Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: biotechnology

36 An Integrated Biotechnology Database of the National Agricultural Information Center in Korea

Authors: Chang Kug Kim, Dong Suk Park, Young Joo Seol, Jang Ho Hahn

Abstract:

The National Agricultural Biotechnology Information Center (NABIC) plays a leading role in the biotechnology information database for agricultural plants in Korea. Since 2002, we have concentrated on functional genomics of major crops, building an integrated biotechnology database for agro-biotech information that focuses on bioinformatics of major agricultural resources such as rice, Chinese cabbage, and microorganisms. In the NABIC, integration-based biotechnology database provides useful information through a user-friendly web interface that allows analysis of genome infrastructure, multiple plants, microbial resources, and living modified organisms.

Keywords: biotechnology, database, genome information

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35 Problems and Prospects of Agricultural Biotechnology in Nigeria’s Developing Economy

Authors: Samson Abayomi Olasoju, Olufemi Adekunle, Titilope Edun, Johnson Owoseni

Abstract:

Science offers opportunities for revolutionizing human activities, enriched by input from scientific research and technology. Biotechnology is a major force for development in developing countries such as Nigeria. It is found to contribute to solving human problems like water and food insecurity that impede national development and threaten peace wherever it is applied. This review identified the problems of agricultural biotechnology in Nigeria. On the part of rural farmers, there is a lack of adequate knowledge or awareness of biotechnology despite the fact that they constitute the bulk of Nigerian farmers. On part of the government, the problems include: lack of adequate implementation of government policy on bio-safety and genetically modified products, inadequate funding of education as well as research and development of products related to biotechnology. Other problems include: inadequate infrastructures (including laboratory), poor funding and lack of national strategies needed for development and running of agricultural biotechnology. In spite of all the challenges associated with agricultural biotechnology, its prospects still remain great if Nigeria is to meet with the food needs of the country’s ever increasing population. The introduction of genetically engineered products will lead to the high productivity needed for commercialization and food security. Insect, virus and other related diseases resistant crops and livestock are another viable area of contribution of biotechnology to agricultural production. In conclusion, agricultural biotechnology will not only ensure food security, but, in addition, will ensure that the local farmers utilize appropriate technology needed for large production, leading to the prosperity of the farmers and national economic growth, provided government plays its role of adequate funding and good policy implementation.

Keywords: Biosafety, biotechnology, food security, genetic engineering, genetic modification.

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34 21st Century Biotechnological Research and Development Advancements for Industrial Development in India

Authors: Monisha Isaac

Abstract:

Biotechnology is a discipline which explains the use of living organisms and systems to construct a product, or we can define it as an application or technology developed to use biological systems and organisms processes for a specific use. Particularly, it includes cells and its components use for new technologies and inventions. The tools developed can be further used in diverse fields such as agriculture, industry, research and hospitals etc. The 21st century has seen a drastic development and advancement in biotechnology in India. Significant increase in Government of India’s outlays for biotechnology over the past decade has been observed. A sectoral break up of biotechnology-based companies in India shows that most of the companies are agriculture-based companies having interests ranging from tissue culture to biopesticides. Major attention has been given by the companies in health related activities and in environmental biotechnology. The biopharmaceutical, which comprises of vaccines, diagnostic, and recombinant products is the most reliable and largest segment of the Indian Biotech industry. India has developed its vaccine markets and supplies them to various countries. Then there are the bio-services, which mainly comprise of contract researches and manufacturing services. India has made noticeable developments in the field of bio industries including manufacturing of enzymes, biofuels and biopolymers. Biotechnology is also playing a crucial and significant role in the field of agriculture. Traditional methods have been replaced by new technologies that mainly focus on GM crops, marker assisted technologies and the use of biotechnological tools to improve the quality of fertilizers and soil. It may only be a small contributor but has shown to have huge potential for growth. Bioinformatics is a computational method which helps to store, manage, arrange and design tools to interpret the extensive data gathered through experimental trials, making it important in the design of drugs.

Keywords: Biotechnology, advancement, agriculture, bio-services, bio-industries, bio-pharmaceuticals.

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33 The Nanobiotechnology of Obtaining of Collagen Gels from Marin Fish Skin and Yours Reological Properties for using Like New Materials in Dental Medicine

Authors: Anamaria Bechir, Rodica Sirbu, Minodora Leca, Maria Maris, Dan Artenie Maris, Emilia Mihaela Cadar, Marius Maris

Abstract:

This paper aims at presenting the biotechnology used to obtain collagen-based gels from shark (Squalus acanthias) and brill skin, marine fish growing in the Black Sea. Due to the structure of its micro-fibres, collagen can be considered a nanomaterial; in order to use collagen-based matrixes as biomaterial, rheological studies must be performed first, to state whether they are stable or not. For the triple-helix structure to remain stable within these gels at room or human body temperature, they must be stabilized by reticulation.

Keywords: Collagen, biotechnology, reticulation.

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32 Intellectual Capital and Competitive Advantage: An Analysis of the Biotechnology Industry

Authors: Campisi Domenico, Costa Roberta

Abstract:

Intellectual capital measurement is a central aspect of knowledge management. The measurement and the evaluation of intangible assets play a key role in allowing an effective management of these assets as sources of competitiveness. For these reasons, managers and practitioners need conceptual and analytical tools taking into account the unique characteristics and economic significance of Intellectual Capital. Following this lead, we propose an efficiency and productivity analysis of Intellectual Capital, as a determinant factor of the company competitive advantage. The analysis is carried out by means of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI). These techniques identify Bests Practice companies that have accomplished competitive advantage implementing successful strategies of Intellectual Capital management, and offer to inefficient companies development paths by means of benchmarking. The proposed methodology is employed on the Biotechnology industry in the period 2007-2010.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Innovation, Intangible assets, Intellectual Capital, Malmquist Productivity Index.

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31 Comparison of Anti-Shadoo Antibodies – Where is the Endogenous Shadoo protein?

Authors: Eszter Tóth, Ervin Welker

Abstract:

Shadoo protein (Sho) was described in 2003 as the newest member of Prion protein superfamily [1]. Sho has similar structural motifs like prion protein (PrP) that is known for its central role in transmissible spongiform enchephalopathies. Although a great number of functions have been proposed, the exact physiological function of PrP is not known yet. Investigation of the function and localization of Sho may help us to understand the function of the Prion protein superfamily. Analyzing the subcellular localization of YFP-tagged forms of Sho, we detected the protein in the plasma membrane and in the nucleus of various cell lines. To reveal the localization of the endogenous protein we generated antibodies against Shadoo as well as employed commercially available anti-Shadoo antibodies: i) EG62 anti-mouse Shadoo antibody generated by Eurogentec Ltd.; ii) S-12 anti-human Shadoo antibody by Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.; iii) R-12 anti-mouse Shadoo antibody by Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.; iv) SPRN antibody against human Shadoo by Abgent Inc. We carried out immunocytochemistry on non-transfected HeLa, Zpl 2-1, Zw 3-5, GT1-1, GT1-7 and SHSY5Y cells as well as on YFP-Sho, Sho-YFP, and YFP-GPI transfected HeLa cells. Their specificity (in antibody-peptide competition assay) and co-localization (with the YFP signal) were assessed.

Keywords: Shadoo, prion protein, immunocytochemistry, antibody-peptide competition assay, antibody.

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30 An AHP-Delphi Multi-Criteria Usage Cases Model with Application to Citrogypsum Decisions, Case Study: Kimia Gharb Gostar Industries Company

Authors: Mohsen Pirdashti, Masoomeh Omidi, Hemmatollah Pidashti

Abstract:

Today, advantage of biotechnology especially in environmental issues compared to other technologies is irrefragable. Kimia Gharb Gostar Industries Company, as a largest producer of citric acid in Middle East, applies biotechnology for this goal. Citrogypsum is a by–product of citric acid production and it considered as a valid residuum of this company. At this paper summary of acid citric production and condition of Citrogypsum production in company were introduced in addition to defmition of Citrogypsum production and its applications in world. According to these information and evaluation of present conditions about Iran needing to Citrogypsum, the best priority was introduced and emphasized on strategy selection and proper programming for self-sufficiency. The Delphi technique was used to elicit expert opinions about criteria for evaluating the usages. The criteria identified by the experts were profitability, capacity of production, the degree of investment, marketable, production ease and time production. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (ARP) and Expert Choice software were used to compare the alternatives on the criteria derived from the Delphi process.

Keywords: Analytical Hierarchy Process, ARP, Delphi, Multi- criteria decision making, Citrogypsum

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29 A Cross-Disciplinary Educational Model in Biomanufacturing to Sustain a Competitive Workforce Ecosystem

Authors: Rosa Buxeda, Lorenzo Saliceti-Piazza, Rodolfo J. Romañach, Luis Ríos, Sandra L. Maldonado-Ramírez

Abstract:

Biopharmaceuticals manufacturing is one of the major economic activities worldwide. Ninety-three percent of the workforce in a biomanufacturing environment concentrates in production-related areas. As a result, strategic collaborations between industry and academia are crucial to ensure the availability of knowledgeable workforce needed in an economic region to become competitive in biomanufacturing. In the past decade, our institution has been a key strategic partner with multinational biotechnology companies in supplying science and engineering graduates in the field of industrial biotechnology. Initiatives addressing all levels of the educational pipeline, from K-12 to college to continued education for company employees have been established along a ten-year span. The Amgen BioTalents Program was designed to provide undergraduate science and engineering students with training in biomanufacturing. The areas targeted by this educational program enhance their academic development, since these topics are not part of their traditional science and engineering curricula. The educational curriculum involved the process of producing a biomolecule from the genetic engineering of cells to the production of an especially targeted polypeptide, protein expression and purification, to quality control, and validation. This paper will report and describe the implementation details and outcomes of the first sessions of the program.

Keywords: Biomanufacturing curriculum, interdisciplinary learning, workforce development, industry-academia partnering.

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28 Isolation and Identification of an Acetobacter Strain from Iranian White-Red Cherry with High Acetic Acid Productivity as a Potential Strain for Cherry Vinegar Production in Foodand Agriculture Biotechnology

Authors: K. Beheshti Maal, R. Shafiee

Abstract:

According to FDA (Food and Drug Administration of the United States), vinegar is definedas a sour liquid containing at least 4 grams acetic acid in 100 cubic centimeter (4% solution of acetic acid) of solution that is produced from sugary materials by alcoholic fermentation. In the base of microbial starters, vinegars could be contained of more than 50 types of volatile and aromatic substances that responsible for their sweet taste and smelling. Recently the vinegar industry has a great proportion in agriculture, food and microbial biotechnology. The acetic acid bacteria are from the family Acetobacteraceae. Regarding to the latest version of Bergy-s Mannual of Systematic Bacteriology that has categorized bacteria in the base of their 16s RNA differences, the most important acetic acid genera are included Acetobacter (genus I), Gluconacetobacter (genus VIII) and Gluconobacter (genus IX). The genus Acetobacter that is primarily used in vinegar manufacturing plants is a gram negative, obligate aerobe coccus or rod shaped bacterium with the size 0.6 - 0.8 X 1.0 - 4.0 μm, nonmotile or motile with peritrichous flagella and catalase positive – oxidase negative biochemically. Some strains are overoxidizer that could convert acetic acid to carbon dioxide and water.In this research one Acetobacter native strain with high acetic acid productivity was isolated from Iranian white – red cherry. We used two specific culture media include Carr medium [yeast extract, 3%; ethanol, 2% (v/v); bromocresol green, 0.002%; agar, 2% and distilled water, 1000 ml], Frateur medium [yeast extract, 10 g/l; CaCO3, 20 g/l; ethanol, 20 g/l; agar, 20 g/l and distilled water, 1000 ml] and an industrial culture medium. In addition to high acetic acid production and high growth rate, this strain had a good tolerance against ethanol concentration that was examined using modified Carr media with 5%, 7% and 9% ethanol concentrations. While the industrial strains of acetic acid bacteria grow in the thermal range of 28 – 30 °C, this strain was adapted for growth in 34 – 36 °C after 96 hours incubation period. These dramatic characteristics suggest a potential biotechnological strain in production of cherry vinegar with a sweet smell and different nutritional properties in comparison to recent vinegar types. The lack of growth after 24, 48 and 72 hours incubation at 34 – 36 °C and the growth after 96 hours indicates a good and fast thermal flexibility of this strain as a significant characteristic of biotechnological and industrial strains.

Keywords: Acetobacte, acetic acid bacteria, white – red cherry, food and agriculture biotechnology, industrial fermentation, vinegar

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27 Production of Apricot Vinegar Using an Isolated Acetobacter Strain from Iranian Apricot

Authors: Keivan Beheshti Maal, Rasoul Shafiei, Noushin Kabiri

Abstract:

Vinegar or sour wine is a product of alcoholic and subsequent acetous fermentation of sugary precursors derived from several fruits or starchy substrates. This delicious food additive and supplement contains not less than 4 grams of acetic acid in 100 cubic centimeters at 20°C. Among the large number of bacteria that are able to produce acetic acid, only few genera are used in vinegar industry most significant of which are Acetobacter and Gluconobacter. In this research we isolated and identified an Acetobacter strain from Iranian apricot, a very delicious and sensitive summer fruit to decay, we gathered from fruit's stores in Isfahan, Iran. The main culture media we used were Carr, GYC, Frateur and an industrial medium for vinegar production. We isolated this strain using a novel miniature fermentor we made at Pars Yeema Biotechnologists Co., Isfahan Science and Technology Town (ISTT), Isfahan, Iran. The microscopic examinations of isolated strain from Iranian apricot showed gram negative rods to cocobacilli. Their catalase reaction was positive and oxidase reaction was negative and could ferment ethanol to acetic acid. Also it showed an acceptable growth in 5%, 7% and 9% ethanol concentrations at 30°C using modified Carr media after 24, 48 and 96 hours incubation respectively. According to its tolerance against high concentrations of ethanol after four days incubation and its high acetic acid production, 8.53%, after 144 hours, this strain could be considered as a suitable industrial strain for a production of a new type of vinegar, apricot vinegar, with a new and delicious taste. In conclusion this is the first report of isolation and identification of an Acetobacter strain from Iranian apricot with a very good tolerance against high ethanol concentrations as well as high acetic acid productivity in an acceptable incubation period of time industrially. This strain could be used in vinegar industry to convert apricot spoilage to a beneficiary product and mentioned characteristics have made it as an amenable strain in food and agricultural biotechnology.

Keywords: Acetic Acid Bacteria, Acetobacter, Fermentation, Food and Agricultural Biotechnology, Iranian Apricot, Vinegar.

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26 Characterization of an Acetobacter Strain Isolated from Iranian Peach that Tolerates High Temperatures and Ethanol Concentrations

Authors: K. Beheshti Maal, R. Shafiee

Abstract:

Vinegar is a precious food additive and complement as well as effective preservative against food spoilage. Recently traditional vinegar production has been improved using various natural substrates and fruits such as grape, palm, cherry, coconut, date, sugarcane, rice and balsam. These neoclassical fermentations resulted in several vinegar types with different tastes, fragrances and nutritional values because of applying various acetic acid bacteria as starters. Acetic acid bacteria include genera Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter and Gluconobacter according to latest edition of Bergy-s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology that classifies genera on the basis of their 16s RNA differences. Acetobacter spp as the main vinegar starters belong to family Acetobacteraceae that are gram negative obligate aerobes, chemoorganotrophic bacilli that are oxidase negative and oxidize ethanol to acetic acid. In this research we isolated and identified a native Acetobacter strain with high acetic acid productivity and tolerance against high ethanol concentrations from Iranian peach as a summer delicious fruit that is very susceptible to food spoilage and decay. We used selective and specific laboratorial culture media such as Standard GYC, Frateur and Carr medium. Also we used a new industrial culture medium and a miniature fermentor with a new aeration system innovated by Pars Yeema Biotechnologists Co., Isfahan Science and Technology Town (ISTT), Isfahan, Iran. The isolated strain was successfully cultivated in modified Carr media with 2.5% and 5% ethanol simultaneously in high temperatures, 34 - 40º C after 96 hours of incubation period. We showed that the increase of ethanol concentration resulted in rising of strain sensitivity to high temperature. In conclusion we isolated and characterized a new Acetobacter strain from Iranian peach that could be considered as a potential strain for production of a new vinegar type, peach vinegar, with a delicious taste and advantageous nutritional value in food biotechnology and industrial microbiology.

Keywords: Acetobacter, Acetic Acid Bacteria, Vinegar, Peach, Food Biotechnology, Industrial Microbiology, Fermentation

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25 An Accurate Method for Phylogeny Tree Reconstruction Based on a Modified Wild Dog Algorithm

Authors: Essam Al Daoud

Abstract:

This study solves a phylogeny problem by using modified wild dog pack optimization. The least squares error is considered as a cost function that needs to be minimized. Therefore, in each iteration, new distance matrices based on the constructed trees are calculated and used to select the alpha dog. To test the suggested algorithm, ten homologous genes are selected and collected from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) databanks (i.e., 16S, 18S, 28S, Cox 1, ITS1, ITS2, ETS, ATPB, Hsp90, and STN). The data are divided into three categories: 50 taxa, 100 taxa and 500 taxa. The empirical results show that the proposed algorithm is more reliable and accurate than other implemented methods.

Keywords: Least squares, neighbor joining, phylogenetic tree, wild dogpack.

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24 Intellectual Property Protection of CRISPR Related Technologies

Authors: Zheng Miao, Dennis Fernandez

Abstract:

CRISPR research has the potential to completely transform life science, agriculture, live-stock and the health care industry. The Intellectual Property derived from its research has raised significant attention in the academic as well as the biopharmaceutical industry culminating an urgent need for strategic IP protection. We review the rudimentary concepts and key competitors of CRISPR technologies as well as the paramount strategies for intellectual property protection. Further, we elaborate on prosecution issues related to CRISPR patents as well as possible solutions to various patent laws, interferences and litigation. Finally, we address how the bioinformatics of the CRISPR technology begs an inquiry into issues of privacy and a host of ethical concerns.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, CRISPR, biotechnology, intellectual property.

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23 Polyurethane Nanofibers Obtained By Electrospinning Process

Authors: H. Karakaş, A.S. Saraç, T. Polat, E.G. Budak, S. Bayram, N. Dağ, S. Jahangiri

Abstract:

Electrospinning is a broadly used technology to obtain polymeric nanofibers ranging from several micrometers down to several hundred nanometers for a wide range of applications. It offers unique capabilities to produce nanofibers with controllable porous structure. With smaller pores and higher surface area than regular fibers, electrospun fibers have been successfully applied in various fields, such as, nanocatalysis, tissue engineering scaffolds, protective clothing, filtration, biomedical, pharmaceutical, optical electronics, healthcare, biotechnology, defense and security, and environmental engineering. In this study, polyurethane nanofibers were obtained under different electrospinning parameters. Fiber morphology and diameter distribution were investigated in order to understand them as a function of process parameters.

Keywords: Electrospinning, polyurethane, nanofibers.

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22 The Surface Adsorption of Nano-pore Template

Authors: M. J. Kao, S.F. Chang, C.C. Chen, C.G. Kuo

Abstract:

This paper aims to fabricated high quality anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) film by anodization method. AAO pore size, pore density, and film thickness can be controlled in 10~500 nm, 108~1011 pore.cm-2, and 1~100 μm. AAO volume and surface area can be computed based on structural parameters such as thickness, pore size, pore density, and sample size. Base on the thetorical calculation, AAO has 100 μm thickness with 15 nm, 60 nm, and 500 nm pore diameters AAO surface areas are 1225.2 cm2, 3204.4 cm2, and 549.7 cm2, respectively. The large unit surface area which is useful for adsorption application. When AAO adsorbed pH indictor of bromphenol blue presented a sensitive pH detection of solution change. This testing method can further be used for the precise measurement of biotechnology, convenience measurement of industrial engineering.

Keywords: AAO, Pore, Surface area, Adsorption, Indicator

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21 Structure Based Computational Analysis and Molecular Phylogeny of C- Phycocyanin Gene from the Selected Cyanobacteria

Authors: N. Reehana, A. Parveez Ahamed, D. Mubarak Ali, A. Suresh, R. Arvind Kumar, N. Thajuddin

Abstract:

Cyanobacteria play a vital role in the production of phycobiliproteins that includes phycocyanin and phycoerythrin pigments. Phycocyanin and related phycobiliproteins have wide variety of application that is used in the food, biotechnology and cosmetic industry because of their color, fluorescent and antioxidant properties. The present study is focused to understand the pigment at molecular level in the Cyanobacteria Oscillatoria terebriformis NTRI05 and Oscillatoria foreaui NTRI06. After extraction of genomic DNA, the amplification of C-Phycocyanin gene was done with the suitable primer PCβF and PCαR and the sequencing was performed. Structural and Phylogenetic analysis was attained using the sequence to develop a molecular model.

Keywords: Cyanobacteria, C-Phycocyanin gene, Phylogenetic analysis, Structural analysis.

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20 Electrophoretic Motion of a Liquid Droplet within an Uncharged Cylindrical Pore

Authors: Cheng-Hsuan Huang, Eric Lee

Abstract:

Electrophoretic motion of a liquid droplet within an uncharged cylindrical pore is investigated theoretically in this study. It is found that the boundary effect in terms of the reduction of droplet mobility (droplet velocity per unit strength of the applied electric field) is very significant when the double layer surrounding the droplet is thick, and diminishes as it gets very thin. Moreover, the viscosity ratio of the ambient fluid to the internal one, σ, is a crucial factor in determining its electrophoretic behavior. The boundary effect is less significant as the viscosity ratio gets high. Up to 70% mobility reduction is observed when this ratio is low (σ = 0.01), whereas only 40% reduction when it is high (σ = 100). The results of this study can be utilized in various fields of biotechnology, such as a biosensor or a lab-on-a-chip device.

Keywords: Cylindrical pore, Electrophoresis, Lab-on-a-chip, Liquid droplet

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19 A Green Chemical Technique for the Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles by Magnetotactic Bacteria

Authors: Parisa Tajer-Mohammad-Ghazvini, Rouha Kasra-Kermanshahi, Ahmad Nozad-Golikand, Majid Sadeghizadeh

Abstract:

Bacterial magnetic nanoparticles have great useful potential in biotechnological and biomedical applications. In this study, a liquid growth medium was modified for cultivation a fastidious magnetotactic bacterium that has been isolated from Anzali lagoon, Iran in our previous research. These modifications include change in vitamin, mineral, carbon sources and etcetera. In our experience, the serum bottles and designed air-tight laboratory bottles were used to create microaerobic conditions in order to development of a method for scale-up experiment. This information may serve as a guide to green chemistry based biological protocols for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles with control over the chemical composition, morphology and size.

Keywords: Green chemistry, Magnetosome, Magnetotactic bacteria, Magnetic nanoparticles, Nano-Biotechnology.

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18 Secondary School Students- Perceptions about Biological Issues in South Korea

Authors: Jung-Hyun Kim, Kew-Cheol Shim, Shin-Cheol Song, Kyoungho Kim, Nam-Il Kim, Jinho Bae, Keum-Hyun So

Abstract:

The purpose of present paper was to investigate perceptions of Korean secondary school students about social issues related to biological sciences. Twenty issues were selected based on topics of articles in the newspaper from 2005 to 2010. The issues were categorized into biotechnology, health-disease and environment domains. Subjects were 541 high school students (male 253 and female 288). On the survey, students were asked to answer on 5-point Lickert scales how they thought of the effect of biological phenomena or events related to biological issues on the individual life and the society. They perceived that the biological issues would be more effectible on the society than on the individual life. Female students had a little more perceptions than males.

Keywords: biological issue, biological sciences, perception, secondary school

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17 The Efficiency of Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit 1 Gene (cox1) in Reconstruction of Phylogenetic Relations among Some Crustacean Species

Authors: Yasser M. Saad, Heba El-Sebaie Abd El-Sadek

Abstract:

Some Metapenaeus monoceros cox1 gene fragments were isolated, purified, sequenced, and comparatively analyzed with some other Crustacean Cox1 gene sequences (obtained from National Center for Biotechnology Information). This work was designed for testing the efficiency of this system in reconstruction of phylogenetic relations among some Crustacean species belonging to four genera (Metapenaeus, Artemia, Daphnia and Calanus). The single nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype diversity were calculated for all estimated mt-DNA fragments. The genetic distance values were 0.292, 0.015, 0.151, and 0.09 within Metapenaeus species, Calanus species, Artemia species, and Daphnia species, respectively. The reconstructed phylogenetic tree is clustered into some unique clades. Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) was a powerful system in reconstruction of phylogenetic relations among evaluated crustacean species.

Keywords: Crustacean, Genetics, cox1, phylogeny.

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16 Tomato Lycopene: Functional Proprieties and Health Benefits

Authors: C. S. Marques, M. J. Reis Lima, J. Oliveira, E. Teixeira-Lemos

Abstract:

The growing concerns for physical wellbeing and health have been reflected in the way we choose food in our table. Nowadays, we are all more informed consumers and choose healthier foods. On the other hand, stroke, cancer and atherosclerosis may be somehow minimized by the intake of some bioactive compounds present in food, the so-called nutraceuticals and functional foods. The aim of this work was to make a revision of the published studies about the effects of some bioactive compounds, namely lycopene in human health, in the prevention of diseases, thus playing the role of a functional food. Free radical in human body can induce cell damage and consequently can be responsible for the development of some cancers and chronic diseases. Lycopene is one of the most powerful antioxidants known, being the predominant carotenoid in tomato. The respective chemistry, bioavailability, and its functional role in the prevention of several diseases will be object of this work. On the other hand, the inclusion of lycopene in some foods can also be made by biotechnology and represents a way to recover the wastes in the tomato industry with nutritional positive effects in health.

Keywords: Tomato, lycopene, bioavailability, functional foods, carotenoids, cancer and antioxidants.

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15 Proposing an Efficient Method for Frequent Pattern Mining

Authors: Vaibhav Kant Singh, Vijay Shah, Yogendra Kumar Jain, Anupam Shukla, A.S. Thoke, Vinay KumarSingh, Chhaya Dule, Vivek Parganiha

Abstract:

Data mining, which is the exploration of knowledge from the large set of data, generated as a result of the various data processing activities. Frequent Pattern Mining is a very important task in data mining. The previous approaches applied to generate frequent set generally adopt candidate generation and pruning techniques for the satisfaction of the desired objective. This paper shows how the different approaches achieve the objective of frequent mining along with the complexities required to perform the job. This paper will also look for hardware approach of cache coherence to improve efficiency of the above process. The process of data mining is helpful in generation of support systems that can help in Management, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology, Medical Science, Statistics, Mathematics, Banking, Networking and other Computer related applications. This paper proposes the use of both upward and downward closure property for the extraction of frequent item sets which reduces the total number of scans required for the generation of Candidate Sets.

Keywords: Data Mining, Candidate Sets, Frequent Item set, Pruning.

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14 Fabrication of Microfluidic Device for Quantitative Monitoring of Algal Cell Behavior Using X-ray LIGA Technology

Authors: J. Ruenin, S. Sukprasong, R. Phatthanakun, N. Chomnawang, P. Kuntanawat

Abstract:

In this paper, a simple microfluidic device for monitoring algal cell behavior is proposed. An array of algal microwells is fabricated by PDMS soft-lithography using X-ray LIGA mold, placed on a glass substrate. Two layers of replicated PDMS and substrate are attached by oxygen plasma bonding, creating a microchannel for the microfluidic system. Algal cell are loaded into the microfluidic device, which provides positive charge on the bottom surface of wells. Algal cells, which are negative charged, can be attracted to the bottom of the wells via electrostatic interaction. By varying the concentration of algal cells in the loading suspension, it is possible to obtain wells with a single cell. Liquid medium for cells monitoring are flown continuously over the wells, providing nutrient and waste exchange between the well and the main flow. This device could lead to the uncovering of the quantitative biology of the algae, which is a key to effective and extensive algal utilizations in the field of biotechnology, food industry and bioenergy research and developments.

Keywords: Algal cells, microfluidic device, X-ray LIGA, X-ray lithography, metallic mold, synchrotron light, PDMS

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13 Cluster Algorithm for Genetic Diversity

Authors: Manpreet Singh, Keerat Kaur, Bhavdeep Singh

Abstract:

With the hardware technology advancing, the cost of storing is decreasing. Thus there is an urgent need for new techniques and tools that can intelligently and automatically assist us in transferring this data into useful knowledge. Different techniques of data mining are developed which are helpful for handling these large size databases [7]. Data mining is also finding its role in the field of biotechnology. Pedigree means the associated ancestry of a crop variety. Genetic diversity is the variation in the genetic composition of individuals within or among species. Genetic diversity depends upon the pedigree information of the varieties. Parents at lower hierarchic levels have more weightage for predicting genetic diversity as compared to the upper hierarchic levels. The weightage decreases as the level increases. For crossbreeding, the two varieties should be more and more genetically diverse so as to incorporate the useful characters of the two varieties in the newly developed variety. This paper discusses the searching and analyzing of different possible pairs of varieties selected on the basis of morphological characters, Climatic conditions and Nutrients so as to obtain the most optimal pair that can produce the required crossbreed variety. An algorithm was developed to determine the genetic diversity between the selected wheat varieties. Cluster analysis technique is used for retrieving the results.

Keywords: Genetic diversity, pedigree, nutrients.

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12 Fe3O4 and [email protected] Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Functionalisation for Biomolecular Attachment

Authors: Hendriëtte van der Walt, Lesley Chown, Richard Harris, Ndabenhle Sosibo, Robert Tshikhudo

Abstract:

The use of magnetic and magnetic/gold core/shell nanoparticles in biotechnology or medicine has shown good promise due to their hybrid nature which possesses superior magnetic and optical properties. Some of these potential applications include hyperthermia treatment, bio-separations, diagnostics, drug delivery and toxin removal. Synthesis refinement to control geometric and magnetic/optical properties, and finding functional surfactants for biomolecular attachment, are requirements to meet application specifics. Various high-temperature preparative methods were used for the synthesis of iron oxide and gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Different surface functionalities, such as 11-aminoundecanoic and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid, were introduced on the surface of the particles to facilitate further attachment of biomolecular functionality and drug-like molecules. Nanoparticle thermal stability, composition, state of aggregation, size and morphology were investigated and the results from techniques such as Fourier Transform-Infra Red spectroscopy (FT-IR), Ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and thermal analysis are discussed.

Keywords: Core/shell, Iron oxide, Gold coating, Nanoparticles.

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11 An Ant-based Clustering System for Knowledge Discovery in DNA Chip Analysis Data

Authors: Minsoo Lee, Yun-mi Kim, Yearn Jeong Kim, Yoon-kyung Lee, Hyejung Yoon

Abstract:

Biological data has several characteristics that strongly differentiate it from typical business data. It is much more complex, usually large in size, and continuously changes. Until recently business data has been the main target for discovering trends, patterns or future expectations. However, with the recent rise in biotechnology, the powerful technology that was used for analyzing business data is now being applied to biological data. With the advanced technology at hand, the main trend in biological research is rapidly changing from structural DNA analysis to understanding cellular functions of the DNA sequences. DNA chips are now being used to perform experiments and DNA analysis processes are being used by researchers. Clustering is one of the important processes used for grouping together similar entities. There are many clustering algorithms such as hierarchical clustering, self-organizing maps, K-means clustering and so on. In this paper, we propose a clustering algorithm that imitates the ecosystem taking into account the features of biological data. We implemented the system using an Ant-Colony clustering algorithm. The system decides the number of clusters automatically. The system processes the input biological data, runs the Ant-Colony algorithm, draws the Topic Map, assigns clusters to the genes and displays the output. We tested the algorithm with a test data of 100 to1000 genes and 24 samples and show promising results for applying this algorithm to clustering DNA chip data.

Keywords: Ant colony system, biological data, clustering, DNA chip.

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10 Optimization of Ethanol Fermentation from Pineapple Peel Extract Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

Authors: Nadya Hajar, Zainal, S., Atikah, O., Tengku Elida, T. Z. M.

Abstract:

Ethanol has been known for a long time, being perhaps the oldest product obtained through traditional biotechnology fermentation. Agriculture waste as substrate in fermentation is vastly discussed as alternative to replace edible food and utilization of organic material. Pineapple peel, highly potential source as substrate is a by-product of the pineapple processing industry. Bio-ethanol from pineapple (Ananas comosus) peel extract was carried out by controlling fermentation without any treatment. Saccharomyces ellipsoides was used as inoculum in this fermentation process as it is naturally found at the pineapple skin. In this study, the capability of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for optimization of ethanol production from pineapple peel extract using Saccharomyces ellipsoideus in batch fermentation process was investigated. Effect of five test variables in a defined range of inoculum concentration 6- 14% (v/v), pH (4.0-6.0), sugar concentration (14-22°Brix), temperature (24-32°C) and time of incubation (30-54 hrs) on the ethanol production were evaluated. Data obtained from experiment were analyzed with RSM of MINITAB Software (Version 15) whereby optimum ethanol concentration of 8.637% (v/v) was determined. The optimum condition of 14% (v/v) inoculum concentration, pH 6, 22°Brix, 26°C and 30hours of incubation. The significant regression equation or model at the 5% level with correlation value of 99.96% was also obtained.

Keywords: Bio-ethanol, pineapple peel extract, Response Surface Methodology (RSM), Saccharomyces ellipsoideus.

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9 Wastewater Treatment and Bio-Electricity Generation via Microbial Fuel Cell Technology Operating with Starch Proton Exchange Membrane

Authors: Livinus A. Obasi, Augustine N. Ajah

Abstract:

Biotechnology in recent times has tried to develop a mechanism whereby sustainable electricity can be generated by the activity of microorganisms on waste and renewable biomass (often regarded as “negative value”) in a device called microbial fuel cell, MFC. In this paper, we established how the biocatalytic activities of bacteria on organic matter (substrates) produced some electrons with the associated removal of some water pollution parameters; Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) to the tune of 77.2% and 88.3% respectively from a petrochemical sanitary wastewater. The electricity generation was possible by conditioning the bacteria to operate anaerobically in one chamber referred to as the anode while the electrons are transferred to the fully aerated counter chamber containing the cathode. Power densities ranging from 12.83 mW/m2 to 966.66 mW/m2 were achieved using a dual-chamber starch membrane MFC experimental set-up. The maximum power density obtained in this research shows an improvement in the use of low cost MFC set up to achieve power production. Also, the level of organic matter removal from the sanitary waste water by the operation of this device clearly demonstrates its potential benefit in achieving an improved benign environment. The beauty of the MFCs is their potential utility in areas lacking electrical infrastructures like in most developing countries.

Keywords: Bioelectricity, chemical oxygen demand, microbial fuel cell, sanitary wastewater, wheat starch.

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8 Cloning and Functional Characterization of Promoter Elements of the D Hordein Gene from the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by Bioinformatic Tools

Authors: Kobra Nalbandi, Bahram Baghban Kohnehrouz, Khalil Alami Saeed

Abstract:

The low level of foreign genes expression in transgenic plants is a key factor that limits plant genetic engineering. Because of the critical regulatory activity of the promoters on gene transcription, they are studied extensively to improve the efficiency of the plant transgenic system. The strong constitutive promoters, such as CaMV 35S promoter and Ubiqutin 1 maize are usually used in plant biotechnology research. However the expression level of the foreign genes in all tissues is often undesirable. But using a strong seed-specific promoter to limit gene expression in the seed solves such problems. The purpose of this study is to isolate one of the seed specific promoters of Hordeum vulgare. So one of the common varieties of Hordeum vulgare in Iran was selected and their genomes extracted then the D-Hordein promoter amplified using the specific designed primers. Then the amplified fragment of the insert cloned in an appropriate vector and then transformed to E. coli. At last for the final admission of accuracy the cloned fragments sent for sequencing. Sequencing analysis showed that the cloned fragment DHPcontained motifs; like TATA box, CAAT-box, CCGTCC-box, AMYBOX1 and E-box etc., which constituted the seed-specific promoter activity. The results were compared with sequences existing in data banks. D-Hordein promoters of Alger has 99% similarity at 100 % coverage. The results also showed that D-Hordein promoter of barley and HMW promoter of wheat are too similar.

Keywords: Barley, Seed specific promoter, Hordein.

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7 Noninvasive Disease Diagnosis through Breath Analysis Using DNA-Functionalized SWNT Sensor Array

Authors: Wenjun Zhang, Yunqing Du, Ming L. Wang

Abstract:

Noninvasive diagnostics of diseases via breath analysis has attracted considerable scientific and clinical interest for many years and become more and more promising with the rapid advancements in nanotechnology and biotechnology. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, which are mainly blood borne, particularly provide highly valuable information about individuals’ physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Additionally, breath analysis is noninvasive, real-time, painless, and agreeable to patients. We have developed a wireless sensor array based on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) for the detection of a number of physiological indicators in breath. Seven DNA sequences were used to functionalize SWNT sensors to detect trace amount of methanol, benzene, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, acetone, and ethanol, which are indicators of heavy smoking, excessive drinking, and diseases such as lung cancer, breast cancer, and diabetes. Our test results indicated that DNA functionalized SWNT sensors exhibit great selectivity, sensitivity, and repeatability; and different molecules can be distinguished through pattern recognition enabled by this sensor array. Furthermore, the experimental sensing results are consistent with the Molecular Dynamics simulated ssDNAmolecular target interaction rankings. Thus, the DNA-SWNT sensor array has great potential to be applied in chemical or biomolecular detection for the noninvasive diagnostics of diseases and personal health monitoring.

Keywords: Breath analysis, DNA-SWNT sensor array, diagnosis, noninvasive.

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