Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30135
Rubber Wood as a Potential Biomass Feedstock for Biochar via Slow Pyrolysis
Abstract:Utilisation of biomass feedstock for biochar has received increasing attention because of their potential for carbon sequestration and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of rubber wood as a biomass feedstock for biochar via slow pyrolysis process. This was achieved by using proximate, ultimate, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as well as heating value, pH and lignocellulosic determination. Rubber wood contains 4.13 mf wt.% moisture, 86.30 mf wt.% volatile matter, 0.60 mf wt.% ash content, and 13.10 mf wt.% fixed carbon. The ultimate analysis shows that rubber wood consists of 44.33 mf wt.% carbon, 6.26 mf wt.% hydrogen, 19.31 mf wt.% nitrogen, 0.31 mf wt.% sulphur, and 29.79 mf wt.% oxygen. The higher heating value of rubber wood is 22.5 MJ/kg, and its lower heating value is 21.2 MJ/kg. At 27 °C, the pH value of rubber wood is 6.83 which is acidic. The lignocellulosic analysis revealed that rubber wood composition consists of 2.63 mf wt.% lignin, 20.13 mf wt.% cellulose, and 65.04 mf wt.% hemicellulose. The volatile matter to fixed carbon ratio is 6.58. This led to a biochar yield of 25.14 wt.% at 500 °C. Rubber wood is an environmental friendly feedstock due to its low sulphur content. Rubber wood therefore is a suitable and a potential feedstock for biochar production via slow pyrolysis.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1127442Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1145
 IPCC, Climate Change 2007 Synthesis Report. 2008
 IEA, “World Energy Outlook 2013,” Paris Int. Energy Agency, pp. 1–7, 2013.
 N. Li, G. a. Tompsett, T. Zhang, J. Shi, C. E. Wyman, and G. W. Huber, “Renewable gasoline from aqueous phase hydrodeoxygenation of aqueous sugar solutions prepared by hydrolysis of maple wood,” Green Chem., vol. 13, no. 1, p. 91, 2011.
 C. A. Cardona, J. A. Quintero, and I. C. Paz, “Production of bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse: Status and perspectives,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 101, no. 13, pp. 4754–4766, 2010.
 J. Lehmann, “Bio-energy in the black,” Front. Ecol. Environ., vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 381–387, 2007.
 P. Krukanont and S. Prasertsan, “Geographical distribution of biomass and potential sites of rubber wood fired power plants in Southern Thailand,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 47–59, 2004.
 W. A. W. A. K. Ghani, A. Mohd, G. da Silva, R. T. Bachmann, Y. H. Taufiq-Yap, U. Rashid, and A. H. Al-Muhtaseb, “Biochar production from waste rubber-wood-sawdust and its potential use in C sequestration: Chemical and physical characterization,” Ind. Crops Prod., vol. 44, pp. 18–24, Jan. 2013.
 C. Srinivasakannan, “Production of activated carbon from rubber wood sawdust,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 89–96, Jul. 2004.
 O. Onay and O. M. Kockar, “Slow, fast and flash pyrolysis of rapeseed,” Renew. Energy, vol. 28, no. 15, pp. 2417–2433, Dec. 2003.
 J. Park, Y. Lee, C. Ryu, and Y.-K. Park, “Slow pyrolysis of rice straw: analysis of products properties, carbon and energy yields.,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 155, pp. 63–70, Mar. 2014.
 D. Woolf, J. E. Amonette, F. A. Street-Perrott, J. Lehmann, and S. Joseph, “Sustainable biochar to mitigate global climate change.,” Nat. Commun., vol. 1, no. 5, p. 56, 2010.
 D. Angın, “Effect of pyrolysis temperature and heating rate on biochar obtained from pyrolysis of safflower seed press cake.,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 128, pp. 593–7, Jan. 2013.
 A. Demirbas, “Effects of temperature and particle size on bio-char yield from pyrolysis of agricultural residues,” J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 243–248, Nov. 2004.
 F. Ronsse, S. van Hecke, D. Dickinson, and W. Prins, “Production and characterization of slow pyrolysis biochar: Influence of feedstock type and pyrolysis conditions,” GCB Bioenergy, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 104–115, 2013.
 M. Jahirul, M. Rasul, A. Chowdhury, and N. Ashwath, “Biofuels Production through Biomass Pyrolysis —A Technological Review,” Energies, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 4952–5001, 2012.
 International Biochar Initiative, “2013 State of the Biochar Industry Report. A Survey of Commercial Activity in the Biochar Field,” 2014.
 W. T. Tsai, S. C. Liu, H. R. Chen, Y. M. Chang, and Y. L. Tsai, “Textural and chemical properties of swine-manure-derived biochar pertinent to its potential use as a soil amendment,” Chemosphere, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 198–203, 2012.
 X. Cao, K. S. Ro, M. Chappell, Y. Li, and J. Mao, “Chemical structures of swine-manure chars produced under different carbonization conditions investigated by advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy,” Energy and Fuels, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 388–397, 2011.
 R. García, C. Pizarro, A. G. Lavín, and J. L. Bueno, “Biomass proximate analysis using thermogravimetry.,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 139, pp. 1–4, Jul. 2013.
 S. S. Lam, R. K. Liew, X. Y. Lim, F. N. Ani, and A. Jusoh, “Fruit waste as feedstock for recovery by pyrolysis technique,” Int. Biodeterior. Biodegradation, Mar. 2016.
 A. J. Ridout, M. Carrier, and J. Görgens, “Fast pyrolysis of low and high ash paper waste sludge: Influence of reactor temperature and pellet size,” J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, vol. 111, pp. 64–75, Jan. 2015.
 A. Hlavsová, A. Corsaro, H. Raclavská, S. Vallová, and D. Juchelková, “The effect of feedstock composition and taxonomy on the products distribution from pyrolysis of nine herbaceous plants,” Fuel Process. Technol., vol. 144, pp. 27–36, Apr. 2016.
 R. Subedi, N. Taupe, S. Pelissetti, L. Petruzzelli, C. Bertora, J. J. Leahy, and C. Grignani, “Greenhouse gas emissions and soil properties following amendment with manure-derived biochars: Influence of pyrolysis temperature and feedstock type.,” J. Environ. Manage., vol. 166, pp. 73–83, Oct. 2015.
 S. a. Channiwala and P. P. Parikh, “A unified correlation for estimating HHV of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels,” Fuel, vol. 81, no. 8, pp. 1051–1063, 2002.
 C. Telmo and J. Lousada, “Heating values of wood pellets from different species,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 2634–2639, Jul. 2011.
 C. M. van der Meijden, H. J. Veringa, and L. P. L. M. Rabou, “The production of synthetic natural gas (SNG): A comparison of three wood gasification systems for energy balance and overall efficiency,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 302–311, Mar. 2010.
 A. Gani and I. Naruse, “Effect of cellulose and lignin content on pyrolysis and combustion characteristics for several types of biomass,” Renew. Energy, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 649–661, Apr. 2007.
 N. S. binti A. Aziz, M. A. bin M. Nor, S. F. binti A. Manaf, and F. Hamzah, “Suitability of Biochar Produced from Biomass Waste as Soil Amendment,” Procedia - Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 195, pp. 2457–2465, 2015.
 S. Kaewluan and S. Pipatmanomai, “Potential of synthesis gas production from rubber wood chip gasification in a bubbling fluidised bed gasifier,” Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 75–84, Jan. 2011.
 M. Dall’Ora, P. A. Jensen, and A. D. Jensen, “Suspension combustion of wood: Influence of pyrolysis conditions on char yield, morphology, and reactivity,” Energy and Fuels, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 2955–2962, 2008.
 Y. Lee, J. Park, C. Ryu, K. S. Gang, W. Yang, Y.-K. Park, J. Jung, and S. Hyun, “Comparison of biochar properties from biomass residues produced by slow pyrolysis at 500°C.,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 148, pp. 196–201, Nov. 2013.
 H. Yang, R. Yan, H. Chen, D. H. Lee, and C. Zheng, “Characteristics of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin pyrolysis,” Fuel, vol. 86, no. 12–13, pp. 1781–1788, 2007.
 F. Sulaiman and N. Abdullah, “Optimum conditions for maximising pyrolysis liquids of oil palm empty fruit bunches,” Energy, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 2352–2359, May 2011.
 M. W. I. Schmidt, A. G. Noack, and G. Osmond, “Analysis, distribution, implications, and current challenges,” vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 777–793, 2000.
 J. O. Reuss, B. J. Cosby, and R. F. Wright, “Chemical processes governing soil and water acidification,” Nature, vol. 329, no. 6134, pp. 27–32, 1987.
 S. S. Malhi, M. Nyborg, and J. T. Harapiak, “Effects of long-term N fertilizer-induced acidification and liming on micronutrients in soil and in bromegrass hay,” Soil tillage Res., vol. 48, no. 1–2, pp. 91–101.
 J. H. Yuan, R. K. Xu, and H. Zhang, “The forms of alkalis in the biochar produced from crop residues at different temperatures,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 3488–3497, 2011.
 R. B. Fidel, “Evaluation and implementation of methods for quantifying organic and inorganic components of biochar alkalinity,” 2012.
 K. A. Spokas, K. B. Cantrell, J. M. Novak, D. W. Archer, J. A. Ippolito, H. P. Collins, A. A. Boateng, I. M. Lima, M. C. Lamb, A. J. McAloon, R. D. Lentz, and K. A. Nichols, “Biochar: a synthesis of its agronomic impact beyond carbon sequestration,” J. Environ. Qual., vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 973–989, 2012.
 W. Wu, M. Yang, Q. Feng, K. McGrouther, H. Wang, H. Lu, and Y. Chen, “Chemical characterization of rice straw-derived biochar for soil amendment,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 47, pp. 268–276, 2012.
 W. K. Kim, T. Shim, Y. S. Kim, S. Hyun, C. Ryu, Y. K. Park, and J. Jung, “Characterization of cadmium removal from aqueous solution by biochar produced from a giant Miscanthus at different pyrolytic temperatures,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 138, pp. 266–270, 2013.