Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2506

Search results for: π/4 differential quadrature phase shift keying (Pi/4 DQPSK)

2506 Comparison of BER Performances for Conventional and Non-Conventional Mapping Schemes Used in OFDM

Authors: Riddhi Parmar, Shilpi Gupta, Upena Dalal

Abstract:

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the techniques for high speed data rate communication with main consideration for 4G and 5G systems. In OFDM, there are several mapping schemes which provide a way of parallel transmission. In this paper, comparisons of mapping schemes used by some standards have been made and also has been discussed about the performance of the non-conventional modulation technique. The Comparisons of Bit Error Rate (BER) performances for conventional and non-conventional modulation schemes have been done using MATLAB software. Mentioned schemes used in OFDM system can be selected on the basis of the requirement of power or spectrum efficiency and BER analysis.

Keywords: BER, π/4 differential quadrature phase shift keying (Pi/4 DQPSK), OFDM, phase shift keying, quadrature phase shift keying.

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2505 Time and Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network Comparative Analysis: Modulation Formats and Channel Spacings

Authors: A. Fayad, Q. Alqhazaly, T. Cinkler

Abstract:

In light of the substantial increase in end-user requirements and the incessant need of network operators to upgrade the capabilities of access networks, in this paper, the performance of the different modulation formats on eight-channels Time and Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network (TWDM-PON) transmission system has been examined and compared. Limitations and features of modulation formats have been determined to outline the most suitable design to enhance the data rate and transmission reach to obtain the best performance of the network. The considered modulation formats are On-Off Keying Non-Return-to-Zero (NRZ-OOK), Carrier Suppressed Return to Zero (CSRZ), Duo Binary (DB), Modified Duo Binary (MODB), Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK), and Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DQPSK). The performance has been analyzed by varying transmission distances and bit rates under different channel spacing. Furthermore, the system is evaluated in terms of minimum Bit Error Rate (BER) and Quality factor (Qf) without applying any dispersion compensation technique, or any optical amplifier. Optisystem software was used for simulation purposes.

Keywords: Bit Error Rate, BER, Carrier Suppressed Return to Zero, CSRZ, Duo Binary, DB, Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, DQPSK, Modified Duo Binary, MODB, On-Off Keying Non-Return-to-Zero, NRZ-OOK, Quality factor, Qf, Time and Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network, TWDM-PON.

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2504 Evaluation of Multilevel Modulation Formats for 100Gbps Transmission with Direct Detection

Authors: Majed Omar Al-Dwairi

Abstract:

This paper evaluate the multilevel modulation for different techniques such as amplitude shift keying (M-ASK), MASK, differential phase shift keying (M-ASK-Bipolar), Quaternary Amplitude Shift Keying (QASK) and Quaternary Polarization-ASK (QPol-ASK) at a total bit rate of 107 Gbps. The aim is to find a costeffective very high speed transport solution. Numerical investigation was performed using Monte Carlo simulations. The obtained results indicate that some modulation formats can be operated at 100Gbps in optical communication systems with low implementation effort and high spectral efficiency.

Keywords: Optical communication, multilevel amplitude shift keying (M-ASK), Differential phase shift keying (DPSK), Quaternary Amplitude Shift Keying (QASK), Quaternary Polarization-ASK (QPol-ASK).

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2503 Optimization of Bit Error Rate and Power of Ad-hoc Networks Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Anjana Choudhary

Abstract:

The ad hoc networks are the future of wireless technology as everyone wants fast and accurate error free information so keeping this in mind Bit Error Rate (BER) and power is optimized in this research paper by using the Genetic Algorithm (GA). The digital modulation techniques used for this paper are Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK), M-ary Phase Shift Keying (M-ary PSK), and Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). This work is implemented on Wireless Ad Hoc Networks (WLAN). Then it is analyze which modulation technique is performing well to optimize the BER and power of WLAN.

Keywords: Bit Error Rate, Genetic Algorithm, Power, Phase Shift Keying, Quadrature Amplitude Modulation, Signal to Noise Ratio, Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

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2502 A Simplified Adaptive Decision Feedback Equalization Technique for π/4-DQPSK Signals

Authors: V. Prapulla, A. Mitra, R. Bhattacharjee, S. Nandi

Abstract:

We present a simplified equalization technique for a π/4 differential quadrature phase shift keying ( π/4 -DQPSK) modulated signal in a multipath fading environment. The proposed equalizer is realized as a fractionally spaced adaptive decision feedback equalizer (FS-ADFE), employing exponential step-size least mean square (LMS) algorithm as the adaptation technique. The main advantage of the scheme stems from the usage of exponential step-size LMS algorithm in the equalizer, which achieves similar convergence behavior as that of a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm with significantly reduced computational complexity. To investigate the finite-precision performance of the proposed equalizer along with the π/4 -DQPSK modem, the entire system is evaluated on a 16-bit fixed point digital signal processor (DSP) environment. The proposed scheme is found to be attractive even for those cases where equalization is to be performed within a restricted number of training samples.

Keywords: Adaptive decision feedback equalizer, Fractionally spaced equalizer, π/4 DQPSK signal, Digital signal processor.

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2501 Approximation for Average Error Probability of BPSK in the Presence of Phase Error

Authors: Yeonsoo Jang, Dongweon Yoon, Ki Ho Kwon, Jaeyoon Lee, Wooju Lee

Abstract:

Phase error in communications systems degrades error performance. In this paper, we present a simple approximation for the average error probability of the binary phase shift keying (BPSK) in the presence of phase error having a uniform distribution on arbitrary intervals. For the simple approximation, we use symmetry and periodicity of a sinusoidal function. Approximate result for the average error probability is derived, and the performance is verified through comparison with simulation result.

Keywords: Average error probability, Phase shift keying, Phase error

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2500 Phase Noise Impact on BER in Space Communication

Authors: Ondrej Baran, Miroslav Kasal, Petr Vagner, Tomas Urbanec

Abstract:

This paper deals with the modeling and the evaluation of a multiplicative phase noise influence on the bit error ratio in a general space communication system. Our research is focused on systems with multi-state phase shift keying modulation techniques and it turns out, that the phase noise significantly affects the bit error rate, especially for higher signal to noise ratios. These results come from a system model created in Matlab environment and are shown in a form of constellation diagrams and bit error rate dependencies. The change of a user data bit rate is also considered and included into simulation results. Obtained outcomes confirm theoretical presumptions.

Keywords: Additive thermal noise, AWGN, BER, bit error rate, multiplicative phase noise, phase shift keying.

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2499 Frequency-Dependent and Full Range Tunable Phase Shifter

Authors: Yufu Yin, Tao Lin, Shanghong Zhao, Zihang Zhu, Xuan Li, Wei Jiang, Qiurong Zheng, Hui Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, a frequency-dependent and tunable phase shifter is proposed and numerically analyzed. The key devices are the dual-polarization binary phase shift keying modulator (DP-BPSK) and the fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The phase-frequency response of the FBG is employed to determine the frequency-dependent phase shift. The simulation results show that a linear phase shift of the recovered output microwave signal which depends on the frequency of the input RF signal is achieved. In addition, by adjusting the power of the RF signal, the full range phase shift from 0° to 360° can be realized. This structure shows the spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of 70.90 dB·Hz2/3 and 72.11 dB·Hz2/3 under different RF powers.

Keywords: Microwave photonics, phase shifter, spurious free dynamic range, frequency-dependent.

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2498 Lamb Wave Wireless Communication in Healthy Plates Using Coherent Demodulation

Authors: Rudy Bahouth, Farouk Benmeddour, Emmanuel Moulin, Jamal Assaad

Abstract:

Guided ultrasonic waves are used in Non-Destructive Testing and Structural Health Monitoring for inspection and damage detection. Recently, wireless data transmission using ultrasonic waves in solid metallic channels has gained popularity in some industrial applications such as nuclear, aerospace and smart vehicles. The idea is to find a good substitute for electromagnetic waves since they are highly attenuated near metallic components due to Faraday shielding. The proposed solution is to use ultrasonic guided waves such as Lamb waves as an information carrier due to their capability of propagation for long distances. In addition to this, valuable information about the health of the structure could be extracted simultaneously. In this work, the reliable frequency bandwidth for communication is extracted experimentally from dispersion curves at first. Then, an experimental platform for wireless communication using Lamb waves is described and built. After this, coherent demodulation algorithm used in telecommunications is tested for Amplitude Shift Keying, On-Off Keying and Binary Phase Shift Keying modulation techniques. Signal processing parameters such as threshold choice, number of cycles per bit and Bit Rate are optimized. Experimental results are compared based on the average bit error percentage. Results has shown high sensitivity to threshold selection for Amplitude Shift Keying and On-Off Keying techniques resulting a Bit Rate decrease. Binary Phase Shift Keying technique shows the highest stability and data rate between all tested modulation techniques.

Keywords: Lamb Wave Communication, wireless communication, coherent demodulation, bit error percentage.

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2497 Scale Time Offset Robust Modulation (STORM) in a Code Division Multiaccess Environment

Authors: David M. Jenkins Jr.

Abstract:

Scale Time Offset Robust Modulation (STORM) [1]– [3] is a high bandwidth waveform design that adds time-scale to embedded reference modulations using only time-delay [4]. In an environment where each user has a specific delay and scale, identification of the user with the highest signal power and that user-s phase is facilitated by the STORM processor. Both of these parameters are required in an efficient multiuser detection algorithm. In this paper, the STORM modulation approach is evaluated with a direct sequence spread quadrature phase shift keying (DS-QPSK) system. A misconception of the STORM time scale modulation is that a fine temporal resolution is required at the receiver. STORM will be applied to a QPSK code division multiaccess (CDMA) system by modifying the spreading codes. Specifically, the in-phase code will use a typical spreading code, and the quadrature code will use a time-delayed and time-scaled version of the in-phase code. Subsequently, the same temporal resolution in the receiver is required before and after the application of STORM. In this paper, the bit error performance of STORM in a synchronous CDMA system is evaluated and compared to theory, and the bit error performance of STORM incorporated in a single user WCDMA downlink is presented to demonstrate the applicability of STORM in a modern communication system.

Keywords: Pseudonoise coded communication, Cyclic codes, Code division multiaccess

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2496 Generalized Differential Quadrature Nonlinear Consolidation Analysis of Clay Layer with Time-Varied Drainage Conditions

Authors: A. Bahmanikashkouli, O.R. Bahadori Nezhad

Abstract:

In this article, the phenomenon of nonlinear consolidation in saturated and homogeneous clay layer is studied. Considering time-varied drainage model, the excess pore water pressure in the layer depth is calculated. The Generalized Differential Quadrature (GDQ) method is used for the modeling and numerical analysis. For the purpose of analysis, first the domain of independent variables (i.e., time and clay layer depth) is discretized by the Chebyshev-Gauss-Lobatto series and then the nonlinear system of equations obtained from the GDQ method is solved by means of the Newton-Raphson approach. The obtained results indicate that the Generalized Differential Quadrature method, in addition to being simple to apply, enjoys a very high accuracy in the calculation of excess pore water pressure.

Keywords: Generalized Differential Quadrature method, Nonlinear consolidation, Nonlinear system of equations, Time-varied drainage

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2495 Coupled Galerkin-DQ Approach for the Transient Analysis of Dam-Reservoir Interaction

Authors: S. A. Eftekhari

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical algorithm using a coupled Galerkin-Differential Quadrature (DQ) method is proposed for the solution of dam-reservoir interaction problem. The governing differential equation of motion of the dam structure is discretized by the Galerkin method and the DQM is used to discretize the fluid domain. The resulting systems of ordinary differential equations are then solved by the Newmark time integration scheme. The mixed scheme combines the simplicity of the Galerkin method and high accuracy and efficiency of the DQ method. Its accuracy and efficiency are demonstrated by comparing the calculated results with those of the existing literature. It is shown that highly accurate results can be obtained using a small number of Galerkin terms and DQM sampling points. The technique presented in this investigation is general and can be used to solve various fluid-structure interaction problems.

Keywords: Dam-reservoir system, Differential quadrature method, Fluid-structure interaction, Galerkin method, Integral quadrature method.

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2494 Adaptive Transmission Scheme Based on Channel State in Dual-Hop System

Authors: Seung-Jun Yu, Yong-Jun Kim, Jung-In Baik, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In this paper, a dual-hop relay based on channel state is studied. In the conventional relay scheme, a relay uses the same modulation method without reference to channel state. But, a relay uses an adaptive modulation method with reference to channel state. If the channel state is poor, a relay eliminates latter 2 bits and uses Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulation. If channel state is good, a relay modulates the received symbols with 16-QAM symbols by using 4 bits. The performance of the proposed scheme for Symbol Error Rate (SER) and throughput is analyzed.

Keywords: Adaptive transmission, channel state, dual-hop, hierarchical modulation, relay.

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2493 Quadrature Formula for Sampled Functions

Authors: Khalid Minaoui, Thierry Chonavel, Benayad Nsiri, Driss Aboutajdine

Abstract:

This paper deals with efficient quadrature formulas involving functions that are observed only at fixed sampling points. The approach that we develop is derived from efficient continuous quadrature formulas, such as Gauss-Legendre or Clenshaw-Curtis quadrature. We select nodes at sampling positions that are as close as possible to those of the associated classical quadrature and we update quadrature weights accordingly. We supply the theoretical quadrature error formula for this new approach. We show on examples the potential gain of this approach.

Keywords: Gauss-Legendre, Clenshaw-Curtis, quadrature, Peano kernel, irregular sampling.

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2492 Breaking of Charge Independence of Nucleon-Nucleon Interaction Using Phase Shift Calculations

Authors: B. Rezaei, N. Amiri, N. Azizi

Abstract:

Using calculated phase- shift values, for pp, nn, and np elastic scattering in the energy range 1MeV to 350MeV, the charge independence breaking of nucleon-nucleon interaction is investigated. We have used Darboux transformation to calculate phase-shift for the first three values of

Keywords: Phase-shift, charge independence breaking, Darboux transformation.

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2491 Solution of Density Dependent Nonlinear Reaction-Diffusion Equation Using Differential Quadrature Method

Authors: Gülnihal Meral

Abstract:

In this study, the density dependent nonlinear reactiondiffusion equation, which arises in the insect dispersal models, is solved using the combined application of differential quadrature method(DQM) and implicit Euler method. The polynomial based DQM is used to discretize the spatial derivatives of the problem. The resulting time-dependent nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations(ODE-s) is solved by using implicit Euler method. The computations are carried out for a Cauchy problem defined by a onedimensional density dependent nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation which has an exact solution. The DQM solution is found to be in a very good agreement with the exact solution in terms of maximum absolute error. The DQM solution exhibits superior accuracy at large time levels tending to steady-state. Furthermore, using an implicit method in the solution procedure leads to stable solutions and larger time steps could be used.

Keywords: Density Dependent Nonlinear Reaction-Diffusion Equation, Differential Quadrature Method, Implicit Euler Method.

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2490 Coupled Lateral-Torsional Free Vibrations Analysis of Laminated Composite Beam using Differential Quadrature Method

Authors: S.H. Mirtalaie, M. Mohammadi, M.A. Hajabasi, F.Hejripour

Abstract:

In this paper the Differential Quadrature Method (DQM) is employed to study the coupled lateral-torsional free vibration behavior of the laminated composite beams. In such structures due to the fiber orientations in various layers, the lateral displacement leads to a twisting moment. The coupling of lateral and torsional vibrations is modeled by the bending-twisting material coupling rigidity. In the present study, in addition to the material coupling, the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia are taken into account in the definition of the potential and kinetic energies of the beam. The governing differential equations of motion which form a system of three coupled PDEs are solved numerically using DQ procedure under different boundary conditions consist of the combinations of simply, clamped, free and other end conditions. The resulting natural frequencies and mode shapes for cantilever beam are compared with similar results in the literature and good agreement is achieved.

Keywords: Differential Quadrature Method, Free vibration, Laminated composite beam, Material coupling.

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2489 Surface Plasmon Polariton Excitation by a Phase Shift Grating

Authors: T. Nakada, Y. Nakagawa, M. Haraguchi, T. Okamotoi, M. Flockert, T. Isu, G. Shinomiya

Abstract:

We focus on the excitation and propagation properties of surface plasmon polariton (SPP). We have developed a SPP excitation device in combination with a grating structures fabricated by using the scanning probe lithography. Perturbation approach was used to investigate the coupling properties of SPP with a spatial harmonic wave supported by a metallic grating. A phase shift grating SPP coupler has been fabricated and the optical property was evaluated by the Fraunhofer diffraction formula. We have been experimentally confirmed the induced stop band by diffraction measurement. We have also observed the wavenumber shift of the resonance condition of SPP owing to effect of a phase shift.

Keywords: Surface Plasmon Polariton, phase shift grating, scanning probe lithography

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2488 Research of a Multistep Method Applied to Numerical Solution of Volterra Integro-Differential Equation

Authors: M.Imanova, G.Mehdiyeva, V.Ibrahimov

Abstract:

Solution of some practical problems is reduced to the solution of the integro-differential equations. But for the numerical solution of such equations basically quadrature methods or its combination with multistep or one-step methods are used. The quadrature methods basically is applied to calculation of the integral participating in right hand side of integro-differential equations. As this integral is of Volterra type, it is obvious that at replacement with its integrated sum the upper limit of the sum depends on a current point in which values of the integral are defined. Thus we receive the integrated sum with variable boundary, to work with is hardly. Therefore multistep method with the constant coefficients, which is free from noted lack and gives the way for finding it-s coefficients is present.

Keywords: Volterra integro-differential equations, multistepmethods, finite-difference methods, initial value problem

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2487 Optical Signal-To-Noise Ratio Monitoring Based on Delay Tap Sampling Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Feng Wang, Shencheng Ni, Shuying Han, Shanhong You

Abstract:

With the development of optical communication, optical performance monitoring (OPM) has received more and more attentions. Since optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) is directly related to bit error rate (BER), it is one of the important parameters in optical networks. Recently, artificial neural network (ANN) has been greatly developed. ANN has strong learning and generalization ability. In this paper, a method of OSNR monitoring based on delay-tap sampling (DTS) and ANN has been proposed. DTS technique is used to extract the eigenvalues of the signal. Then, the eigenvalues are input into the ANN to realize the OSNR monitoring. The experiments of 10 Gb/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) on–off keying (OOK), 20 Gb/s pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) and 20 Gb/s return-to-zero (RZ) differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) systems are demonstrated for the OSNR monitoring based on the proposed method. The experimental results show that the range of OSNR monitoring is from 15 to 30 dB and the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) for 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK, 20 Gb/s PAM4 and 20 Gb/s RZ-DPSK systems are 0.36 dB, 0.45 dB and 0.48 dB respectively. The impact of chromatic dispersion (CD) on the accuracy of OSNR monitoring is also investigated in the three experimental systems mentioned above.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, ANN, chromatic dispersion, delay-tap sampling, optical signal-to-noise ratio, OSNR.

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2486 Analysis of Complex Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks

Authors: Chimin Tsai

Abstract:

This work consists of three parts. First, the alias-free condition for the conventional two-channel quadrature mirror filter bank is analyzed using complex arithmetic. Second, the approach developed in the first part is applied to the complex quadrature mirror filter bank. Accordingly, the structure is simplified and the theory is easier to follow. Finally, a new class of complex quadrature mirror filter banks is proposed. Interesting properties of this new structure are also discussed.

Keywords: Aliasing cancellation, complex signal processing, polyphase realization, quadrature mirror filter banks.

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2485 Nonlinear Static Analysis of Laminated Composite Hollow Beams with Super-Elliptic Cross-Sections

Authors: G. Akgun, I. Algul, H. Kurtaran

Abstract:

In this paper geometrically nonlinear static behavior of laminated composite hollow super-elliptic beams is investigated using generalized differential quadrature method. Super-elliptic beam can have both oval and elliptic cross-sections by adjusting parameters in super-ellipse formulation (also known as Lamé curves). Equilibrium equations of super-elliptic beam are obtained using the virtual work principle. Geometric nonlinearity is taken into account using von-Kármán nonlinear strain-displacement relations. Spatial derivatives in strains are expressed with the generalized differential quadrature method. Transverse shear effect is considered through the first-order shear deformation theory. Static equilibrium equations are solved using Newton-Raphson method. Several composite super-elliptic beam problems are solved with the proposed method. Effects of layer orientations of composite material, boundary conditions, ovality and ellipticity on bending behavior are investigated.

Keywords: Generalized differential quadrature, geometric nonlinearity, laminated composite, super-elliptic cross-section.

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2484 A Capacitive Sensor Interface Circuit Based on Phase Differential Method

Authors: H. A. Majid, N. Razali, M. S. Sulaiman, A. K. A'ain

Abstract:

A new interface circuit for capacitive sensor is presented. This paper presents the design and simulation of soil moisture capacitive sensor interface circuit based on phase differential technique. The circuit has been designed and fabricated using MIMOS- 0.35"m CMOS technology. Simulation and test results show linear characteristic from 36 – 52 degree phase difference, representing 0 – 100% in soil moisture level. Test result shows the circuit has sensitivity of 0.79mV/0.10 phase difference, translating into resolution of 10% soil moisture level.

Keywords: Capacitive sensor, interface, phase differential.

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2483 Transverse Vibration of Non-Homogeneous Rectangular Plates of Variable Thickness Using GDQ

Authors: R. Saini, R. Lal

Abstract:

The effect of non-homogeneity on the free transverse vibration of thin rectangular plates of bilinearly varying thickness has been analyzed using generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method. The non-homogeneity of the plate material is assumed to arise due to linear variations in Young’s modulus and density of the plate material with the in-plane coordinates x and y. Numerical results have been computed for fully clamped and fully simply supported boundary conditions. The solution procedure by means of GDQ method has been implemented in a MATLAB code. The effect of various plate parameters has been investigated for the first three modes of vibration. A comparison of results with those available in literature has been presented.

Keywords: Bilinear thickness, generalized differential quadrature (GDQ), non-homogeneous, Rectangular.

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2482 Current-Mode Resistorless SIMO Universal Filter and Four-Phase Quadrature Oscillator

Authors: Jie Jin

Abstract:

In this paper, a new CMOS current-mode single input and multi-outputs (SIMO) universal filter and quadrature oscillator with a similar circuit are proposed. The circuits only consist of three Current differencing transconductance amplifiers (CDTA) and two grounded capacitors, which are resistorless, and they are suitable for monolithic integration. The universal filter uses minimum CDTAs and passive elements to realize SIMO type low-pass (LP), high-pass (HP), band-pass (BP) band-stop (BS) and all-pass (AP) filter functions simultaneously without any component matching conditions. The angular frequency (ω0) and the quality factor (Q) of the proposed filter can be electronically controlled and tuned orthogonal. By some modifications of the filter, a new current-mode four-phase quadrature oscillator (QO) can be obtained easily. The condition of oscillation (CO) and frequency of oscillation (FO) of the QO can be controlled electronically and independently through the bias current of the CDTAs, and it is suitable for variable frequency oscillator. Moreover, all the passive and active sensitivities of the circuits are low. SPICE simulation results are included to confirm the theory.

Keywords: Universal Filter, Quadrature Oscillator, Current mode, Current differencing transconductance amplifiers.

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2481 Intrabody Communication Using Different Ground Configurations in Digital Door Lock

Authors: Daewook Kim, Gilwon Yoon

Abstract:

Intrabody communication (IBC) is a new way of transferring data using human body as a medium. Minute current can travel though human body without any harm. IBC can remove electrical wires for human area network. IBC can be also a secure communication network system unlike wireless networks which can be accessed by anyone with bad intentions. One of the IBC systems is based on frequency shift keying modulation where individual data are transmitted to the external devices for the purpose of secure access such as digital door lock. It was found that the quality of IBC data transmission was heavily dependent on ground configurations of electronic circuits. Reliable IBC transmissions were not possible when both of the transmitter and receiver used batteries as circuit power source. Transmission was reliable when power supplies were used as power source for both transmitting and receiving sites because the common ground was established through the grounds of instruments such as power supply and oscilloscope. This was due to transmission dipole size and the ground effects of floor and AC power line. If one site used battery as power source and the other site used the AC power as circuit power source, transmission was possible.

Keywords: Frequency shift keying, Ground, Intrabody, Communication, door lock.

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2480 A High-Frequency Low-Power Low-Pass-Filter-Based All-Current-Mirror Sinusoidal Quadrature Oscillator

Authors: A. Leelasantitham, B. Srisuchinwong

Abstract:

A high-frequency low-power sinusoidal quadrature oscillator is presented through the use of two 2nd-order low-pass current-mirror (CM)-based filters, a 1st-order CM low-pass filter and a CM bilinear transfer function. The technique is relatively simple based on (i) inherent time constants of current mirrors, i.e. the internal capacitances and the transconductance of a diode-connected NMOS, (ii) a simple negative resistance RN formed by a resistor load RL of a current mirror. Neither external capacitances nor inductances are required. As a particular example, a 1.9-GHz, 0.45-mW, 2-V CMOS low-pass-filter-based all-current-mirror sinusoidal quadrature oscillator is demonstrated. The oscillation frequency (f0) is 1.9 GHz and is current-tunable over a range of 370 MHz or 21.6 %. The power consumption is at approximately 0.45 mW. The amplitude matching and the quadrature phase matching are better than 0.05 dB and 0.15°, respectively. Total harmonic distortions (THD) are less than 0.3 %. At 2 MHz offset from the 1.9 GHz, the carrier to noise ratio (CNR) is 90.01 dBc/Hz whilst the figure of merit called a normalized carrier-to-noise ratio (CNRnorm) is 153.03 dBc/Hz. The ratio of the oscillation frequency (f0) to the unity-gain frequency (fT) of a transistor is 0.25. Comparisons to other approaches are also included.

Keywords: Sinusoidal quadrature oscillator, low-pass-filterbased, current-mirror bilinear transfer function, all-current-mirror, negative resistance, low power, high frequency, low distortion.

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2479 The Performance Analysis of CSS-based Communication Systems in the Jamming Environment

Authors: Youngpo Lee, Sanghun Kim, Youngyoon Lee, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

Due to its capability to resist jamming signals, chirp spread spectrum (CSS) technique has attracted much attention in the area of wireless communications. However, there has been little rigorous analysis for the performance of the CSS communication system in jamming environments. In this paper, we present analytic results on the performance of a CSS system by deriving symbol error rate (SER) expressions for a CSS M-ary phase shift keying (MPSK) system in the presence of broadband and tone jamming signals, respectively. The numerical results show that the empirical SER closely agrees with the analytic result.

Keywords: CSS, DM, jamming, broadband jamming, tone jamming.

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2478 An Automated High Pressure Differential Thermal Analysis System for Phase Transformation Studies

Authors: T. K. Mondal, N C Shivaprakash

Abstract:

A piston cylinder based high pressure differential thermal analyzer system is developed to investigate phase transformations, melting, glass transitions, crystallization behavior of inorganic materials, glassy systems etc., at ambient to 4 GPa and at room temperature to 1073 K. The pressure is calibrated by the phase transition of bismuth and ytterbium and temperature is calibrated by using thermocouple data chart. The system developed is calibrated using benzoic acid, ammonium nitrate and it has a pressure and temperature control of ± 8.9 x 10 -4 GPa , ± 2 K respectively. The phase transition of Asx Te100-x chalcogenides, ferrous oxide and strontium boride are studied using the indigenously developed system.

Keywords: double stage crystallization, Phase transition, Quasi hydrostatic, Rigidity percolation

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2477 Dynamic Analysis of Composite Doubly Curved Panels with Variable Thickness

Authors: I. Algul, G. Akgun, H. Kurtaran

Abstract:

Dynamic analysis of composite doubly curved panels with variable thickness subjected to different pulse types using Generalized Differential Quadrature method (GDQ) is presented in this study. Panels with variable thickness are used in the construction of aerospace and marine industry. Giving variable thickness to panels can allow the designer to get optimum structural efficiency. For this reason, estimating the response of variable thickness panels is very important to design more reliable structures under dynamic loads. Dynamic equations for composite panels with variable thickness are obtained using virtual work principle. Partial derivatives in the equation of motion are expressed with GDQ and Newmark average acceleration scheme is used for temporal discretization. Several examples are used to highlight the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results are compared with finite element method. Effects of taper ratios, boundary conditions and loading type on the response of composite panel are investigated.

Keywords: Generalized differential quadrature method, doubly curved panels, laminated composite materials, small displacement.

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