Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5863

Search results for: complex adaptive systems

5863 Understanding Workplace Behavior through Organizational Culture and Complex Adaptive Systems Theory

Authors: Péter Restás, Andrea Czibor, Zsolt Péter Szabó

Abstract:

Purpose: This article aims to rethink the phenomena of employee behavior as a product of a system. Both organizational culture and Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) theory emphasize that individual behavior depends on the specific system and the unique organizational culture. These two major theories are both represented in the field of organizational studies; however, they are rarely used together for the comprehensive understanding of workplace behavior. Methodology: By reviewing the literature we use key concepts stemming from organizational culture and CAS theory in order to show the similarities between these theories and create an enriched understanding of employee behavior. Findings: a) Workplace behavior is defined here as social cognition issue. b) Organizations are discussed here as complex systems, and cultures which drive and dictate the cognitive processes of agents in the system. c) Culture gives CAS theory a context which lets us see organizations not just as ever-changing and unpredictable, but as such systems that aim to create and maintain stability by recurring behavior. Conclusion: Applying the knowledge from culture and CAS theory sheds light on our present understanding of employee behavior, also emphasizes the importance of novel ways in organizational research and management.

Keywords: Complex adaptive systems theory, employee behavior, organizational culture, stability.

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5862 Adaptive Sliding Mode Observer for a Class of Systems

Authors: D.Elleuch, T.Damak

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance of two adaptive observers applied to interconnected systems is studied. The nonlinearity of systems can be written in a fractional form. The first adaptive observer is an adaptive sliding mode observer for a Lipchitz nonlinear system and the second one is an adaptive sliding mode observer having a filtered error as a sliding surface. After comparing their performances throughout the inverted pendulum mounted on a car system, it was shown that the second one is more robust to estimate the state.

Keywords: Adaptive observer, Lipchitz system, Interconnected fractional nonlinear system, sliding mode.

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5861 Complexity in Managing Higher Education Institutions in Mexico: A System Dynamics Approach

Authors: José Carlos Rodríguez, Mario Gómez, Medardo Serna

Abstract:

This paper analyses managing higher education institutions in emerging economies. The paper investigates the case of postgraduate studies development at public universities. In so doing, it adopts the complex theory approach to evaluate how postgraduate studies have evolved in these countries. The investigation suggests that the postgraduate studies sector at public universities can be seen as a complex adaptive system (CAS). Therefore, the paper adopts system dynamics (SD) methods to develop this analysis. The case of postgraduate studies at Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo in Mexico is investigated in this paper.

Keywords: Higher education institutions, complex adaptive systems, system dynamics, Mexico.

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5860 A New Kind Methodology for Controlling Complex Systems

Authors: Zundong Zhang, Limin Jia, Yuanyuan Chai

Abstract:

Control of complex systems is one of important files in complex systems, that not only relies on the essence of complex systems which is denoted by the core concept – emergence, but also embodies the elementary concept in control theory. Aiming at giving a clear and self-contained description of emergence, the paper introduces a formal way to completely describe the formation and dynamics of emergence in complex systems. Consequently, this paper indicates the Emergence-Oriented Control methodology that contains three kinds of basic control schemes: the direct control, the system re-structuring and the system calibration. As a universal ontology, the Emergence-Oriented Control provides a powerful tool for identifying and resolving control problems in specific systems.

Keywords: Complex System Control, Emergence, Emergence- Oriented Control Methodology.

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5859 Design of Adaptive Controller Based On Lyapunov Stability for a CSTR

Authors: S. Anbu, N. Jaya

Abstract:

Nonlinearity is the inherent characteristics of all the industrial processes. The Classical control approach used for a generation often fails to show better results particularly for non-linear systems and in the systems, whose parameters changes over a period of time for a variety of reasons. Alternatively, adaptive control strategies provide very good performance. The Model Reference Adaptive Control based on Lyapunov stability analysis and classical PI control strategies are designed and evaluated for Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor, which shows appreciable dynamic nonlinear characteristics.

Keywords: Adaptive Control, CSTR, Lyapunov stability, MRAS, PID.

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5858 Information Modelling for Adaptive Composition in Collaborative Work Environment

Authors: Sang Keun Rhee, Hyojeong Jin, Jihye Lee, Misoo Kwon, Myon-Woong Park, Sungdo Ha

Abstract:

Extensive information is required within a R&D environment, and a considerable amount of time and efforts are being spent on finding the necessary information. An adaptive information providing system would be beneficial to the environment, and a conceptual model of the resources, people and context is mandatory for developing such applications. In this paper, an information model on various contexts and resources is proposed which provides the possibility of effective applications for use in adaptive information systems within a R&D project and meeting environment.

Keywords: Adaptive Hypermedia, Adaptive System, ContextAwareness, Information Model, Information System, Personalisation.

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5857 A Intelligent Inference Model about Complex Systems- Stability: Inspiration from Nature

Authors: Naiqin Feng, Yuhui Qiu, Yingshan Zhang, Fang Wang

Abstract:

A logic model for analyzing complex systems- stability is very useful to many areas of sciences. In the real world, we are enlightened from some natural phenomena such as “biosphere", “food chain", “ecological balance" etc. By research and practice, and taking advantage of the orthogonality and symmetry defined by the theory of multilateral matrices, we put forward a logic analysis model of stability of complex systems with three relations, and prove it by means of mathematics. This logic model is usually successful in analyzing stability of a complex system. The structure of the logic model is not only clear and simple, but also can be easily used to research and solve many stability problems of complex systems. As an application, some examples are given.

Keywords: Complex system, logic model, relation, stability.

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5856 Chua’s Circuit Regulation Using a Nonlinear Adaptive Feedback Technique

Authors: Abolhassan Razminia, Mohammad-Ali Sadrnia

Abstract:

Chua’s circuit is one of the most important electronic devices that are used for Chaos and Bifurcation studies. A central role of secure communication is devoted to it. Since the adaptive control is used vastly in the linear systems control, here we introduce a new trend of application of adaptive method in the chaos controlling field. In this paper, we try to derive a new adaptive control scheme for Chua’s circuit controlling because control of chaos is often very important in practical operations. The novelty of this approach is for sake of its robustness against the external perturbations which is simulated as an additive noise in all measured states and can be generalized to other chaotic systems. Our approach is based on Lyapunov analysis and the adaptation law is considered for the feedback gain. Because of this, we have named it NAFT (Nonlinear Adaptive Feedback Technique). At last, simulations show the capability of the presented technique for Chua’s circuit.

Keywords: Chaos, adaptive control, nonlinear control, Chua's circuit.

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5855 Construction of a Low Carbon Eco-City Index System Based on CAS Theory: A Case of Hexi Newtown in Nanjing, China

Authors: Xu Tao, Yilun Xu, Dingwei Xiang, Yaofei Sun

Abstract:

The practice of urban planning and construction based on the concept of the “low carbon eco-city” has been universally accepted by the academic community in response to urban issues such as population, resources, environment, and social development. Based on this, the current article first analyzes the concepts of low carbon eco-city, then builds a complex adaptive system (CAS) theory based on Chinese traditional philosophical thinking, and analyzes the adaptive relationship between material and non-material elements. A three-dimensional evaluation model of natural ecology, economic low carbon, and social harmony was constructed. Finally, the construction of a low carbon eco-city index system in Hexi Newtown of Nanjing was used as an example to verify the effectiveness of the research results; this paradigm provides a new way to achieve a low carbon eco-city system.

Keywords: Complex adaptive system, low carbon ecology, index system, model.

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5854 Influence of Adaptation Gain and Reference Model Parameters on System Performance for Model Reference Adaptive Control

Authors: Jan Erik Stellet

Abstract:

This article presents a detailed analysis and comparative performance evaluation of model reference adaptive control systems. In contrast to classical control theory, adaptive control methods allow to deal with time-variant processes. Inspired by the works [1] and [2], two methods based on the MIT rule and Lyapunov rule are applied to a linear first order system. The system is simulated and it is investigated how changes to the adaptation gain affect the system performance. Furthermore, variations in the reference model parameters, that is changing the desired closed-loop behaviour are examinded.

Keywords: Adaptive control systems, Adaptation gain, MIT rule, Lyapunov rule, Model reference adaptive control.

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5853 Stereotype Student Model for an Adaptive e-Learning System

Authors: Ani Grubišić, Slavomir Stankov, Branko Žitko

Abstract:

This paper describes a concept of stereotype student model in adaptive knowledge acquisition e-learning system. Defined knowledge stereotypes are based on student's proficiency level and on Bloom's knowledge taxonomy. The teacher module is responsible for the whole adaptivity process: the automatic generation of courseware elements, their dynamic selection and sorting, as well as their adaptive presentation using templates for statements and questions. The adaptation of courseware is realized according to student-s knowledge stereotype.

Keywords: Adaptive e-learning systems, adaptive courseware, stereotypes, Bloom's knowledge taxonomy.

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5852 Comparative Study of Some Adaptive Fuzzy Algorithms for Manipulator Control

Authors: Sudeept Mohan, Surekha Bhanot

Abstract:

The problem of manipulator control is a highly complex problem of controlling a system which is multi-input, multioutput, non-linear and time variant. In this paper some adaptive fuzzy, and a new hybrid fuzzy control algorithm have been comparatively evaluated through simulations, for manipulator control. The adaptive fuzzy controllers consist of self-organizing, self-tuning, and coarse/fine adaptive fuzzy schemes. These controllers are tested for different trajectories and for varying manipulator parameters through simulations. Various performance indices like the RMS error, steady state error and maximum error are used for comparison. It is observed that the self-organizing fuzzy controller gives the best performance. The proposed hybrid fuzzy plus integral error controller also performs remarkably well, given its simple structure.

Keywords: Hybrid fuzzy, Self-organizing, Self-tuning, Trajectory tracking.

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5851 Stable Robust Adaptive Controller and Observer Design for a Class of SISO Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Dead Zone

Authors: Ibrahim F. Jasim

Abstract:

This paper presents a new stable robust adaptive controller and observer design for a class of nonlinear systems that contain i. Coupling of unmeasured states and unknown parameters ii. Unknown dead zone at the system actuator. The system is firstly cast into a modified form in which the observer and parameter estimation become feasible. Then a stable robust adaptive controller, state observer, parameter update laws are derived that would provide global adaptive system stability and desirable performance. To validate the approach, simulation was performed to a single-link mechanical system with a dynamic friction model and unknown dead zone exists at the system actuation. Then a comparison is presented with the results when there is no dead zone at the system actuation.

Keywords: Dead Zone, Nonlinear Systems, Observer, Robust Adaptive Control.

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5850 Toward a Measure of Appropriateness of User Interfaces Adaptations Solutions

Authors: A. Siam, R. Maamri, Z. Sahnoun

Abstract:

The development of adaptive user interfaces (UI) presents for a long time an important research area in which researcher attempt to call upon the full resources and skills of several disciplines, The adaptive UI community holds a thorough knowledge regarding the adaptation of UIs with users and with contexts of use. Several solutions, models, formalisms, techniques and mechanisms were proposed to develop adaptive UI. In this paper, we propose an approach based on the fuzzy set theory for modeling the concept of the appropriateness of different solutions of UI adaptation with different situations for which interactive systems have to adapt their UIs.

Keywords: Adaptive user interfaces, adaptation solution’s appropriateness, fuzzy sets.

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5849 An Adaptive Approach to Synchronization of Two Chua's Circuits

Authors: Majid Reza Naseh, Mohammad Haeri

Abstract:

This paper introduces an adaptive control scheme to synchronize two identical Chua's systems. Introductory part of the paper is presented in the first part of the paper and then in the second part, a new theorem is proposed based on which an adaptive control scheme is developed to synchronize two identical modified Chua's circuit. Finally, numerical simulations are included to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

Keywords: Chaos synchronization, adaptive control, Chua's circuits.

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5848 Simulation of Online Communities Using MAS Social and Spatial Organisations

Authors: Maya Rupert, Salima Hassas, Carlos Li, John Sherwood

Abstract:

Online Communities are an example of sociallyaware, self-organising, complex adaptive computing systems. The multi-agent systems (MAS) paradigm coordinated by self-organisation mechanisms has been used as an effective way for the simulation and modeling of such systems. In this paper, we propose a model for simulating an online health community using a situated multi-agent system approach, governed by the co-evolution of the social and spatial organisations of the agents.

Keywords: multi-agent systems, organizations, online communities.

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5847 New Data Reuse Adaptive Filters with Noise Constraint

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

We present a new framework of the data-reusing (DR) adaptive algorithms by incorporating a constraint on noise, referred to as a noise constraint. The motivation behind this work is that the use of the statistical knowledge of the channel noise can contribute toward improving the convergence performance of an adaptive filter in identifying a noisy linear finite impulse response (FIR) channel. By incorporating the noise constraint into the cost function of the DR adaptive algorithms, the noise constrained DR (NC-DR) adaptive algorithms are derived. Experimental results clearly indicate their superior performance over the conventional DR ones.

Keywords: Adaptive filter, data-reusing, least-mean square (LMS), affine projection (AP), noise constraint.

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5846 Adaptive Nonparametric Approach for Guaranteed Real-Time Detection of Targeted Signals in Multichannel Monitoring Systems

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev

Abstract:

An adaptive nonparametric method is proposed for stable real-time detection of seismoacoustic sources in multichannel C-OTDR systems with a significant number of channels. This method guarantees given upper boundaries for probabilities of Type I and Type II errors. Properties of the proposed method are rigorously proved. The results of practical applications of the proposed method in a real C-OTDR-system are presented in this report.

Keywords: Adaptive detection, change point, interval estimation, guaranteed detection, multichannel monitoring systems.

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5845 Accurate And Efficient Global Approximation using Adaptive Polynomial RSM for Complex Mechanical and Vehicular Performance Models

Authors: Y. Z. Wu, Z. Dong, S. K. You

Abstract:

Global approximation using metamodel for complex mathematical function or computer model over a large variable domain is often needed in sensibility analysis, computer simulation, optimal control, and global design optimization of complex, multiphysics systems. To overcome the limitations of the existing response surface (RS), surrogate or metamodel modeling methods for complex models over large variable domain, a new adaptive and regressive RS modeling method using quadratic functions and local area model improvement schemes is introduced. The method applies an iterative and Latin hypercube sampling based RS update process, divides the entire domain of design variables into multiple cells, identifies rougher cells with large modeling error, and further divides these cells along the roughest dimension direction. A small number of additional sampling points from the original, expensive model are added over the small and isolated rough cells to improve the RS model locally until the model accuracy criteria are satisfied. The method then combines local RS cells to regenerate the global RS model with satisfactory accuracy. An effective RS cells sorting algorithm is also introduced to improve the efficiency of model evaluation. Benchmark tests are presented and use of the new metamodeling method to replace complex hybrid electrical vehicle powertrain performance model in vehicle design optimization and optimal control are discussed.

Keywords: Global approximation, polynomial response surface, domain decomposition, domain combination, multiphysics modeling, hybrid powertrain optimization

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5844 Applying Complex Network Theory to Software Structure Analysis

Authors: Weifeng Pan

Abstract:

Complex networks have been intensively studied across many fields, especially in Internet technology, biological engineering, and nonlinear science. Software is built up out of many interacting components at various levels of granularity, such as functions, classes, and packages, representing another important class of complex networks. It can also be studied using complex network theory. Over the last decade, many papers on the interdisciplinary research between software engineering and complex networks have been published. It provides a different dimension to our understanding of software and also is very useful for the design and development of software systems. This paper will explore how to use the complex network theory to analyze software structure, and briefly review the main advances in corresponding aspects.

Keywords: Metrics, measurement, complex networks, software.

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5843 Predicting the Life Cycle of Complex Technical Systems (CTS)

Authors: Khalil A. Yaghi, Samer Barakat

Abstract:

Complex systems are composed of several plain interacting independent entities. Interaction between these entities creates a unified behavior at the global level that cannot be predicted by examining the behavior of any single individual component of the system. In this paper we consider a welded frame of an automobile trailer as a real example of Complex Technical Systems, The purpose of this paper is to introduce a Statistical method for predicting the life cycle of complex technical systems. To organize gathering of primary data for modeling the life cycle of complex technical systems an “Automobile Trailer Frame" were used as a prototype in this research. The prototype represents a welded structure of several pieces. Both information flows underwent a computerized analysis and classification for the acquisition of final results to reach final recommendations for improving the trailers structure and their operational conditions.

Keywords: Complex Technical System (CTS), AutomobileTrailer Frame, Automobile Service.

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5842 Energy Efficiency of Adaptive-Rate Medium Access Control Protocols for Sensor Networks

Authors: Rooholah Hasanizadeh, Saadan Zokaei

Abstract:

Energy efficient protocol design is the aim of current researches in the area of sensor networks where limited power resources impose energy conservation considerations. In this paper we care for Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols and after an extensive literature review, two adaptive schemes are discussed. Of them, adaptive-rate MACs which were introduced for throughput enhancement show the potency to save energy, even more than adaptive-power schemes. Then we propose an allocation algorithm for getting accurate and reliable results. Through a simulation study we validated our claim and showed the power saving of adaptive-rate protocols.

Keywords: Adaptive-rate, adaptive-power, MAC protocol, energy efficiency, sensor networks.

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5841 An Approach to Adaptive Load Balancing for RFID Middlewares

Authors: Heung Seok Chae, Jaegeol Park

Abstract:

Recently, there have been an increasing interest in RFID system and RFID systems have been applied to various applications. Load balancing is a fundamental technique for providing scalability of systems by moving workload from overloaded nodes to under-loaded nodes. This paper presents an approach to adaptive load balancing for RFID middlewares. Workloads of RFID middlewares can have a considerable variation according to the location of the connected RFID readers and can abruptly change at a particular instance. The proposed approach considers those characteristics of RFID middle- wares to provide an efficient load balancing.

Keywords: RFID middleware, Adaptive load balancing.

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5840 A Neuro Adaptive Control Strategy for Movable Power Source of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Using Wavelets

Authors: M. Sedighizadeh, A. Rezazadeh

Abstract:

Movable power sources of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are the important research done in the current fuel cells (FC) field. The PEMFC system control influences the cell performance greatly and it is a control system for industrial complex problems, due to the imprecision, uncertainty and partial truth and intrinsic nonlinear characteristics of PEMFCs. In this paper an adaptive PI control strategy using neural network adaptive Morlet wavelet for control is proposed. It is based on a single layer feed forward neural networks with hidden nodes of adaptive morlet wavelet functions controller and an infinite impulse response (IIR) recurrent structure. The IIR is combined by cascading to the network to provide double local structure resulting in improving speed of learning. The proposed method is applied to a typical 1 KW PEMFC system and the results show the proposed method has more accuracy against to MLP (Multi Layer Perceptron) method.

Keywords: Adaptive Control, Morlet Wavelets, PEMFC.

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5839 Adaptive PID Control of Wind Energy Conversion Systems Using RASP1 Mother Wavelet Basis Function Networks

Authors: M. Sedighizadeh, A. Rezazadeh

Abstract:

In this paper a PID control strategy using neural network adaptive RASP1 wavelet for WECS-s control is proposed. It is based on single layer feedforward neural networks with hidden nodes of adaptive RASP1 wavelet functions controller and an infinite impulse response (IIR) recurrent structure. The IIR is combined by cascading to the network to provide double local structure resulting in improving speed of learning. This particular neuro PID controller assumes a certain model structure to approximately identify the system dynamics of the unknown plant (WECS-s) and generate the control signal. The results are applied to a typical turbine/generator pair, showing the feasibility of the proposed solution.

Keywords: Adaptive PID Control, RASP1 Wavelets, WindEnergy Conversion Systems.

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5838 Performance Analysis of Adaptive OFDM Pre and Post-FTT Beamforming System

Authors: S. Elnobi, Iman El-Zahaby, Amr M. Mahros

Abstract:

In mobile communication systems, performance and capacity are affected by multi-path fading, delay spread and Co-Channel Interference (CCI). For this reason Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and adaptive antenna array are used is required. The goal of the OFDM is to improve the system performance against Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI). An array of adaptive antennas has been employed to suppress CCI by spatial technique. To suppress CCI in OFDM systems two main schemes the pre-FFT and the post-FFT have been proposed. In this paper, through a system level simulation, the behavior of the pre-FFT and post-FFT beamformers for OFDM system has been investigated based on two algorithms namely, Least Mean Squares (LMS) and Recursive Least Squares (RLS). The performance of the system is also discussed in multipath fading channel system specified by 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE).

Keywords: OFDM, Beamforming, Adaptive Antennas Array.

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5837 Time-Derivative Estimation of Noisy Movie Data using Adaptive Control Theory

Authors: Soon-Hyun Park, Takami Matsuo

Abstract:

This paper presents an adaptive differentiator of sequential data based on the adaptive control theory. The algorithm is applied to detect moving objects by estimating a temporal gradient of sequential data at a specified pixel. We adopt two nonlinear intensity functions to reduce the influence of noises. The derivatives of the nonlinear intensity functions are estimated by an adaptive observer with σ-modification update law.

Keywords: Adaptive estimation, parameter adjustmentlaw, motion detection, temporal gradient, differential filter.

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5836 Robust Adaptive Observer Design for Lipschitz Class of Nonlinear Systems

Authors: M. Pourgholi, V.J.Majd

Abstract:

This paper addresses parameter and state estimation problem in the presence of the perturbation of observer gain bounded input disturbances for the Lipschitz systems that are linear in unknown parameters and nonlinear in states. A new nonlinear adaptive resilient observer is designed, and its stability conditions based on Lyapunov technique are derived. The gain for this observer is derived systematically using linear matrix inequality approach. A numerical example is provided in which the nonlinear terms depend on unmeasured states. The simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Adaptive observer, linear matrix inequality, nonlinear systems, nonlinear observer, resilient observer, robust estimation.

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5835 Dynamic Process Monitoring of an Ammonia Synthesis Fixed-Bed Reactor

Authors: Bothinah Altaf, Gary Montague, Elaine B. Martin

Abstract:

This study involves the modeling and monitoring of an ammonia synthesis fixed-bed reactor using partial least squares (PLS) and its variants. The process exhibits complex dynamic behavior due to the presence of heat recycling and feed quench. One limitation of static PLS model in this situation is that it does not take account of the process dynamics and hence dynamic PLS was used. Although it showed, superior performance to static PLS in terms of prediction, the monitoring scheme was inappropriate hence adaptive PLS was considered. A limitation of adaptive PLS is that non-conforming observations also contribute to the model, therefore, a new adaptive approach was developed, robust adaptive dynamic PLS. This approach updates a dynamic PLS model and is robust to non-representative data. The developed methodology showed a clear improvement over existing approaches in terms of the modeling of the reactor and the detection of faults.

Keywords: Ammonia synthesis fixed-bed reactor, dynamic partial least squares modeling, recursive partial least squares, robust modeling.

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5834 Evolutionary Algorithms for Learning Primitive Fuzzy Behaviors and Behavior Coordination in Multi-Objective Optimization Problems

Authors: Li Shoutao, Gordon Lee

Abstract:

Evolutionary robotics is concerned with the design of intelligent systems with life-like properties by means of simulated evolution. Approaches in evolutionary robotics can be categorized according to the control structures that represent the behavior and the parameters of the controller that undergo adaptation. The basic idea is to automatically synthesize behaviors that enable the robot to perform useful tasks in complex environments. The evolutionary algorithm searches through the space of parameterized controllers that map sensory perceptions to control actions, thus realizing a specific robotic behavior. Further, the evolutionary algorithm maintains and improves a population of candidate behaviors by means of selection, recombination and mutation. A fitness function evaluates the performance of the resulting behavior according to the robot-s task or mission. In this paper, the focus is in the use of genetic algorithms to solve a multi-objective optimization problem representing robot behaviors; in particular, the A-Compander Law is employed in selecting the weight of each objective during the optimization process. Results using an adaptive fitness function show that this approach can efficiently react to complex tasks under variable environments.

Keywords: adaptive fuzzy neural inference, evolutionary tuning

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