A New Kind Methodology for Controlling Complex Systems
Control of complex systems is one of important files in complex systems, that not only relies on the essence of complex systems which is denoted by the core concept – emergence, but also embodies the elementary concept in control theory. Aiming at giving a clear and self-contained description of emergence, the paper introduces a formal way to completely describe the formation and dynamics of emergence in complex systems. Consequently, this paper indicates the Emergence-Oriented Control methodology that contains three kinds of basic control schemes: the direct control, the system re-structuring and the system calibration. As a universal ontology, the Emergence-Oriented Control provides a powerful tool for identifying and resolving control problems in specific systems.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1060984Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1177
 Y. Bar-Yam, Overview: The Dynamics of Complex Systems - Examples, Questions, Methods and Concepts, ser. The Advanced Book Studies in Nonlinearity series. Addison Wesley Longman, 2002, ch. 0.
 M. Mitchell, J. P. Crutchfield, and P. T. Hraber, "Dynamics, computation, and the "edge of chaos": A re-examination," in Complexity: Metaphors, Models, and Reality, G. Cowan, D. Pines, and D. Melzner, Eds., vol. 19, 1999, pp. 497 - 513.
 J. P. Crutchfield, "Is anything ever new? considering emergence," Santa Fe Institute, MA, USA, Tech. Rep., 1994.
 M. Mitchell and M. Newman, "Complex systems theory and evolution," in Encyclopedia of Evolution, M. Pagel, Ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
 J. L. Casti, "The simply complex," Santa Fe Institute, Tech. Rep., 2001.
 Y. Bar-Yam, "General features of complex systems," in Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems. Oxford ,UK: UNESCO, EOLSS Publishers, 2002.
 M. Baranger, "Chaos,complexity,and. entropy ÔÇö a physics talk for nonphysicists," Center for Theoretical Physics and New England Complex Systems Institute, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA, Tech. Rep. MIT-CTP- 3112, 2000.
 M. Klein, H. Sayama, P. Faratin, and Y. Bar-Yam, "A complex systems perspective on computer-supported collaborative design technology," COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 27-31, November 2002.
 H. A. Simon, "Can there be a science of complex systems?" in Proceedings from the international conference on complex systems on Unifying themes in complex systems, Y. Bar-Yam, Ed. Cambridge, MA, USA: Perseus Books, 2000, pp. 3-14.
 C. R. Shalizi, "Methods and techniques of complex systems science: An overview," in Complex Systems Science in Biomedicine, T. S. Deisboeck and J. Y. Kresh, Eds. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2006, pp. 33-114.
 F. Heylighen, "Five questions on complexity," Complexity: 5 questions, Automatic Press / VIP, 2007.
 ÔÇöÔÇö, "Evolutionary transitions: how do levels of complexity emerge?" Complexity, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 53-57, 2000.
 J. Finnigan, "The science of complex systems," Australian Science, pp. 32-34, June 2005.
 C. N. Calvano and P. John, "Systems engineering in an age of complexity: Regular paper," Systems Engineering, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 25-34, March 2004.
 A. N. Kolmogorov, "Combinatorial foundations of information theory and the calculus of probability," Russian Mathematical Surveys, vol. 38, pp. 29-40, 1983.
 C. L. Magee and O. L. de Weck, "Complex system classification," in Proceedings of Fourteenth Annual International Symposium of the International Council On Systems Engineering (INCOSE), 2004.
 W. Li, "Problems in complex systems," Ph.D. dissertation, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, 1989.
 A. Sengupta, "Chanoxity: the nonlinear dynamics of nature," Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016, INDIA, Tech. Rep., 2004.
 F. Heylighen, "Self-organization, emergence and the architecture of complexity," in Proceedings of the 1st European Conference on System Science, Paris, 1989, pp. 23-32.
 C. B. Keating, "Research foundations for system of systems engineering," in Proceedings of 2005 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, vol. 3, Oct. 2005, pp. 2720-2725.
 C. Lecerf and T. M. L. Nguyen, "Complex systems modeling," in Proceedings of RIVF 2003, Hanoi, Vietnam, February 2003, pp. 93- 98.
 C. D. Stylios and P. P. Groumpos, "Modeling complex systems using fuzzy cognitive maps," IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part A, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 155-162, 2004.
 C. Wang, F. Wang, and J. He, "Some key issues in studying complex systems," Control Theory & Applications, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 604-608, Augest 2005.
 V. Latora and M. Marchiori, "The architecture of complex systems," in Santa Fe Institute for Studies of Complexity. Oxford University Press, 2002.
 L. Kocarev and G. Vattay, "Synchronization in complex networks," in Complex Dynamics in Communication Networks. Springer-Verlag New York Inc, 2005, pp. 309-328.
 R. Abbott, "Complex systems + systems engineering = complex systems engineering," California State University, Los Angels and The Aerospace Corporation, Tech. Rep., 2006.
 F. M. Atay and J. Jost, "On the emergence of complex systems on the basis of the coordination of complex behaviors of their elements," Complexity, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 17-22, 2004.
 F. Heylighen, "The science of self-organization and adaptivity," in Knowledge Management, Organizational Intelligence and Learning, and Complexity, ser. The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems. EOLSS Publishers Co. Ltd., 2001, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 253-280.
 N. A. Baas and C. Emmeche, "On emergence and explanation," Intellectica, no. 25, pp. 67-83, 1997.
 J. D. Halley and D. A. Winkler, "Classification of emergence and its relation to self-organization," Complexity, 2008.
 M. Randles, H. Zhu, and A. Taleb-Bendiab, "A formal approach to the engineering of emergence and its recurrence," in Proceedings of The Second International Workshop on Engineering Emergence in Decentralised Autonomic Systems (EEDAS 2007). Jacksonville, Florida, USA: Greenwich University Press, London , UK, June 11 2007, pp. 12- 21.
 J. Goldstein, "Emergence as a construct: History and issues," Emergence, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 49-72, 1999.
 I. Breddin, "Self-organisation and emergence," Seminar Organic Computing. KBS Department of communications and operations systems. Technical University of Berlin, Tech. Rep., 2006.
 W. D. Hillis, "Intelligence as an emergent behavior: or, the songs of eden," in The Artificial Intelligence Debate: False Starts, Real Foundations, S. R. Graubard, Ed. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1989, pp. 175-189.
 T. D. Wolf and T. Holvoet, "Emergence and self-organisation: a statement of similarities and differences," in the Second International Workshop on Engineering Self-Organising Applications, July 2004, pp. 96-110, http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/dewolf04eme rgence.html.
 N. Brodu, "A synthesis and a practical approach to complex systems," Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Tech. Rep., 2006.
 H. Haken, "The challenge of complex systems," in Information and Self- Organization - A Macroscopic Approach to Complex Systems, second enlarged edition ed. Springer-Verlag, 2000, ch. 1, p. 11.
 F. Heylighen and C. Gershenson, "The meaning of self-organization in computing," in IEEE Intelligent Systems, section Trends & Controversies - Self-organization and Information Systems, 2003, pp. 72-75.
 A. A. Minai, D. Braha, and Y. Bar-Yam, "Complex engineered systems: A new paradigm," in Complex Engineered Systems: Science Meets Technology. Springer Verlag, 2006, ch. 1, pp. 1-22.
 C. Gershenson, "Self-organizing traffic lights," Complex Systems, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 29-53, 2005.
 ÔÇöÔÇö, "Design and control of self-organizing systems," Ph.D. dissertation, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 2007.
 M. PACZUSKI and P. BAK, "Self-organization of complex systems," Department of Physics, University of Houston and Niels Bohr Institute, Tech. Rep., 1999.
 Aristotle, "The politics," 350 B.C.E, http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/politics.html.
 A. Spirkin, Dialectical Materialism. Progress Publishers, 1983, ch. Chapter 2. The System of Categories in Philosophical Thought, http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/spirkin/works/dialecticalmaterialism/ ch02-s07.html.
 W. R. Ashby, "Principles of the self-organizing dynamic system," Journal of General Psychology, vol. 37, pp. 125-128, 1947.
 J. Cohen and I. Stewart, The Collapse of Chaos: Discovering Simplicity in a Complex World. New York: Viking, 1994.
 C. Lucas, "Self-organization systems usenet faq," vol. 2003, Version 2.93 ed, 2003.
 T. Keil, An Introduction to Chaotic Systems, 1993.