Search results for: conventional suction hoods (CSH)
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1501

Search results for: conventional suction hoods (CSH)

1501 Energy Saving Suction Hood

Authors: I.Daut, N. Gomesh, M. Irwanto, Y. M. Irwan

Abstract:

Public awareness towards green energy are on the rise and this can be prove by many product being manufactured or prerequired to be made as energy saving devices mainly to save consumer from spending more on utility billing. These schemes are popular nowadays and many homemade appliances are turned into energy saving gadget which attracts the attention of consumers. Knowing the public demands and pattern towards purchasing home appliances thus the idea of “energy saving suction hood (ESSH)" is proposed. The ESSH can be used in many places that require smoke ventilation or even to reduce the room temperature as many conventional suction hoods (CSH) do, but this device works automatically by the usage of sensors that detects the smoke/temperature and automatically spins the exhaust fan. As it turns, the mechanical rotation rotates the AC generator which is coupled together with the fan and then charges the battery. The innovation of this product is, it does not rely on the utility supply as it is also hook up with a solar panel which also charges the battery, Secondly, it generates energy as the exhaust fan mechanically rotates. Thirdly, an energy loop back feature is introduced to this system which will supply for the ventilator fan. Another major innovation is towards interfacing this device with an in house production of generator. This generator is produced by proper design on stator as well as rotor to reduce the losses. A comparison is made between the ESSH and the CSH and result shows that the ESSH saves 172.8kWh/year of utility supply which is used by CSH. This amount of energy can save RM 3.14 from monthly utility bill and a total of RM 37.67 per year. In fact this product can generate 175 Watt of power from generator(75W) and solar panel(100W) that can be used either to supply other household appliances and/or to loop back to supply the fans motor. The innovation of this system is essential for future production of other equipment by using the loopback power method and turning most equipment into a standalone system.

Keywords: Energy saving suction hood (ESSH), conventional suction hoods (CSH), energy, and power

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1500 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Air Ejector with Diffuser with Boundary Layer Suction

Authors: Vaclav Dvorak

Abstract:

The article deals with experimental and numerical investigation of axi-symmetric subsonic air to air ejector with diffuser adapted for boundary layer suction. The diffuser, which is placed behind the mixing chamber of the ejector, has high divergence angle and therefore low efficiency. To increase the efficiency, the diffuser is equipped with slot enabling boundary layer suction. The effect of boundary layer suction on flow in ejector, static pressure distribution on the mixing chamber wall and characteristic were measured and studied numerically. Both diffuser and ejector efficiency were evaluated. The diffuser efficiency was increased, however, the efficiency of ejector itself remained low.

Keywords: Air ejector, boundary layer suction, CFD, diffuser.

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1499 An Experimental Investigation in Effect of Confining Stress and Matric Suction on the Mechanical Behavior of Sand with Different Fine Content

Authors: S. Asreazad

Abstract:

This paper presents the results that the soil volumetric strain and shear strength are closely related to the confining stress and initial matric suction under constant water content testing on the specimens of unsaturated sand with clay and silt fines contents. The silty sand specimens reached their peak strength after a very small axial strain followed by a post-peak softening towards an ultimate value. The post-peak drop in stress increased by an increment of the suction, while there is no peak strength for clayey sand specimens. The clayey sand shows compressibility and possesses ductile stress-strain behaviour. Shear strength increased nonlinearly with respect to matric suction for both soil types. When suction exceeds a certain range, the effect of suction on shear strength increment weakens gradually. Under the same confining stress, the dilatant tendencies in the silty sand increased under lower values of suction and decreased for higher suction values under the same confining stress. However, the amount of contraction increased with increasing initial suction for clayey sand specimens.

Keywords: Unsaturated soils, silty sand, clayey sand, triaxial test, constant water content.

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1498 CFD Analysis of a Centrifugal Fan for Performance Enhancement using Converging Boundary Layer Suction Slots

Authors: K. Vasudeva Karanth, N. Yagnesh Sharma

Abstract:

Generally flow behavior in centrifugal fan is observed to be in a state of instability with flow separation zones on suction surface as well as near the front shroud. Overall performance of the diffusion process in a centrifugal fan could be enhanced by judiciously introducing the boundary layer suction slots. With easy accessibility of CFD as an analytical tool, an extensive numerical whole field analysis of the effect of boundary layer suction slots in discrete regions of suspected separation points is possible. This paper attempts to explore the effect of boundary layer suction slots corresponding to various geometrical locations on the impeller with converging configurations for the slots. The analysis shows that the converging suction slots located on the impeller blade about 25% from the trailing edge, significantly improves the static pressure recovery across the fan. Also it is found that Slots provided at a radial distance of about 12% from the leading and trailing edges marginally improve the static pressure recovery across the fan.

Keywords: Boundary layer suction converging slot, Flowseparation, Sliding mesh, Unsteady analysis, Recirculation zone, Jetsand wakes.

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1497 High Specific Speed in Circulating Water Pump Can Cause Cavitation, Noise and Vibration

Authors: Chandra Gupt Porwal

Abstract:

Excessive vibration means increased wear, increased repair efforts, bad product selection & quality and high energy consumption. This may be sometimes experienced by cavitation or suction/discharge recirculation which could occur only when net positive suction head available NPSHA drops below the net positive suction head required NPSHR. Cavitation can cause axial surging, if it is excessive, will damage mechanical seals, bearings, possibly other pump components frequently, and shorten the life of the impeller. Efforts have been made to explain Suction Energy (SE), Specific Speed (Ns), Suction Specific Speed (Nss), NPSHA, NPSHR & their significance, possible reasons of cavitation /internal recirculation, its diagnostics and remedial measures to arrest and prevent cavitation in this paper. A case study is presented by the author highlighting that the root cause of unwanted noise and vibration is due to cavitation, caused by high specific speeds or inadequate net- positive suction head available which results in damages to material surfaces of impeller & suction bells and degradation of machine performance, its capacity and efficiency too. Author strongly recommends revisiting the technical specifications of CW pumps to provide sufficient NPSH margin ratios >1.5, for future projects and Nss be limited to 8500 - 9000 for cavitation free operation.

Keywords: Best efficiency point (BEP), Net positive suction head NPSHA, NPSHR, Specific Speed NS, Suction Specific Speed Nss.

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1496 Unsteady Flow between Two Concentric Rotating Spheres along with Uniform Transpiration

Authors: O. Mahian, A. B. Rahimi, A. Kianifar, A. Jabari Moghadam

Abstract:

In this study, the numerical solution of unsteady flow between two concentric rotating spheres with suction and blowing at their boundaries is presented. The spheres are rotating about a common axis of rotation while their angular velocities are constant. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved by employing the finite difference method and implicit scheme. The resulting flow patterns are presented for various values of the flow parameters including rotational Reynolds number Re , and a blowing/suction Reynolds number Rew . Viscous torques at the inner and the outer spheres are calculated, too. It is seen that increasing the amount of suction and blowing decrease the size of eddies generated in the annulus.

Keywords: Concentric spheres, numerical study, suction andblowing, unsteady flow, viscous torque.

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1495 Water Boundary Layer Flow Over Rotating Sphere with Mass Transfer

Authors: G. Revathi, P. Saikrishnan

Abstract:

An analysis is performed to study the influence of nonuniform double slot suction on a steady laminar boundary layer flow over a rotating sphere when fluid properties such as viscosity and Prandtl number are inverse linear functions of temperature. Nonsimilar solutions have been obtained from the starting point of the streamwise co-ordinate to the exact point of separation. The difficulties arising at the starting point of the streamwise co-ordinate, at the edges of the slot and at the point of separation have been overcome by applying an implicit finite difference scheme in combination with the quasi-linearization technique and an appropriate selection of the finer step sizes along the stream-wise direction. The present investigation shows that the point of ordinary separation can be delayed by nonuniform double slot suction if the mass transfer rate is increased and also if the slots are positioned further downstream. In addition, the investigation reveals that double slot suction is found to be more effective compared to a single slot suction in delaying ordinary separation. As rotation parameter increase the point of separation moves upstream direction.

Keywords: Boundary layer, suction, mass transfer, rotating sphere.

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1494 Double Diffusive Convection in a Partially Porous Cavity under Suction/Injection Effects

Authors: Y. Outaleb, K. Bouhadef, O. Rahli

Abstract:

Double-diffusive steady convection in a partially porous cavity with partially permeable walls and under the combined buoyancy effects of thermal and mass diffusion was analysed numerically using finite volume method. The top wall is well insulated and impermeable while the bottom surface is partially well insulated and impermeable and partially submitted to constant temperature T1 and concentration C1. Constant equal temperature T2 and concentration C2 are imposed along the vertical surfaces of the enclosure. Mass suction/injection and injection/suction are respectively considered at the bottom of the porous centred partition and at one of the vertical walls. Heat and mass transfer characteristics as streamlines and average Nusselt numbers and Sherwood numbers were discussed for different values of buoyancy ratio, Rayleigh number, and injection/suction coefficient. It is especially noted that increasing the injection factor disadvantages the exchanges in the case of the injection while the transfer is augmented in case of suction. On the other hand, a critical value of the buoyancy ratio was highlighted for which heat and mass transfers are minimized.

Keywords: Double diffusive convection, Injection/Extraction, Partially porous cavity

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1493 Seismic Behavior of Suction Caisson Foundations

Authors: Mohsen Saleh Asheghabadi, Alireza Jafari Jebeli

Abstract:

Increasing population growth requires more sustainable development of energy. This non-contaminated energy has an inexhaustible energy source. One of the vital parameters in such structures is the choice of foundation type. Suction caissons are now used extensively worldwide for offshore wind turbine. Considering the presence of a number of offshore wind farms in earthquake areas, the study of the seismic behavior of suction caisson is necessary for better design. In this paper, the results obtained from three suction caisson models with different diameter (D) and skirt length (L) in saturated sand were compared with centrifuge test results. All models are analyzed using 3D finite element (FE) method taking account of elasto-plastic Mohr–Coulomb constitutive model for soil which is available in the ABAQUS library. The earthquake load applied to the base of models with a maximum acceleration of 0.65g. The results showed that numerical method is in relative good agreement with centrifuge results. The settlement and rotation of foundation decrease by increasing the skirt length and foundation diameter. The sand soil outside the caisson is prone to liquefaction due to its low confinement.

Keywords: Liquefaction, suction caisson foundation, offshore wind turbine, numerical analysis, seismic behavior.

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1492 Momentum and Heat Transfer in the Flow of a Viscoelastic Fluid Past a Porous Flat Plate Subject to Suction or Blowing

Authors: Motahar Reza, Anadi Sankar Gupta

Abstract:

An analysis is made of the flow of an incompressible viscoelastic fluid (of small memory) over a porous plate subject to suction or blowing. It is found that velocity at a point increases with increase in the elasticity in the fluid. It is also shown that wall shear stress depends only on suction and is also independent of the material of fluids. No steady solution for velocity distribution exists when there is blowing at the plate. Temperature distribution in the boundary layer is determined and it is found that temperature at a point decreases with increase in the elasticity in the fluid.

Keywords: Viscoelastic fluid, Flow past a porous plate, Heat transfer

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1491 MHD Unsteady Free Convection of Heat and Mass Transfer Flow through Porous Medium with Time Dependent Suction and Constant Heat Source/Sink

Authors: Praveen Saraswat, Rudraman Singh

Abstract:

In this paper, we have investigated the free convection MHD flow due to heat and mass transfer through porous medium bounded by an infinite vertical non-conducting porous plate with time dependent suction under the influence of uniform transverse magnetic field of strength H0. When Temperature (T) and Concentration (C) at the plate is oscillatory with time about a constant non-zero mean. The velocity distribution, the temperature distribution, co-efficient of skin friction and role of heat transfer is investigated. Here the partial differential equations are involved. Exact solution is not possible so approximate solution is obtained and various graphs are plotted.

Keywords: Time Dependent Suction, Convection, MHD, Porous.

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1490 Effect of Crude Oil on Soil-Water Characteristic Curve of Clayey Soil

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Seyed Mohammad Reza Hosseini

Abstract:

The measured soil suction values when related to water content is called suction-water content relationship (SWR) or soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC) and forms the basis of unsaturated soil behavior assessment. The SWCC can be measured or predicted based on soil index properties such as grain-size distribution and plasticity index. In this paper, the SWCC of clean and contaminated clayey soil classified as clay with low plasticity (CL) are presented. Laboratory studies were conducted on virgin (disturbed-uncontaminated soil collected from vicinity of Tehran oil refinery) soil and soil samples simulated to varying degrees of contamination with crude oil (i.e., 3, 6, and 9% by dry weight of soil) to compare the results before and after contamination. Laboratory tests were conducted using a device which is capable of measuring volume change and pore pressures. The soil matric suction at the ends of samples controlled by using the axis translation technique. The results show that contamination with crude oil facilitates the movement of water and reduces the soil suction.

Keywords: Axis translation technique, clayey soil, contamination, crude oil, soil-water characteristic curve.

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1489 Effect of Magnetic Field on Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow over an Exponentially Shrinking Vertical Sheet with Suction

Authors: S. S. P. M. Isa, N. M. Arifin, R. Nazar, N. Bachok, F. M. Ali, I. Pop

Abstract:

A theoretical study has been presented to describe the boundary layer flow and heat transfer on an exponentially shrinking sheet with a variable wall temperature and suction, in the presence of magnetic field. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation, which are then solved numerically using the shooting method. Results for the skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity profiles as well as temperature profiles are presented through graphs and tables for several sets of values of the parameters. The effects of the governing parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are thoroughly examined.

Keywords: Exponentially shrinking sheet, magnetic field, mixed convection, suction.

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1488 Magnetoviscous Effects on Axi-Symmetric Ferrofluid Flow over a Porous Rotating Disk with Suction/Injection

Authors: Vikas Kumar

Abstract:

The present study is carried out to investigate the magneto-viscous effects on incompressible ferrofluid flow over a porous rotating disc with suction or injection on the surface of the disc subjected to a magnetic field. The flow under consideration is axi-symmetric steady ferrofluid flow of electrically non-conducting fluid. Karman’s transformation is used to convert the governing boundary layer equations involved in the problem to a system of non linear coupled differential equations. The solution of this system is obtained by using power series approximation. The flow characteristics i.e. radial, tangential, axial velocities and boundary layer displacement thickness are calculated for various values of MFD (magnetic field dependent) viscosity and for different values of suction injection parameter. Besides this, skin friction coefficients are also calculated on the surface of the disk. The results thus obtained are presented numerically and graphically in the paper.

Keywords: Axi-symmetric, ferrofluid, magnetic field, porous rotating disk.

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1487 Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flows Induced by a Permeable Continuous Surface Stretched with Prescribed Skin Friction

Authors: Mohamed Ali

Abstract:

The boundary layer flow and heat transfer on a stretched surface moving with prescribed skin friction is studied for permeable surface. The surface temperature is assumed to vary inversely with the vertical direction x for n = -1. The skin friction at the surface scales as (x-1/2) at m = 0. The constants m and n are the indices of the power law velocity and temperature exponent respectively. Similarity solutions are obtained for the boundary layer equations subject to power law temperature and velocity variation. The effect of various governing parameters, such as the buoyancy parameter λ and the suction/injection parameter fw for air (Pr = 0.72) are studied. The choice of n and m ensures that the used similarity solutions are x independent. The results show that, assisting flow (λ > 0) enhancing the heat transfer coefficient along the surface for any constant value of fw. Furthermore, injection increases the heat transfer coefficient but suction reduces it at constant λ.

Keywords: Stretching surface, Boundary layers, Prescribed skin friction, Suction or injection, similarity solutions, buoyancy effects.

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1486 Thermosolutal MHD Mixed Marangoni Convective Boundary Layers in the Presence of Suction or Injection

Authors: Noraini Ahmad, Seripah Awang Kechil, Norma Mohd Basir

Abstract:

The steady coupled dissipative layers, called Marangoni mixed convection boundary layers, in the presence of a magnetic field and solute concentration that are formed along the surface of two immiscible fluids with uniform suction or injection effects is examined. The similarity boundary layer equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta Fehlberg with shooting technique. The Marangoni, buoyancy and external pressure gradient effects that are generated in mixed convection boundary layer flow are assessed. The velocity, temperature and concentration boundary layers thickness decrease with the increase of the magnetic field strength and the injection to suction. For buoyancy-opposed flow, the Marangoni mixed convection parameter enhances the velocity boundary layer but decreases the temperature and concentration boundary layers. However, for the buoyancy-assisted flow, the Marangoni mixed convection parameter decelerates the velocity but increases the temperature and concentration boundary layers.

Keywords: Magnetic field, mixed Marangoni convection, similarity boundary layers, solute concentration.

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1485 Influence of Hydraulic Hysteresis on Effective Stress in Unsaturated Clay

Authors: Anuchit Uchaipichat

Abstract:

A comprehensive program of laboratory testing on a compacted kaolin in a modified triaxial cell was perform to investigate the influence of hydraulic hysteresis on effective stress in unsaturated soils. The test data are presented on a range of constant suction shear tests along wetting and drying paths. The values of effective stress parameter χ at different matric suction were determined using the test results. The effect of hydraulic hysteresis phenomenon on the effective stress was observed. The values of effective stress parameter χ obtained from the experiments were compared with those obtained from the expressions proposed in literature.

Keywords: Unsaturated soils, Hydraulic hysteresis, Effectivestress

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1484 Numerical Analysis of a Centrifugal Fan for Improved Performance using Splitter Vanes

Authors: N. Yagnesh Sharma, K. Vasudeva Karanth

Abstract:

The flow field in a centrifugal fan is highly complex with flow reversal taking place on the suction side of impeller and diffuser vanes. Generally performance of the centrifugal fan could be enhanced by judiciously introducing splitter vanes so as to improve the diffusion process. An extensive numerical whole field analysis on the effect of splitter vanes placed in discrete regions of suspected separation points is possible using CFD. This paper examines the effect of splitter vanes corresponding to various geometrical locations on the impeller and diffuser. The analysis shows that the splitter vanes located near the diffuser exit improves the static pressure recovery across the diffusing domain to a larger extent. Also it is found that splitter vanes located at the impeller trailing edge and diffuser leading edge at the mid-span of the circumferential distance between the blades show a marginal improvement in the static pressure recovery across the fan. However, splitters provided near to the suction side of the impeller trailing edge (25% of the circumferential gap between the impeller blades towards the suction side), adversely affect the static pressure recovery of the fan.

Keywords: Splitter vanes, Flow separation, Sliding mesh, Unsteady analysis, Recirculation zone, Jets and wakes.

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1483 Effect of Temperature on the Water Retention Capacity of Liner Materials

Authors: Ahmed M. Al-Mahbashi, Mosleh A. Al-Shamrani, Muawia Dafalla

Abstract:

Mixtures of sand and clay are frequently used to serve for specific purposes in several engineering practices. In environmental engineering, liner layers and cover layers are common for controlling waste disposal facilities. These layers are exposed to moisture and temperature fluctuation specially when existing in unsaturated condition. The relationship between soil suction and water content for these materials is essential for understanding their unsaturated behavior and properties such as retention capacity and unsaturated follow (hydraulic conductivity). This study is aimed at investigating retention capacity for two sand-natural expansive clay mixtures (15% (C15) and 30% (C30) expansive clay) at two ambient temperatures within the range of 5 -50 °C. Soil water retention curves (SWRC) for these materials were determined at these two ambient temperatures using different salt solutions for a wide range of suction (up to 200MPa). The results indicate that retention capacity of C15 mixture underwent significant changes due to temperature variations. This effect tends to be less visible when the clay fraction is doubled (C30). In addition, the overall volume change is marginally affected by high temperature within the range considered in this study.

Keywords: Soil water retention curve, sand-expansive clay mixture, suction, temperature.

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1482 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Flow Control Using a Novel Active Slat

Authors: Basman Elhadidi, Islam Elqatary, Osama Mohamady, Hesham Othman

Abstract:

An active slat is developed to increase the lift and delay the separation for a DU96-W180 airfoil. The active slat is a fixed slat that can be closed, fully opened or intermittently opened by a rotating vane depending on the need. Experimental results show that the active slat has reduced the mean pressure and increased the mean velocity on the suction side of the airfoil for all positive angles of attack, indicating an increase of lift. The experimental data and numerical simulations also show that the direction of actuator vane rotation can influence the mixing of the flow streams on the suction side and hence influence the aerodynamic performance.

Keywords: Active slat, flow control.

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1481 Movement of Location of Tip Vortex Cavitation along Blade Edge due to Reduction of Flow Rate in an Axial Pump

Authors: Mohammad T. Shervani-Tabar, Navid Shervani-Tabar

Abstract:

Tip vortex cavitation is one of well known patterns of cavitation phenomenon which occurs in axial pumps. This pattern of cavitation occurs due to pressure difference between the pressure and suction sides of blades of an axial pump. Since the pressure in the pressure side of the blade is higher than the pressure in its suction side, thus a very small portion of liquid flow flows back from pressure side to the suction side. This fact is cause of tip vortex cavitation and gap cavitation that may occur in axial pumps. In this paper the results of our experimental investigation about movement of tip vortex cavitation along blade edge due to reduction of pump flow rate in an axial pump is reported. Results show that reduction of pump flow rate in conjunction with increasing of outlet pressure causes movement of tip vortex cavitation along blade edge towards the blade tip. Results also show that by approaching tip vortex cavitation to the blade tip, vortex tip pattern of cavitation replaces with a cavitation phenomenon on the blade tip. Furthermore by further reduction of pump flow rate and increasing of outlet pressure, an unstable cavitation phenomenon occurs between each blade leading edge and the next blade trailing edge.

Keywords: Axial Flow Pump, Cavitation, Gap Cavitation, Tip Vortex Cavitation.

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1480 Characteristic Study on Conventional and Soliton Based Transmission System

Authors: Bhupeshwaran Mani, S. Radha, A. Jawahar, A. Sivasubramanian

Abstract:

Here, we study the characteristic feature of conventional (ON-OFF keying) and soliton based transmission system. We consider 20Gbps transmission system implemented with Conventional Single Mode Fiber (C-SMF) to examine the role of Gaussian pulse which is the characteristic of conventional propagation and Hyperbolic-secant pulse which is the characteristic of soliton propagation in it. We note the influence of these pulses with respect to different dispersion lengths and soliton period in conventional and soliton system respectively and evaluate the system performance in terms of Quality factor. From the analysis, we could prove that the soliton pulse has the consistent performance even for long distance without dispersion compensation than the conventional system as it is robust to dispersion. For the length of transmission of 200Km, soliton system yielded Q of 33.958 while the conventional system totally exhausted with Q=0.

Keywords: Soliton, dispersion length, Soliton period, Return-tozero (RZ), Q-factor.

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1479 Investigation of Slope Stability in Gravel Soils in Unsaturated State

Authors: Seyyed Abolhasan Naeini, Ehsan Azini

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the stability of a slope of 10 meters in silty gravel soils with modeling in the Geostudio Software.  we intend to use the parameters of the volumetric water content and suction dependent permeability and provides relationships and graphs using the parameters obtained from gradation tests and Atterberg’s limits. Also, different conditions of the soil will be investigated, including: checking the factor of safety and deformation rates and pore water pressure in drained, non-drained and unsaturated conditions, as well as the effect of reducing the water level on other parameters. For this purpose, it is assumed that the groundwater level is at a depth of 2 meters from the ground.  Then, with decreasing water level, the safety factor of slope stability was investigated and it was observed that with decreasing water level, the safety factor increased.

Keywords: Slope stability analysis, factor of safety, matric suction, unsaturated silty gravel soil.

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1478 Strength Characteristics of Shallow Gassy Sand in the Hangzhou Bay

Authors: Wang Yong, Kong Ling-Wei, Guo Ai-Guo

Abstract:

In view of geological origin, formation of the shallow gas reservoir of the Hangzhou Bay, northern Zhejiang Province, eastern China, and original occurrence characteristics of the gassy sand are analyzed. Generally, gassy sand in scale gas reservoirs is in the state of residual moisture content and the approximate scope of initial matric suction of sand ranges about from 0kPa to100kPa. Results based on GDS triaxial tests show that the classical shear strength formulas of unsaturated soil can not effectively describe basic strength characteristics of gassy sand; the relationship between apparent cohesion and matric suction of gassy sand agrees well with the power function, which can reasonably be used to describe the strength of gassy sand. In the stress path of gas release, shear strength of gassy sand will increase and experimental results show the formula proposed in this paper can effectively predict the strength increment. When saturated strength indexes of the sand are used in engineering design, moderate reduction should be considered.

Keywords: Gassy sand, Gas release, Occurrence characteristics, strength

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1477 Critical Heights of Sloped Unsupported Trenches in Unsaturated Sand

Authors: Won Taek Oh, Adin Richard

Abstract:

Workers are often required to enter unsupported trenches during the construction process, which may present serious risks. Trench failures can result in death or damage to adjacent properties, therefore trenches should be excavated with extreme precaution. Excavation work is often done in unsaturated soils, where the critical height (i.e. maximum depth that can be excavated without failure) of unsupported trenches can be more reliably estimated by considering the influence of matric suction. In this study, coupled stress/pore-water pressure analyses are conducted to investigate the critical height of sloped unsupported trenches considering the influence of pore-water pressure redistribution caused by excavating. Four different wall slopes (1.5V:1H, 2V:1H, 3V:1H, and 90°) and a vertical trench with the top 0.3 m sloped 1:1 were considered in the analyses with multiple depths of the ground water table in a sand. For comparison, the critical heights were also estimated using the limit equilibrium method for the same excavation scenarios used in the coupled analyses.

Keywords: Critical height, matric suction, unsaturated soil, unsupported trench.

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1476 Effect of Conjugate Heat and Mass Transfer on MHD Mixed Convective Flow past Inclined Porous Plate in Porous Medium

Authors: Md. Nasir Uddin, M. A. Alim, M. M. K. Chowdhury

Abstract:

This analysis is performed to study the momentum, heat and mass transfer characteristics of MHD mixed convective flow past inclined porous plate in porous medium, including the effect of fluid suction. The fluid is assumed to be steady, incompressible and dense. Similarity solution is used to transform the problem under consideration into coupled nonlinear boundary layer equations which are then solved numerically by using the Runge-Kutta sixth-order integration scheme together with Nachtsheim-Swigert shooting iteration technique. Numerical results for the various types of parameters entering into the problem for velocity, temperature and concentration distributions are presented graphically and analyzed thereafter. Moreover, expressions for the skin-friction, heat transfer co-efficient and mass transfer co-efficient are discussed with graphs against streamwise distance for various governing parameters.

Keywords: Fluid suction, heat and mass transfer, inclined porous plate, MHD, mixed convection, porous medium.

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1475 Numerical Solutions of Boundary Layer Flow over an Exponentially Stretching/Shrinking Sheet with Generalized Slip Velocity

Authors: Ezad Hafidz Hafidzuddin, Roslinda Nazar, Norihan M. Arifin, Ioan Pop

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of steady laminar boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a permeable exponentially stretching/shrinking sheet with generalized slip velocity is considered. The similarity transformations are used to transform the governing nonlinear partial differential equations to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved numerically using the bvp4c function in MATLAB. Dual solutions are found for a certain range of the suction and stretching/shrinking parameters. The effects of the suction parameter, stretching/shrinking parameter, velocity slip parameter, critical shear rate and Prandtl number on the skin friction and heat transfer coefficients as well as the velocity and temperature profiles are presented and discussed.

Keywords: Boundary Layer, Exponentially Stretching/Shrinking Sheet, Generalized Slip, Heat Transfer, Numerical Solutions.

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1474 Comparison of BER Performances for Conventional and Non-Conventional Mapping Schemes Used in OFDM

Authors: Riddhi Parmar, Shilpi Gupta, Upena Dalal

Abstract:

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the techniques for high speed data rate communication with main consideration for 4G and 5G systems. In OFDM, there are several mapping schemes which provide a way of parallel transmission. In this paper, comparisons of mapping schemes used by some standards have been made and also has been discussed about the performance of the non-conventional modulation technique. The Comparisons of Bit Error Rate (BER) performances for conventional and non-conventional modulation schemes have been done using MATLAB software. Mentioned schemes used in OFDM system can be selected on the basis of the requirement of power or spectrum efficiency and BER analysis.

Keywords: BER, π/4 differential quadrature phase shift keying (Pi/4 DQPSK), OFDM, phase shift keying, quadrature phase shift keying.

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1473 Deficiency Risk in Islamic and Conventional Banks

Authors: Korbi Fakhri

Abstract:

In this article, we have elaborated a study over the nature of financial intermediation in Islamic banks by comparison to those of conventional ones. We have found a striking difference between two kinds of intermediation. We tried, from another side, to study the relationship between the capital level and deficiency risk relying on econometric model, and we have obtained a positive and significant relation between the capital and the deficiency risk for the conventional banks. This means that when the capital of these banks increases, the deficiency risk increases as well. In return, since the Islamic banks are constrained to respect the Sharia Committee as well as customers’ demands that may, in certain contracts, choose to invest their capitals in projects they are interested in. These constraints have as effects to reduce the deficiency risk even when the capital increases.

Keywords: Conventional bank, deficiency risk, financial intermediation, Islamic bank.

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1472 Air Pollution Control from Rice Shellers - A Case Study

Authors: S. M. Ahuja

Abstract:

A Rice Sheller is used for obtaining polished white rice from paddy. There are about 3000 Rice Shellers in Punjab and 50000 in India. During the process of shelling lot of dust is emitted from different unit operations like paddy silo, paddy shaker, bucket elevators, huskers, paddy separator etc. These dust emissions have adverse effect on the health of the workers and the wear and tear of the shelling machinery is fast. All the dust emissions spewing out of these unit operations of a rice Sheller were contained by providing suitable hoods and enclosures while ensuring their workability. These were sucked by providing an induced draft fan followed by a high efficiency cyclone separator that has got an overall dust collection efficiency of more than 90%. This cyclone separator replaced two cyclone separators and a filter bag house, which the Rice Sheller was already having. The dust concentration in the stack after the installation of cyclone separator is well within the stipulated standards. Besides controlling pollution, there is improvement in the quality of products like bran and the life of shelling machinery has enhanced. The payback period of this technology is less than four shelling months.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Cyclone Separator, Pneumatic Conveying, Rice Sheller.

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