections under various thermo-mechanical loadings. This paper presents a semi-analytical investigation on the non-linear load-deflection response of SMA-reinforced composite circular cylindrical shells. The cylinder shells are under uniform external pressure load. Based on first-order shear deformation shell theory (FSDT), the equilibrium equations of the structure are derived. One-dimensional simplified Brinson’s model is used for determining the SMA recovery force due to its simplicity and accuracy. Airy stress function and Galerkin technique are used to obtain non-linear load-deflection curves. The results are verified by comparing them with those in the literature. Several parametric studies are conducted in order to investigate the effect of SMA volume fraction, SMA pre-strain value, and SMA activation temperature on the response of the structure. It is shown that suitable usage of SMA wires results in a considerable enhancement in the load-deflection response of the shell due to the generation of the SMA tensile recovery force.

Keywords: Airy stress function, cylindrical shell, Galerkin technique, load-deflection curve, recovery stress, shape memory alloy.

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22 Large-Deflection Analysis of Automotive Vehicle's Door Wiring Harness System Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Byeong-Sam Kim, Kangsu Lee, Kyoungwoo Park, Samir Ben Chaabane

Abstract:

A Vehicle-s door wireing harness arrangement structure is provided. In vehicle-s door wiring harness(W/H) system is more toward to arrange a passenger compartment than a hinge and a weatherstrip. This article gives some insight into the dimensioning process, with special focus on large deflection analysis of wiring harness(W/H) in vehicle-s door structures for durability problem. An Finite elements analysis for door wiring harness(W/H) are used for residual stresses and dimensional stability with bending flexible. Durability test data for slim test specimens were compared with the numerical predicted fatigue life for verification. The final lifing of the component combines the effects of these microstructural features with the complex stress state arising from the combined service loading and residual stresses.

Keywords: Large deflection, wiring harness system, finite element analysis, vehicle's door.

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21 Impact of Out-of-Plane Stiffness of the Diaphragm on Deflection of Wood Light-Frame Shear Walls

Authors: M. M. Bagheri, G. Doudak, M. Gong

Abstract:

The in-plane rigidity of light frame diaphragms has been investigated by researchers due to the importance of this subsystem regarding lateral force distribution between the lateral force resisting system (LFRS). Where research has lacked is in evaluating the impact of out-of-plane raigidity of the diaphragm on the deflection of shear walls. This study aims at investigating the effect of the diaphragm on the behavior of wood light-frame shear walls, in particular its out-of-plane rigidity was simulated by modeling the floors as beam. The out of plane stiffness of the diaphragm was investigated for idealized (infinitely stiff or flexible) as well as “realistic”. The results showed reductions in the shear wall deflection in the magnitude of approximately 80% considering the out of plane rigidity of the diaphragm. It was also concluded that considering conservative estimates of out-of-plane stiffness might lead to a very significant reduction in deflection and that assuming the floor diaphragm to be infinitely rigid out of plan seems to be reasonable. For diaphragms supported on multiple panels, further reduction in the deflection was observed. More work, particularly at the experimental level, is needed to verify the finding obtained in the numerical investigation related to the effect of out of plane diaphragm stiffness.

Keywords: Deflection of light-frame wood shear walls, out-of-plane stiffness of the diaphragm, initial stiffness.

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20 Simplified Equations for Rigidity and Lateral Deflection for Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Shear Walls

Authors: Anas M. Fares

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete shear walls are the most frequently used forms of lateral resisting structural elements. These walls may take many forms due to their functions and locations in the building. In Palestine, the most lateral resisting forces construction forms is the cantilever shear walls system. It is thus of prime importance to study the rigidity of these walls. The virtual work theorem is used to derive the total lateral deflection of cantilever shear walls due to flexural and shear deformation. The case of neglecting the shear deformation in the walls is also studied, and it is found that the wall height to length aspect ratio (H/B) plays a major role in calculating the lateral deflection and the rigidity of such walls. When the H/B is more than or equal to 3.7, the shear deformation may be neglected from the calculation of the lateral deflection. Moreover, the walls with the same material properties, same lateral load value, and same aspect ratio, shall have the same of both the lateral deflection and the rigidity. Finally, an equation to calculate the total rigidity and total deflection of such walls is derived by using the virtual work theorem for a cantilever beam.

Keywords: Cantilever shear walls, flexural deformation, lateral deflection, lateral loads, reinforced concrete shear walls, rigidity, shear deformation, virtual work theorem.

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19 Pre-Deflection Routing with Control Packet Signal Scheme in Optical Burst Switch Networks

Authors: Jaipal Bisht, Aditya Goel

Abstract:

Optical Burst Switching (OBS) is a promising technology for the future generation Internet. Control architecture and Contention resolution are the main issues faced by the Optical Burst Switching networks. In this paper we are only taking care of the Contention problem and to overcome this issue we propose Pre-Deflection Routing with Control Packet Signal Scheme for Contention Resolution in Optical Burst Switch Networks. In this paper Pre-deflection routing approach has been proposed in which routing is carried out in two ways, Shortest Path First (SPF) and Least Hop First (LHF) Routing to forward the clusters and canoes respectively. Hereafter Burst Offset Time Control Algorithm has been proposed where a forward control packet (FCP) collects the congestion price and contention price along its paths. Thereafter a reverse-direction control packet (RCP) sent by destination node which delivers the information of FCP to the source node, and source node uses this information to revise its offset time and burst length.

Keywords: Contention Resolution, FCP, OBS, Offset Time, PST, RCP.

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18 Analysis of Stress Concentration and Deflectionin Isotropic and Orthotropic Rectangular Plates with Central Circular Hole under Transverse Static Loading

Authors: Nitin Kumar Jain

Abstract:

The distributions of stresses and deflection in rectangular isotropic and orthotropic plates with central circular hole under transverse static loading have been studied using finite element method. The aim of author is to analyze the effect of D/A ratio (where D is hole diameter and A is plate width) upon stress concentration factor (SCF) and deflection in isotropic and orthotropic plates under transverse static loading. The D/A ratio is varied from 0.01 to 0.9. The analysis is done for plates of isotropic and two different orthotropic materials. The results are obtained for three different boundary conditions. The variations of SCF and deflection with respect to D/A ratio are presented in graphical form and discussed. The finite element formulation is carried out in the analysis section of the ANSYS package.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, SCF, Deflection, Plate, Boundary conditions

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17 Replacing Fibre Reinforced Concrete with Bitumen Asphalt in Airports

Authors: Y. Mohammadi, H. M. Ghasemzadeh, T. B. Talari, M. A. Ghorbani

Abstract:

Concrete pavement has superior durability and longer structural life than asphalt pavement. Concrete pavement requires less maintenance compared to asphalt pavement which requires maintenance and major rehabilitation. Use of the concrete pavement has been grown over the past decade in developing countries. Fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) has been successfully used in design of concrete pavement in past decade. In this research, the effect of fibre volume fraction in modulus of rupture, load-deflection, equivalent flexural strength (fe,3) and the equivalent flexural strength ratio (Re,3) has been used in different fibre volume fraction. Crimped-type flat steel fibre of size 50 x 2.0 x 0.6 mm was used with 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% volume fraction. Beam specimens of size 500 x 100 x 100 mm were used for flexural as well as with JCI method for analysis flexural toughness, equivalent flexural strength. It was obtained as the 2% fibre volume fractions; reduce 45% of the concrete pavement thickness.

Keywords: Concrete pavement, Equivalent flexural strength, Fibre, Load-deflection curves.

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16 Enhancement of Cement Mortar Mechanical Properties with Replacement of Seashell Powder

Authors: Abdoullah Namdar, Fadzil Mat Yahaya

Abstract:

Many synthetic additives have been using for improve cement mortar and concrete characteristics, but natural additive is a friendly environment option. The quantity of (2% and 4%) seashell powder has been replaced in cement mortar, and compared with plain cement mortar in early age of 7 days. The strain gauges have been installed on beams and cube, for monitoring fluctuation of flexural and compressive strength. Main objective of this paper is to study effect of linear static force on flexural and compressive strength of modified cement mortar. The results have been indicated that the replacement of appropriate proportion of seashell powder enhances cement mortar mechanical properties. The replacement of 2% seashell causes improvement of deflection, time to failure and maximum load to failure on concrete beam and cube, the same occurs for compressive modulus elasticity. Increase replacement of seashell to 4% reduces all flexural strength, compressive strength and strain of cement mortar.

Keywords: Compressive strength, flexural strength, compressive modulus elasticity, time to failure, deflection.

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15 Studying the Structural Behaviour of RC Beams with Circular Openings of Different Sizes and Locations Using FE Method

Authors: Ali Shubbar, Hasanain Alwan, Ee Yu Phur, John McLoughlin, Ameer Al-khaykan

Abstract:

This paper aims to investigate the structural behaviour of RC beams with circular openings of different sizes and locations modelled using ABAQUS FEM software. Seven RC beams with the dimensions of 1200 mm×150 mm×150 mm were tested under three-point loading. Group A consists of three RC beams incorporating circular openings with diameters of 40 mm, 55 mm and 65 mm in the shear zone. However, Group B consists of three RC beams incorporating circular openings with diameters of 40 mm, 55 mm and 65 mm in the flexural zone. The final RC beam did not have any openings, to provide a control beam for comparison. The results show that increasing the diameter of the openings increases the maximum deflection and the ultimate failure load decreases relative to the control beam. In the shear zone, the presence of the openings caused an increase in the maximum deflection ranging between 4% and 22% and a decrease in the ultimate failure load of between 26% and 36% compared to the control beam. However, the presence of the openings in the flexural zone caused an increase in the maximum deflection of between 1.5% and 19.7% and a decrease in the ultimate failure load of between 6% and 13% relative to the control beam. In this study, the optimum location for placing circular openings was found to be in the flexural zone of the beam with a diameter of less than 30% of the depth of the beam.

Keywords: Ultimate failure load, maximum deflection, shear zone, flexural zone.

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14 Evaluation of Dynamic Behavior of a Rotor-Bearing System in Operating Conditions

Authors: Mohammad Hadi Jalali, Behrooz Shahriari, Mostafa Ghayour, Saeed Ziaei-Rad, Shahram Yousefi

Abstract:

Most flexible rotors can be considered as beam-like structures. In many cases, rotors are modeled as one-dimensional bodies, made basically of beam-like shafts with rigid bodies attached to them. This approach is typical of rotor dynamics, both analytical and numerical, and several rotor dynamic codes, based on the finite element method, follow this trend. In this paper, a finite element model based on Timoshenko beam elements is utilized to analyze the lateral dynamic behavior of a certain rotor-bearing system in operating conditions.

Keywords: Finite element method, Operational deflection shape, Timoshenko beam elements, Unbalance response.

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13 Modeling, Analysis and Control of a Smart Composite Structure

Authors: Nader H. Ghareeb, Mohamed S. Gaith, Sayed M. Soleimani

Abstract:

In modern engineering, weight optimization has a priority during the design of structures. However, optimizing the weight can result in lower stiffness and less internal damping, causing the structure to become excessively prone to vibration. To overcome this problem, active or smart materials are implemented. The coupled electromechanical properties of smart materials, used in the form of piezoelectric ceramics in this work, make these materials well-suited for being implemented as distributed sensors and actuators to control the structural response. The smart structure proposed in this paper is composed of a cantilevered steel beam, an adhesive or bonding layer, and a piezoelectric actuator. The static deflection of the structure is derived as function of the piezoelectric voltage, and the outcome is compared to theoretical and experimental results from literature. The relation between the voltage and the piezoelectric moment at both ends of the actuator is also investigated and a reduced finite element model of the smart structure is created and verified. Finally, a linear controller is implemented and its ability to attenuate the vibration due to the first natural frequency is demonstrated.

Keywords: Active linear control, Lyapunov stability theorem, piezoelectricity, smart structure, static deflection.

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12 Speedup of Data Vortex Network Architecture

Authors: Qimin Yang

Abstract:

In this paper, 3X3 routing nodes are proposed to provide speedup and parallel processing capability in Data Vortex network architectures. The new design not only significantly improves network throughput and latency, but also eliminates the need for distributive traffic control mechanism originally embedded among nodes and the need for nodal buffering. The cost effectiveness is studied by a comparison study with the previously proposed 2- input buffered networks, and considerable performance enhancement can be achieved with similar or lower cost of hardware. Unlike previous implementation, the network leaves small probability of contention, therefore, the packet drop rate must be kept low for such implementation to be feasible and attractive, and it can be achieved with proper choice of operation conditions.

Keywords: Data Vortex, Packet Switch, Interconnection network, deflection, Network-on-chip

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11 Comparison of Physical and Chemical Properties of Micro-Silica and Locally Produced Metakaolin and Effect on the Properties of Concrete

Authors: S. U. Khan, T. Ayub, N. Shafiq

Abstract:

The properties of locally produced metakaolin (MK) as cement replacing material and the comparison of reactivity with commercially available micro-silica have been investigated. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and load-deflection behaviour under bending are the properties that have been studied. The amorphous phase of MK with micro-silica was compared through X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. Further, interfacial transition zone of concrete with micro-silica and MK was observed through Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Three mixes of concrete were prepared. One of the mix is without cement replacement as control mix, and the remaining two mixes are 10% cement replacement with micro-silica and MK. It has been found that MK, due to its irregular structure and amorphous phase, has high reactivity with portlandite in concrete. The compressive strength at early age is higher with MK as compared to micro-silica. MK concrete showed higher splitting tensile strength and higher load carrying capacity as compared to control and micro-silica concrete at all ages respectively.

Keywords: Metakaolin, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, load deflection, interfacial transition zone.

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10 Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Forced Vibrations in Micro-Scale Microstretch Thermoelastic Simply Supported Beam

Authors: Geeta Partap, Nitika Chugh

Abstract:

The present paper deals with the flexural vibrations of homogeneous, isotropic, generalized micropolar microstretch thermoelastic thin Euler-Bernoulli beam resonators, due to Exponential time varying load. Both the axial ends of the beam are assumed to be at simply supported conditions. The governing equations have been solved analytically by using Laplace transforms technique twice with respect to time and space variables respectively. The inversion of Laplace transform in time domain has been performed by using the calculus of residues to obtain deflection.The analytical results have been numerically analyzed with the help of MATLAB software for magnesium like material. The graphical representations and interpretations have been discussed for Deflection of beam under Simply Supported boundary condition and for distinct considered values of time and space as well. The obtained results are easy to implement for engineering analysis and designs of resonators (sensors), modulators, actuators.

Keywords: Microstretch, deflection, exponential load, Laplace transforms, Residue theorem, simply supported.

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9 Improvement of Load Carrying Capacity of an RCC T-Beam Bridge Longitudinal Girder by Replacing Steel Bars with SMA Bars

Authors: N. K. Paul, S. Saha

Abstract:

An innovative three dimensional finite element model has beed developed and tested under two point loading system to examine the structural behavior of the longitudinal reinforced concrete Tee-beam bridge girder, reinforcing with steel and shape memory alloy bars respectively. 25% of steel bars are replaced with superelastic Shape Memory Alloy bars in this study. Finite element analysis is performed using ANSYS 11.0 program. Experimentally a model of steel reinforced girder has been casted and its load deflection responses are checked with ANSYS analysis. A comparison of load carrying capacity for the model between steel RC girder and the girder combined reinforcement with SMA and steel are also performed.

Keywords: Shape memory alloy, bridge girder, ANSYS, load-deflection.

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8 Experimental Inspection of Damage and Performance Evaluation after Repair and Strengthening of Jiamusi Highway Prestressed Concrete Bridge in China

Authors: Ali Fadhil Naser, Wang Zonglin

Abstract:

The main objectives of this study are to inspect and identify any damage of jaimusi highway prestressed concrete bridge after repair and strengthening of damaged structural members and to evaluate the performance of the bridge structural members by adopting static load test. Inspection program after repair and strengthening includes identifying and evaluating the structural members of bridge such as T-shape cantilever structure, hanging beams, corbels, external tendons, anchor beams, sticking steel plate, and piers. The results of inspection show that the overall state of the bridge structural member after repair and strengthening is good. The results of rebound test of concrete strength show that the average strength of concrete is 46.31Mpa. Whereas, the average value of concrete strength of anchor beam is 49.82Mpa. According to the results of static load test, the experimental values are less than theoretical values of internal forces, deflection, and strain, indicating that the stiffness of the experimental structure, overall deformation and integrity satisfy the designed standard and the working performance is good, and the undertaking capacity has a certain surplus. There is not visible change in the length and width of cracks and there are not new cracks under experimental load.

Keywords: Jiamusi Bridge, Damage inspection, deflection, strain.

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7 Improvement of Performance for R.C. Beams Made from Recycled Aggregate by Using Non-Traditional Admixture

Authors: A. H. Yehia, M. M. Rashwan, K. A. Assaf, K. Abd el Samee

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to use an environmental, cheap; organic non-traditional admixture to improve the structural behavior of sustainable reinforced concrete beams contains different ratios of recycled concrete aggregate. The used admixture prepared by using wastes from vegetable oil industry. Under and over reinforced concrete beams made from natural aggregate and different ratios of recycled concrete aggregate were tested under static load until failure. Eight beams were tested to investigate the performance and mechanism effect of admixture on improving deformation characteristics, modulus of elasticity and toughness of tested beams. Test results show efficiency of organic admixture on improving flexural behavior of beams contains 20% recycled concrete aggregate more over the other ratios.

Keywords: Deflection, modulus of elasticity, non-traditional admixture, recycled concrete aggregate, strain, toughness, under and over reinforcement.

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6 Design of a Compact Herriott Cell for Heat Flux Measurement Applications

Authors: R. G. Ramírez-Chavarría, C. Sánchez-Pérez, V. Argueta-Díaz

Abstract:

In this paper we present the design of an optical device based on a Herriott multi-pass cell fabricated on a small sized acrylic slab for heat flux measurements using the deflection of a laser beam propagating inside the cell. The beam deflection is produced by the heat flux conducted to the acrylic slab due to a gradient in the refractive index. The use of a long path cell as the sensitive element in this measurement device, gives the possibility of high sensitivity within a small size device. We present the optical design as well as some experimental results in order to validate the device’s operation principle.

Keywords: Heat flux, herriott cell, optical beam deflection, thermal conductivity.

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5 Harnessing Nigeria's Forestry Potential for Structural Applications: Structural Reliability of Nigerian Grown Opepe Timber

Authors: J. I. Aguwa, S. Sadiku, M. Abdullahi

Abstract:

This study examined the structural reliability of the Nigerian grown Opepe timber as bridge beam material. The strength of a particular specie of timber depends so much on some factors such as soil and environment in which it is grown. The steps involved are collection of the Opepe timber samples, seasoning/preparation of the test specimens, determination of the strength properties/statistical analysis, development of a computer programme in FORTRAN language and finally structural reliability analysis using FORM 5 software. The result revealed that the Nigerian grown Opepe is a reliable and durable structural bridge beam material for span of 5000mm, depth of 400mm, breadth of 250mm and end bearing length of 150mm. The probabilities of failure in bending parallel to the grain, compression perpendicular to the grain, shear parallel to the grain and deflection are 1.61 x 10-7, 1.43 x 10-8, 1.93 x 10-4 and 1.51 x 10-15 respectively. The paper recommends establishment of Opepe plantation in various Local Government Areas in Nigeria for structural applications such as in bridges, railway sleepers, generation of income to the nation as well as creating employment for the numerous unemployed youths.

Keywords: Bending and deflection, Bridge beam, Compression, Nigerian Opepe, Shear, Structural reliability.

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4 Numerical Investigation of Poling Vector Angle on Adaptive Sandwich Plate Deflection

Authors: Alireza Pouladkhan, Mohammad Yavari Foroushani, Ali Mortazavi

Abstract:

This paper presents a finite element model for a Sandwich Plate containing a piezoelectric core. A sandwich plate with a piezoelectric core is constructed using the shear mode of piezoelectric materials. The orientation of poling vector has a significant effect on deflection and stress induced in the piezo-actuated adaptive sandwich plate. In the present study, the influence of this factor for a clamped-clamped-free-free and simple-simple-free-free square sandwich plate is investigated using Finite Element Method. The study uses ABAQUS (v.6.7) software to derive the finite element model of the sandwich plate. By using this model, the study gives the influences of the poling vector angle on the response of the smart structure and determines the maximum transverse displacement and maximum stress induced.

Keywords: Finite element method, Sandwich plate, Poling vector, Piezoelectric materials, Smart structure, Electric enthalpy.

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3 Long-Term Structural Behavior of Resilient Materials for Reduction of Floor Impact Sound

Authors: J. Y. Lee, J. Kim, H. J. Chang, J. M. Kim

Abstract:

People’s tendency towards living in apartment houses is increasing in a densely populated country. However, some residents living in apartment houses are bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, the communities are increasingly imposing a bylaw, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused on the specific long-time deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program consisted of testing nine floor sound insulation specimens subjected to sustained load for 45 days. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: three types of resilient materials and magnitudes of loads. The test results indicated that the structural behavior of the floor sound insulation systems under long-time load was quite different from that the systems under short-time load. The loading period increased the deflection of floor sound insulation systems and the increasing rate of the long-time deflection of the systems with ethylene vinyl acetate was smaller than that of the systems with low density ethylene polystyrene.

Keywords: Resilient materials, floor sound insulation systems, long-time deflection, sustained load, noise pollution.

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2 Evaluation of the FWD Moduli of a Flexible Pavement Using Finite Element Model

Authors: Md Rashadul Islam, Mesbah U. Ahmed, Rafiqul A. Tarefder

Abstract:

This study evaluates the back calculation of stiffness of a pavement section on Interstate 40 (I-40)in New Mexico through numerical analysis. Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test has been conducted on a section on I-40. Layer stiffness of the pavement has been backcalculated by a backcalculation software, ELMOD, using the FWD test data. Commercial finite element software, ABAQUS, has been used to develop the Finite Element Model (FEM) of this pavement section. Geometry and layer thickness are collected from field coring. Input parameters i.e. stiffnesses of different layers of the pavement are used as the backcalculated ones. Resulting surface deflections at different radial distances from the FEM analysis are compared with field FWD deflection values. It shows close agreement between the FEM and FWD outputs. Therefore, the FWD test method can be considered to be a reliable test procedure for evaluating the in situ stiffness of pavement material.

Keywords: Falling weight deflectometer test, Finite element model, Flexible pavement, moduli, surface deflection.

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1 Structural Behavior of Precast Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel Subjected to Vertical In-Plane Shear Loading

Authors: Y. H. Mugahed Amran, Raizal S. M. Rashid, Farzad Hejazi, Nor Azizi Safiee, A. A. Abang Ali

Abstract:

Experimental and analytical studies were accomplished to examine the structural behavior of precast foamed concrete sandwich panel (PFCSP) under vertical in-plane shear load. PFCSP full-scale specimens with total number of six were developed with varying heights to study an important parameter slenderness ratio (H/t). The production technique of PFCSP and the procedure of test setup were described. The results obtained from the experimental tests were analysed in the context of in-plane shear strength capacity, load-deflection profile, load-strain relationship, slenderness ratio, shear cracking patterns and mode of failure. Analytical study of finite element analysis was implemented and the theoretical calculations of the ultimate in-plane shear strengths using the adopted ACI318 equation for reinforced concrete wall were determined aimed at predicting the in-plane shear strength of PFCSP. The decrease in slenderness ratio from 24 to 14 showed an increase of 26.51% and 21.91% on the ultimate in-plane shear strength capacity as obtained experimentally and in FEA models, respectively. The experimental test results, FEA models data and theoretical calculation values were compared and provided a significant agreement with high degree of accuracy. Therefore, on the basis of the results obtained, PFCSP wall has the potential use as an alternative to the conventional load-bearing wall system.

Keywords: Deflection profiles, foamed concrete, load-strain relationships, precast foamed concrete sandwich panel, slenderness ratio, vertical in-plane shear strength capacity.

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