Wastewater Treatment and Bio-Electricity Generation via Microbial Fuel Cell Technology Operating with Starch Proton Exchange Membrane
Biotechnology in recent times has tried to develop a mechanism whereby sustainable electricity can be generated by the activity of microorganisms on waste and renewable biomass (often regarded as “negative value”) in a device called microbial fuel cell, MFC. In this paper, we established how the biocatalytic activities of bacteria on organic matter (substrates) produced some electrons with the associated removal of some water pollution parameters; Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) to the tune of 77.2% and 88.3% respectively from a petrochemical sanitary wastewater. The electricity generation was possible by conditioning the bacteria to operate anaerobically in one chamber referred to as the anode while the electrons are transferred to the fully aerated counter chamber containing the cathode. Power densities ranging from 12.83 mW/m2 to 966.66 mW/m2 were achieved using a dual-chamber starch membrane MFC experimental set-up. The maximum power density obtained in this research shows an improvement in the use of low cost MFC set up to achieve power production. Also, the level of organic matter removal from the sanitary waste water by the operation of this device clearly demonstrates its potential benefit in achieving an improved benign environment. The beauty of the MFCs is their potential utility in areas lacking electrical infrastructures like in most developing countries.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1339638Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 804
 Bettin C. (2006) “Applicability and feasibility of Incorporating Microbial Fuel Cell Technology into Implantable Biomedical Devices” College of Engineering, 122 Hitchcock Hall, The Ohio University.
 Bond D.R and Lovely D.R, (2003), “Electricity Generation by Geobacter sulfurreduccens attached to electrode”, Appl. Environ. 69, 1548-1555.
 Opara C.C, (2002); “Biochemical and Microbiological Engineering”; Chijioke Consultants, Owerri Nigeria. ISBN 98732829-6X, pages 2-3.
 D.H and Zeius J.G, (2000),” Electricity generation in a Microbial fuel cell using Neutral red as an electronophore., Appl. Environ. Microbial. 2000, 66(4), page 1292-1297.
 Franks A. E and Nevin K. P, (2010), ”Microbial Fuel Cells: A Current Review” Energies 2010, vol 3, pp. 899-919, doi: 10.3390/en 3050899.
 Ghangrekar M.M and Shinde V.B, (2006); “Wastewater Treatment in Microbial Fuel Cell and Electricity Generation: A Sustainable Approach”. Indian Institute of Technology, Karagpur- 721302, India.
 Ghangrekar M.M and Shinde V.B, (2008); “Microbial Fuel Cells: A New Approach of Wastewater Treatment with power Generation”. Indian Institute of Technology, Karagpur- 721302, India.
 Hanno Richter, Kevin McCarthy, Kelly P. Nevin, Jessica P. Johnson, Vincent M. Rotello, and Derek R. Lovley. 2008. “Electricity Generation by Geobacter sulfurreducens Attached to Gold Electrodes” Departments of Microbiology and Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003.
 Jang J.K, Pham, T.H., Chan I.S., Kang K.H., Moon H., Cho K.S & Kim B.H, 2004., “Construction and operation of novel mediator- and –membraneless microbial fuel cell”, Process Biochem. 39, 1007-1012.
 Kasongo J and Togo C.A (2010); “The Potential of Whey in Driving Microbial Fuel Cell: A dual Prospect of Energy Recovery and Remediation.” African Journal of Biotechnology Vol 9 (46) PP. 7885-7890.
 Liu H., Ramnarayanan R & Logan B.E., 2004; “Production of Electricity during wastewater treatment using a single chamber microbial fuel cell”. Environmental science and Technology. 38, 2281-2285.
 Kim J.H; Park H.S; Hyun S.M; Chang S.I; Kim M and Kim H.B, (2002), “A mediator-less microbial fuel cell using metal reducing bacterium, Shwanella putrefaciens” Enzyme and Microbial Technology 30 (2002) 145-152.
 Livinus A. Obasi, Charles C. Opara and Akuma Oji (2012), “Performance of Cassava starch as a proton exchange membrane in a dual chamber microbial fuel cell” International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST); Vol. 4 No. 1. Pp 227-237.
 Liu H. and Logan B. E. (2004) “Electricity generation using an Air-Cathode Single chamber Microbial Fuel cell in the Presence and Absence of a Proton Exchange membrane”. Environ. Sci. Technol, 38, PP 4040-4046.
 Liu H.; Cheng S. and Logan B.E. (2005); “Production of Electricity from Acetate or Butyrate Using a Single Chamber Microbial fuel Cell; Environ. Sci. Technol. 39, PP 658-662.
 Lovely D.R. (2006) “Microbial Fuel Cells: Novel Microbial Physiologies and Engineering Approaches”, Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 17: 327-332.
 Mathuriya A.S and Sharma V.N; (2009) “Bioelectricity Production from Paper Industry Waste Using a Microbial Fuel Cell by Clostridium Specie” J Biochem Tech (2009), 1(2) pp.49-52.
 Min B., Cheng S., Logan B.E. (2005), “Electricity Generation using Membrane and salt bridge Microbial fuel cells”, Water Research Vol. 39, PP 1675-1686.
 Oh S. & Logan B.E, 2005; “Hydrogen and Electricity production from a food processing wastewater using fermentation and microbial fuel cell technologies”. Water Res. 39, 4673-4682
 Mohan S.V.; Raghavulu S.V; Srikanth S.; Sarma P.N. (2007), “Bioelectricity Production by mediatorless microbial fuel Cell Under Acidophilic Condition Using wastewater as substrate: Influence of substrate loading Rate”, Bio-engineering and environment center, Indian institute of Chemical Tech, Hyderabod 200,007; India, vol. 92, PP.12, 25.
 Momo, O.L.Y; Nyeayor B., (2010); “Generation of electricity from Abattoir Waste Water with the Aid of a Relatively Cheap Source of catholyte”; J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. Vol. 14 (2) pp 22-27.
 Rabaey K. and Verstraete W., (2005), “Microbial fuel cell: Novel biotechnology for energy generation”, Trends in Biotechnology, 26, Pg 291-298.
 Scott K and Murano C. (2007), “A study of Microbial fuel cell Battery using manure Sludge waste”. J Chem Technol Biotechol 82, pp 809-817.
 Scott K., and Murano C. (2007); “ Microbial Fuel Cells utilizing carbohydrate”, J Chem technol Biotechnol 82, PP. 92-100.
 Wang X, Feng Y.J and Lee H., (2008),“Electricity Production from Beer Brewery Wastewater Using Single Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell”, WA Publishing, Water Science and Technology- WST/57.7
 Ziekel E. A. (2006); “Application of Microbial Fuel Cell Technology for a Waste water Treatment Alternative” Microbial Fuel Cell Technology.