Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 826

Search results for: Wood waste ash

826 Analysis of Flexural Behavior of Wood-Concrete Beams

Authors: M. Li, V. D. Thi, M. Khelifa, M. El Ganaoui

Abstract:

This study presents an overview of the work carried out by the use of wood waste as coarse aggregate in mortar. The paper describes experimental and numerical investigations carried on pervious concrete made of wood chips and also sheds lights on the mechanical properties of this new product. The properties of pervious wood-concrete such as strength, elastic modulus, and failure modes are compared and evaluated. The characterization procedure of the mechanical properties of wood waste ash are presented and discussed. The numerical and tested load–deflection response results are compared. It was observed that the numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: Wood waste ash, characterization, mechanical properties, finite element analysis, flexural behavior, bending tests.

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825 Wash Fastness of Textile Fibers Dyed with Natural Dye from Eucalyptus Wood Steaming Waste

Authors: Ticiane Rossi, Maurício C. Araújo, José O. Brito, Harold S. Freeman

Abstract:

Natural dyes are gaining interest due their expected low risk to human health and to the environment. In this study, the wash fastness of a natural coloring matter from the liquid waste produced in the steam treatment of eucalyptus wood in textile fabrics was investigated. Specifically, eucalyptus wood extract was used to dye cotton, nylon and wool in an exhaust dyeing process without the addition of the traditional mordanting agents and then submitted to wash fastness analysis. The resulting dyed fabrics were evaluated for color fastness. It was found that wash fastness of dyed fabrics was very good to cotton and excellent to nylon and wool.

Keywords: Eucalyptus, natural dye, textile fibers, wash fastness.

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824 Improvement of Durability of Wood by Maleic Anhydride

Authors: Yong F. Li, Yi X. Liu, Xiang M. Wang, Feng H. Wang

Abstract:

Wood as a natural renewable material is vulnerable to degradation by microorganisms and susceptible to change in dimension by water. In order to effectively improve the durability of wood, an active reagent, maleic anhydride (Man) was selected for wood modification. Man was first dissolved into a solvent, and then penetrated into wood porous structure under a vacuum/pressure condition. After a final catalyst-thermal treatment, wood modification was finished. The test results indicate that acetone is a good solvent for transporting Man into wood matrix. SEM observation proved that wood samples treated by Man kept a good cellular structure, indicating a well penetration of Man into wood cell walls. FTIR analysis suggested that Man reacted with hydroxyl groups on wood cell walls by its ring-ether group, resulting in reduction of amount of hydroxyl groups and resultant good dimensional stability as well as fine decay resistance. Consequently, Man modifying wood to improve its durability is an effective method.

Keywords: Wood, porous structure, durability improvement, maleic anhydride

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823 Municipal Solid Waste: Pre-Treatment Options and Benefits on Landfill Emissions

Authors: Bakare Babatunde Femi

Abstract:

Municipal solid waste (MSW) comprises of a wide range of heterogeneous materials generated by individual, household or organization and may include food waste, garden wastes, papers, textiles, rubbers, plastics, glass, ceramics, metals, wood wastes, construction wastes but it is not limited to the above mentioned fractions. The most common Municipal Solid Waste pretreatment method in use is thermal pretreatment (incineration) and Mechanical Biological pretreatment. This paper presents an overview of these two pretreatment methods describing their benefits and laboratory scale reactors that simulate landfill conditions were constructed in order to compare emissions in terms of biogas production and leachate contamination between untreated Municipal Solid Waste and Mechanical Biological Pretreated waste. The findings of this study showed that Mechanical Biological pretreatment of waste reduces the emission level of waste and the benefit over the landfilling of untreated waste is significant.

Keywords: emissions, mechanical biological pretreatment, MSW, thermal pretreatment

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822 An Experimental Study on Autoignition of Wood

Authors: Tri Poespowati

Abstract:

Experiments were conducted to characterize fire properties of wood exposed to the certain external heat flux and under variety of wood moisture content. Six kinds of Indonesian wood: keruing, sono, cemara, kamper, pinus, and mahoni were exposed to radiant heat from a conical heater, result in appearance of a stable flame on the wood surface caused by spontaneous ignition. A thermocouple K-type was used to measure the wood surface temperature. Temperature histories were recorded throughout each experiment at 1 s intervals using a TC-08. Data of first ignition time and temperature, end ignition time and temperature, and charring rate have been successfully collected. It was found that the ignition temperature and charring rate depend on moisture content of wood.

Keywords: Fire properties, moisture content, wood, charring rate.

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821 Analysis of Construction Waste Generation and Its Effect in a Construction Site

Authors: R. K. D. G. Kaluarachchi

Abstract:

The generation of solid waste and its effective management are debated topics in Sri Lanka as well as in the global environment. It was estimated that the most of the waste generated in global was originated from construction and demolition of buildings. Thus, the proportion of construction waste in solid waste generation cannot be underestimated. The construction waste, which is the by-product generated and removed from work sites is collected in direct and indirect processes. Hence, the objectives of this research are to identify the proportion of construction waste which can be reused and identify the methods to reduce the waste generation without reducing the quality of the process. A 6-storey building construction site was selected for this research. The site was divided into six zones depending on the process. Ten waste materials were identified by considering the adverse effects on safety and health of people and the economic value of them. The generated construction waste in each zone was recorded per week for a period of five months. The data revealed that sand, cement, wood used for form work and rusted steel rods were the generated waste which has higher economic value in all zones. Structured interviews were conducted to gather information on how the materials are categorized as waste and the capability of reducing, reusing and recycling the waste. It was identified that waste is generated in following processes; ineffective storage of material for a longer time and improper handling of material during the work process. Further, the alteration of scheduled activities of construction work also yielded more waste. Finally, a proper management of construction waste is suggested to reduce and reuse waste.

Keywords: Construction waste, effective management, reduce, reuse.

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820 Wood Species Recognition System

Authors: Bremananth R, Nithya B, Saipriya R

Abstract:

The proposed system identifies the species of the wood using the textural features present in its barks. Each species of a wood has its own unique patterns in its bark, which enabled the proposed system to identify it accurately. Automatic wood recognition system has not yet been well established mainly due to lack of research in this area and the difficulty in obtaining the wood database. In our work, a wood recognition system has been designed based on pre-processing techniques, feature extraction and by correlating the features of those wood species for their classification. Texture classification is a problem that has been studied and tested using different methods due to its valuable usage in various pattern recognition problems, such as wood recognition, rock classification. The most popular technique used for the textural classification is Gray-level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCM). The features from the enhanced images are thus extracted using the GLCM is correlated, which determines the classification between the various wood species. The result thus obtained shows a high rate of recognition accuracy proving that the techniques used in suitable to be implemented for commercial purposes.

Keywords: Correlation, Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix, ProbabilityDensity Function, Wood Recognition.

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819 Rubber Wood as a Potential Biomass Feedstock for Biochar via Slow Pyrolysis

Authors: Adilah Shariff, Radin Hakim, Nurhayati Abdullah

Abstract:

Utilisation of biomass feedstock for biochar has received increasing attention because of their potential for carbon sequestration and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of rubber wood as a biomass feedstock for biochar via slow pyrolysis process. This was achieved by using proximate, ultimate, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as well as heating value, pH and lignocellulosic determination. Rubber wood contains 4.13 mf wt.% moisture, 86.30 mf wt.% volatile matter, 0.60 mf wt.% ash content, and 13.10 mf wt.% fixed carbon. The ultimate analysis shows that rubber wood consists of 44.33 mf wt.% carbon, 6.26 mf wt.% hydrogen, 19.31 mf wt.% nitrogen, 0.31 mf wt.% sulphur, and 29.79 mf wt.% oxygen. The higher heating value of rubber wood is 22.5 MJ/kg, and its lower heating value is 21.2 MJ/kg. At 27 °C, the pH value of rubber wood is 6.83 which is acidic. The lignocellulosic analysis revealed that rubber wood composition consists of 2.63 mf wt.% lignin, 20.13 mf wt.% cellulose, and 65.04 mf wt.% hemicellulose. The volatile matter to fixed carbon ratio is 6.58. This led to a biochar yield of 25.14 wt.% at 500 °C. Rubber wood is an environmental friendly feedstock due to its low sulphur content. Rubber wood therefore is a suitable and a potential feedstock for biochar production via slow pyrolysis.

Keywords: Biochar, biomass, rubber wood, slow pyrolysis.

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818 The Experimental and Statistical Analysis of the Wood Strength against Pressure According to Different Wood Types, Sizes, and Coatings

Authors: Mustafa Altin, Sakir Tasdemir, Gamze Fahriye Pehlivan, Sadiye Didem Boztepe Erkis, Sevda Altin

Abstract:

In this study, an experiment was executed related to the strength of wooden materials which have been commonly used both in the past and present against pressure and whether fire retardant materials used against fire have any effects or not. Totally 81 samples which included 3 different wood species, 3 different sizes, 2 different fire retardants and 2 unprocessed samples were prepared. Compressive pressure tests were applied to the prepared samples, their variance analyses were executed in accordance with the obtained results and it was aimed to determine the most convenient wooden materials and fire-retardant coating material. It was also determined that the species of wood and the species of coating caused the decrease and/or increase in the resistance against pressure.

Keywords: Resistance of wood against pressure, species of wood, variance analysis, wood coating, wood fire safety.

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817 Wood Ashes from Electrostatic Filter as a Replacement for the Fly Ashes in Concrete

Authors: Piotr-Robert Lazik, Harald Garrecht

Abstract:

Many concrete technologists are looking for a solution to replace Fly Ashes that would be unavailable in a few years as an element that occurs as a major component of many types of concrete. The importance of such component is clear - it saves cement and reduces the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere that occurs during cement production. Wood Ashes from electrostatic filter can be used as a valuable substitute in concrete. The laboratory investigations showed that the wood ash concrete had a compressive strength comparable to coal fly ash concrete. These results indicate that wood ash can be used to manufacture normal concrete.

Keywords: Wood ashes, fly ashes, electric filter, replacement, concrete technology.

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816 Elaboration and Characterization of Self-Compacting Mortar Based Biopolymer

Authors: I. Djefour, M. Saidi, I. Tlemsani, S. Toubal

Abstract:

Lignin is a molecule derived from wood and also generated as waste from the paper industry. With a view to its valorization and protection of the environment, we are interested in its use as a superplasticizer-type adjuvant in mortars and concretes to improve their mechanical strengths. The additives of the concrete have a very strong influence on the properties of the fresh and / or hardened concrete. This study examines the development and use of industrial waste and lignin extracted from a renewable natural source (wood) in cementitious materials. The use of these resources is known at present as a definite resurgence of interest in the development of building materials. Physicomechanical characteristics of mortars are determined by optimization quantity of the natural superplasticizer. The results show that the mechanical strengths of mortars based on natural adjuvant have improved by 20% (64 MPa) for a W/C ratio = 0.4, and the amount of natural adjuvant of dry extract needed is 40 times smaller than commercial adjuvant. This study has a scientific impact (improving the performance of the mortar with an increase in compactness and reduction of the quantity of water), ecological use of the lignin waste generated by the paper industry) and economic reduction of the cost price necessary to elaboration of self-compacting mortars and concretes).

Keywords: Biopolymer, lignin, industrial waste, mechanical resistances, self-compacting mortars.

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815 Chromium Adsorption by Modified Wood

Authors: I. Domingos, B. Esteves, A. Figueirinha, Luísa P. Cruz-Lopes, J. Ferreira, H. Pereira

Abstract:

Chromium is one of the most common heavy metals which exist in very high concentrations in wastewater. The removal is very expensive due to the high cost of normal adsorbents. Lignocellulosic materials and mainly treated materials have proven to be a good solution for this problem.

Adsorption tests were performed at different pH, different times and with varying concentrations.

Results show that is at pH 3 that treated wood absorbs more chromium ranging from 70% (2h treatment) to almost 100% (12 h treatment) much more than untreated wood with less than 40%. Most of the adsorption is made in the first 2-3 hours for untreated and heat treated wood. Modified wood adsorbs more chromium throughout the time. For all the samples, adsorption fitted relatively well the Langmuir model with correlation coefficient ranging from 0.85 to 0.97.

The results show that heat treated wood is a good adsorbent ant that this might be a good utilization for sawdust from treating companies.

Keywords: Adsorption, chromium, heat treatment, wood modification.

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814 Biotechonomy System Dynamics Modelling: Sustainability of Pellet Production

Authors: Andra Blumberga, Armands Gravelsins, Haralds Vigants, Dagnija Blumberga

Abstract:

The paper discovers biotechonomy development analysis by use of system dynamics modelling. The research is connected with investigations of biomass application for production of bioproducts with higher added value. The most popular bioresource is wood, and therefore, the main question today is about future development and eco-design of products. The paper emphasizes and evaluates energy sector which is open for use of wood logs, wood chips, wood pellets and so on. The main aim for this research study was to build a framework to analyse development perspectives for wood pellet production. To reach the goal, a system dynamics model of energy wood supplies, processing, and consumption is built. Production capacity, energy consumption, changes in energy and technology efficiency, required labour source, prices of wood, energy and labour are taken into account. Validation and verification tests with available data and information have been carried out and indicate that the model constitutes the dynamic hypothesis. It is found that the more is invested into pellets production, the higher the specific profit per production unit compared to wood logs and wood chips. As a result, wood chips production is decreasing dramatically and is replaced by wood pellets. The limiting factor for pellet industry growth is availability of wood sources. This is governed by felling limit set by the government based on sustainable forestry principles.

Keywords: Bioenergy, biotechonomy, system dynamics modelling, wood pellets.

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813 Production and Recycling of Construction and Demolition Waste

Authors: Vladimira Vytlacilova

Abstract:

Recycling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) and their new reuse in structures is one of the solutions of environmental problems. Construction and demolition waste creates a major portion of total solid waste production in the world and most of it is used in landfills all the time. The paper deals with the situation of the recycling of the building and demolition waste in the Czech Republic during the recent years. The paper is dealing with questions of C&D waste recycling, it also characterizes construction and demolition waste in general, furthermore it analyses production of construction waste and subsequent production of recycled materials.

Keywords: Recycling, Construction and demolition waste, Recycled rubble, Waste management.

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812 Strategies for E-Waste Management: A Literature Review

Authors: Linh Thi Truc Doan, Yousef Amer, Sang-Heon Lee, Phan Nguyen Ky Phuc

Abstract:

During the last few decades, with the high-speed upgrade of electronic products, electronic waste (e-waste) has become one of the fastest growing wastes of the waste stream. In this context, more efforts and concerns have already been placed on the treatment and management of this waste. To mitigate their negative influences on the environment and society, it is necessary to establish appropriate strategies for e-waste management. Hence, this paper aims to review and analysis some useful strategies which have been applied in several countries to handle e-waste. Future perspectives on e-waste management are also suggested. The key findings found that, to manage e-waste successfully, it is necessary to establish effective reverse supply chains for e-waste, and raise public awareness towards the detrimental impacts of e-waste. The result of the research provides valuable insights to governments, policymakers in establishing e-waste management in a safe and sustainable manner.

Keywords: E-waste, e-waste management, life cycle assessment, recycling regulations.

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811 Life Cycle Assessment as a Decision Making for Window Performance Comparison in Green Building Design

Authors: Ghada Elshafei, Abdelazim Negm

Abstract:

Life cycle assessment is a technique to assess the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product, process, or service, by compiling an inventory of relevant energy and material inputs and environmental releases; evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with identified inputs and releases; and interpreting the results to help you make a more informed decision. In this paper, the life cycle assessment of aluminum and beech wood as two commonly used materials in Egypt for window frames are heading, highlighting their benefits and weaknesses. Window frames of the two materials have been assessed on the basis of their production, energy consumption and environmental impacts. It has been found that the climate change of the windows made of aluminum and beech wood window, for a reference window (1.2m×1.2m), are 81.7 mPt and -52.5 mPt impacts respectively. Among the most important results are: fossil fuel consumption, potential contributions to the green building effect and quantities of solid waste tend to be minor for wood products compared to aluminum products; incineration of wood products can cause higher impacts of acidification and eutrophication than aluminum, whereas thermal energy can be recovered.

Keywords: Aluminum window, beech wood window, green building, life cycle assessment, life cycle analysis, SimaPro software, window frame.

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810 Landfill Failure Mobility Analysis: A Probabilistic Approach

Authors: Ali Jahanfar, Brajesh Dubey, Bahram Gharabaghi, Saber Bayat Movahed

Abstract:

Ever increasing population growth of major urban centers and environmental challenges in siting new landfills have resulted in a growing trend in design of mega-landfills some with extraordinary heights and dangerously steep slopes. Landfill failure mobility risk analysis is one of the most uncertain types of dynamic rheology models due to very large inherent variabilities in the heterogeneous solid waste material shear strength properties. The waste flow of three historic dumpsite and two landfill failures were back-analyzed using run-out modeling with DAN-W model. The travel distances of the waste flow during landfill failures were calculated approach by taking into account variability in material shear strength properties. The probability distribution function for shear strength properties of the waste material were grouped into four major classed based on waste material compaction (landfills versus dumpsites) and composition (high versus low quantity) of high shear strength waste materials such as wood, metal, plastic, paper and cardboard in the waste. This paper presents a probabilistic method for estimation of the spatial extent of waste avalanches, after a potential landfill failure, to create maps of vulnerability scores to inform property owners and residents of the level of the risk.

Keywords: Landfill failure, waste flow, Voellmy rheology, friction coefficient, waste compaction and type.

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809 Analysis of Green Wood Preservation Chemicals

Authors: Aitor Barbero-López, Soumaya Chibily, Gerhard Scheepers, Thomas Grahn, Martti Venäläinen, Antti Haapala

Abstract:

Wood decay is addressed continuously within the wood industry through use and development of wood preservatives. The increasing awareness on the negative effects of many chemicals towards the environment is causing political restrictions in their use and creating more urgent need for research on green alternatives. This paper discusses some of the possible natural extracts for wood preserving applications and compares the analytical methods available for testing their behavior and efficiency against decay fungi. The results indicate that natural extracts have interesting chemical constituents that delay fungal growth but vary in efficiency depending on the chemical concentration and substrate used. Results also suggest that presence and redistribution of preservatives in wood during exposure trials can be assessed by spectral imaging methods although standardized methods are not available. This study concludes that, in addition to the many standard methods available, there is a need to develop new faster methods for screening potential preservative formulation while maintaining the comparability and relevance of results.

Keywords: Analytics, methods, preservatives, wood decay.

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808 Improved Tropical Wood Species Recognition System based on Multi-feature Extractor and Classifier

Authors: Marzuki Khalid, RubiyahYusof, AnisSalwaMohdKhairuddin

Abstract:

An automated wood recognition system is designed to classify tropical wood species.The wood features are extracted based on two feature extractors: Basic Grey Level Aura Matrix (BGLAM) technique and statistical properties of pores distribution (SPPD) technique. Due to the nonlinearity of the tropical wood species separation boundaries, a pre classification stage is proposed which consists ofKmeans clusteringand kernel discriminant analysis (KDA). Finally, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) classifier and KNearest Neighbour (KNN) are implemented for comparison purposes. The study involves comparison of the system with and without pre classification using KNN classifier and LDA classifier.The results show that the inclusion of the pre classification stage has improved the accuracy of both the LDA and KNN classifiers by more than 12%.

Keywords: Tropical wood species, nonlinear data, featureextractors, classification

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807 Measuring Awareness of Waste Management among School Children using Rasch Model Analysis

Authors: N. Esa, M. A. Samsuddin, N. Yakob, H. M. Yunus, M. H. Ibrahim

Abstract:

The enormous amount of solid waste generated poses huge problems in waste management. It is therefore important to gauge the awareness of the public with regards to waste management. In this study, an instrument was developed to measure the beliefs, attitudes and practices about waste management of school children as an indication of their waste management awareness. This instrument has showed that a positive awareness towards waste management refers mainly to attitudes. However it is not easy for people to practice waste management as a reflection of their awareness.

Keywords: Awareness, Measurement, Rasch Model, Waste Management

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806 Manufacturing Process of a Novel Biomass Composite Inspired from Cellular Structure of Wood

Authors: Li Yongfeng, Liu Yixing, Li Jian, Li Jun

Abstract:

A novel biomass composite inspired from wood porous structure was manufactured by impregnating vinyl monomer into wood cellular structure under vacuum conditions, and initiating the monomer for in situ polymerization through a thermal treatment. The vacuum condition was studied, and the mechanical properties of the composite were also tested. SEM observation shows that polymer generated in the wood porous structure, and strongly interacted with wood matrix; and the polymer content increased with vacuum value increasing. FTIR indicates that polymer grafted onto wood matrix, resulting chemical complex between them. The rate of monomer loading increased with increasing vacuum value and time, accordance with rate of polymer loading. The compression strength and modulus of elasticity linearly increased with the increasing rate of polymer loading. Results indicate that the novel biomass composite possesses good mechanical properties capable of applying in the fields of construction, traffic and so forth.

Keywords: Biomass composite, manufacture, vinyl monomer, wood cellular structure.

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805 Performance Tests of Wood Glues on Different Wood Species Used in Wood Workshops: Morogoro Tanzania

Authors: Japhet N. Mwambusi

Abstract:

High tropical forests deforestation for solid wood furniture industry is among of climate change contributing agents. This pressure indirectly is caused by furniture joints failure due to poor gluing technology based on improper use of different glues to different wood species which lead to low quality and weak wood-glue joints. This study was carried in order to run performance tests of wood glues on different wood species used in wood workshops: Morogoro Tanzania whereby three popular wood species of C. lusitanica, T. glandis and E. maidenii were tested against five glues of Woodfix, Bullbond, Ponal, Fevicol and Coral found in the market. The findings were necessary on developing a guideline for proper glue selection for a particular wood species joining. Random sampling was employed to interview carpenters while conducting a survey on the background of carpenters like their education level and to determine factors that influence their glues choice. Monsanto Tensiometer was used to determine bonding strength of identified wood glues to different wood species in use under British Standard of testing wood shear strength (BS EN 205) procedures. Data obtained from interviewing carpenters were analyzed through Statistical Package of Social Science software (SPSS) to allow the comparison of different data while laboratory data were compiled, related and compared by the use of MS Excel worksheet software as well as Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Results revealed that among all five wood glues tested in the laboratory to three different wood species, Coral performed much better with the average shear strength 4.18 N/mm2, 3.23 N/mm2 and 5.42 N/mm2 for Cypress, Teak and Eucalyptus respectively. This displays that for a strong joint to be formed to all tree wood species for soft wood and hard wood, Coral has a first priority in use. The developed table of guideline from this research can be useful to carpenters on proper glue selection to a particular wood species so as to meet glue-bond strength. This will secure furniture market as well as reduce pressure to the forests for furniture production because of the strong existing furniture due to their strong joints. Indeed, this can be a good strategy on reducing climate change speed in tropics which result from high deforestation of trees for furniture production.

Keywords: Climate change, deforestation, gluing technology, joint failure, wood-glue, wood species.

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804 Statistical Feature Extraction Method for Wood Species Recognition System

Authors: Mohd Iz'aan Paiz Bin Zamri, Anis Salwa Mohd Khairuddin, Norrima Mokhtar, Rubiyah Yusof

Abstract:

Effective statistical feature extraction and classification are important in image-based automatic inspection and analysis. An automatic wood species recognition system is designed to perform wood inspection at custom checkpoints to avoid mislabeling of timber which will results to loss of income to the timber industry. The system focuses on analyzing the statistical pores properties of the wood images. This paper proposed a fuzzy-based feature extractor which mimics the experts’ knowledge on wood texture to extract the properties of pores distribution from the wood surface texture. The proposed feature extractor consists of two steps namely pores extraction and fuzzy pores management. The total number of statistical features extracted from each wood image is 38 features. Then, a backpropagation neural network is used to classify the wood species based on the statistical features. A comprehensive set of experiments on a database composed of 5200 macroscopic images from 52 tropical wood species was used to evaluate the performance of the proposed feature extractor. The advantage of the proposed feature extraction technique is that it mimics the experts’ interpretation on wood texture which allows human involvement when analyzing the wood texture. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed method.

Keywords: Classification, fuzzy, inspection system, image analysis.

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803 Thermo-Elastic Properties of Artificial Limestone Bricks with Wood Sawdust

Authors: Paki Turgut, Mehmet Gumuscu

Abstract:

In this study, artificial limestone brick samples are produced by using wood sawdust wastes (WSW) having different grades of sizes and limestone powder waste (LPW). The thermo-elastic properties of produced brick samples in various WSW amounts are investigated. At 30% WSW replacement with LPW in the brick sample the thermal conductivity value is effectively reduced and the reduction in the thermal conductivity value of brick sample at 30% WSW replacement with LPW is about 38.9% as compared with control sample. The energy conservation in buildings by using LPW and WSW in masonry brick material production having low thermal conductivity reduces energy requirements. A strong relationship is also found among the thermal conductivity, unit weight and ultrasonic pulse velocity values of brick samples produced. It shows a potential to be used for walls, wooden board substitute, alternative to the concrete blocks, ceiling panels, sound barrier panels, absorption materials etc.

Keywords: Limestone dust, masonry brick, thermo-elastic properties, wood sawdust.

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802 Evaluation of Guaiacol and Syringol Emission upon Wood Pyrolysis for some Fast Growing Species

Authors: Sherif S. Z. Hindi

Abstract:

Wood pyrolysis for Casuarina glauca, Casuarina cunninghamiana, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca was made at 450°C with 2.5°C/min. in a flowing N2-atmosphere. The Eucalyptus genus wood gave higher values of specific gravity, ash , total extractives, lignin, N2-liquid trap distillate (NLTD) and water trap distillate (WSP) than those for Casuarina genus. The GHC of NLTD was higher for Casuarina genus than that for Eucalyptus genus with the highest value for Casuarina cunninghamiana. Guiacol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol and syringol were observed in the NLTD of all the four wood species reflecting their parent hardwood lignin origin. Eucalyptus camaldulensis wood had the highest lignin content (28.89%) and was pyrolyzed to the highest values of phenolics (73.01%), guaiacol (11.2%) and syringol (32.28%) contents in methylene chloride fraction (MCF) of NLTD. Accordingly, recoveries of syringol and guaiacol may become economically attractive from Eucalyptus camaldulensis.

Keywords: Wood, Pyrolysis, Guaiacol, Syringol

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801 Method of Estimating Absolute Entropy of Municipal Solid Waste

Authors: Francis Chinweuba Eboh, Peter Ahlström, Tobias Richards

Abstract:

Entropy, as an outcome of the second law of thermodynamics, measures the level of irreversibility associated with any process. The identification and reduction of irreversibility in the energy conversion process helps to improve the efficiency of the system. The entropy of pure substances known as absolute entropy is determined at an absolute reference point and is useful in the thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions; however, municipal solid waste (MSW) is a structurally complicated material with unknown absolute entropy. In this work, an empirical model to calculate the absolute entropy of MSW based on the content of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, and chlorine on a dry ash free basis (daf) is presented. The proposed model was derived from 117 relevant organic substances which represent the main constituents in MSW with known standard entropies using statistical analysis. The substances were divided into different waste fractions; namely, food, wood/paper, textiles/rubber and plastics waste and the standard entropies of each waste fraction and for the complete mixture were calculated. The correlation of the standard entropy of the complete waste mixture derived was found to be somsw= 0.0101C + 0.0630H + 0.0106O + 0.0108N + 0.0155S + 0.0084Cl (kJ.K-1.kg) and the present correlation can be used for estimating the absolute entropy of MSW by using the elemental compositions of the fuel within the range of 10.3%  C 95.1%, 0.0%  H  14.3%, 0.0%  O  71.1%, 0.0  N  66.7%, 0.0%  S  42.1%, 0.0%  Cl  89.7%. The model is also applicable for the efficient modelling of a combustion system in a waste-to-energy plant.

Keywords: Absolute entropy, irreversibility, municipal solid waste, waste-to-energy.

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800 Synthesis and Characterization of Recycled Isotactic Polypropylene Nanocomposites Containing Date Wood Fiber

Authors: Habib Shaban

Abstract:

Nanocomposites of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and date wood fiber were prepared after modification of the host matrix by reactive extrusion grafting of maleic anhydride. Chemical and mechanical treatment of date wood flour (WF) was conducted to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose. Layered silicates (clay) were partially intercalated with date wood fiber, and the modified layered silicate was used as filler in the PP matrix via a melt-blending process. The tensile strength of composites prepared from wood fiber modified clay was greater than that of the iPP-clay and iPP-WF composites at a 6% filler concentration, whereas deterioration of mechanical properties was observed when clay and WF were used alone for reinforcement. The dispersion of the filler in the matrix significantly decreased after clay modification with cellulose at higher concentrations, as shown by X-ray diffraction (XRD) data.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, isotactic polypropylene, date wood flour, intercalated, melt-blending.

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799 Pleurotus Ostreatus for Durability Test of Rubber and Sengon Woods using Indonesian National Standard and Japanese Standard Methods

Authors: Elis N. Herliyana , Kunio Tsunoda, Yusuf S. Hadi, Arinana, Dewi A. Natalia

Abstract:

This study aims to determine the level of resistance of Hevea brasiliensis and Paraserianthes falcataria (synonym: Falcataria molucana) against wood rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus based on Indonesian standard SNI 01.7207-2006 and Japanese standard JIS K 1571-2004. The variables measured were visual appearance and weight loss percentage of wood based on longitudinal and cross section fiber directions of rubber wood and sengon wood. Measurement of oven dry weight loss of wood samples performed after 12 weeks incubation. Replication performed was 10 times at each treatment combination. The results based on SNI 01.7207-2006, weight loss value of H. brasiliensis and P. falcataria wood with fiber direction longitudinal were 23,12 and 22,25% respectively and cross section were 20,77 and 18,76% respectively, and all were classified to resistance class IV (no resistance). The results based on JIS K 1571-2004, weight loss value of both woods with fiber direction cross section were 10,95 and 14,20% respectively.

Keywords: H. brasiliensis wood, Natural durability, P. falcataria wood, P. ostreatus.

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798 The Effects of Wood Ash on Ignition Point of Wood

Authors: Kenneth A. Ibe, Justina I. Mbonu, Godgift K. Umukoro

Abstract:

The effects of wood ash from five common tropical woods on the ignition point of four common tropical woods in Nigeria were investigated. The ash and moisture contents of the wood sawdust from Mahogany (Khaya ivorensis), Opepe (Sarcocephalus latifolius), Abura (Mitragyna ciliata), Rubber (Heavea brasilensis) and Poroporo (Sorghum bicolour) used, were determined using a furnace (Vecstar furnaces, model ECF2, serial no. f3077) and oven (Genlab laboratory oven, model MINO/040) respectively. The metal contents of the five wood sawdust ash samples were determined using a Perkin Elmer optima 3000 dv atomic absorption spectrometer while the ignition points were determined using Vecstar furnaces model ECF2. Poroporo had the highest ash content, 2.263g while rubber had the least, 0.710g. The results for the moisture content range from 2.971g to 0.903g. Magnesium metal had the highest concentration of all the metals, in all the wood ash samples; with mahogany ash having the highest concentration, 9.196ppm while rubber ash had the least concentration of magnesium metal, 2.196 ppm. The ignition point results showed that the wood ashes from mahogany and opepe increased the ignition points of the test wood samples, Danta (Nesogordonia papaverifera), Ekpaya, Akomu (Pycnanthus angolensis) and Oleku when coated on them while the ashes from poroporo, rubber and abura decreased the ignition points of the test wood samples when coated on them. However, Opepe saw dust ash decreased the ignition point in one of the test wood samples, suggesting that the metal content of the test wood sample was more than that of the Opepe saw dust ash. Therefore, Mahogany and Opepe saw dust ashes could be used in the surface treatment of wood to enhance their fire resistance or retardancy. However, the caution to be exercised in this application is that the metal content of the test wood samples should be evaluated as well.

Keywords: Ash, fire, ignition point, retardant, wood saw dust.

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797 Identification of an Appropriate Alternative Waste Technology for Energy Recovery from Waste through Multi-Criteria Analysis

Authors: Sharmina Begum, M. G. Rasul, Delwar Akbar

Abstract:

Waste management is now a global concern due to its high environmental impact on climate change. Because of generating huge amount of waste through our daily activities, managing waste in an efficient way has become more important than ever. Alternative Waste Technology (AWT), a new category of waste treatment technology has been developed for energy recovery in recent years to address this issue. AWT describes a technology that redirects waste away from landfill, recovers more useable resources from the waste flow and reduces the impact on the surroundings. Australia is one of the largest producers of waste per-capita. A number of AWTs are using in Australia to produce energy from waste. Presently, it is vital to identify an appropriate AWT to establish a sustainable waste management system in Australia. Identification of an appropriate AWT through Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) of four AWTs by using five key decision making criteria is presented and discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Alternative waste technology (AWT), Energy fromwaste, Gasification, Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA)

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