Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 141

Search results for: Arc welding

141 Friction Stir Welding Process: A Green Technology

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process invented and patented by The Welding Institute (TWI) in the United Kingdom in 1991 for butt and lap welding of metals and plastics. This paper highlights the benefits of friction stir welding process as an energy efficient and a green technology process in the field of welding. Compared to the other conventional welding processes, its benefits, typical applications and its use in joining similar and dissimilar materials are also presented.

Keywords: Dissimilar materials, Friction Stir Welding, Green technology, similar materials.

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140 Studies on Ti/Al Sheet Joint Using Laser Beam Welding – A Review

Authors: K. Kalaiselvan, A. Elango, N. M. Nagarajan, N. Mathiyazagan

Abstract:

Laser beam welding has wide acceptability due to least welding distortion, low labour costs and convenient operation. However, laser welding for dissimilar titanium and aluminium alloys is a new area which is having wider applications in aerospace, aircraft, automotive, electronics and other industries. The present study is concerned with welding parameters namely laser power, welding speed, focusing distance and type of shielding gas and thereby evaluate welding performance of titanium and aluminium alloy thin sheets. This paper reviews the basic concepts associated with different parameters of Ti/Al sheet joint using Laser beam welding.

Keywords: Laser Beam Welding (LBW), Dissimilar joining Titanium and Aluminum sheets.

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139 Development of Orbital TIG Welding Robot System for the Pipe

Authors: Dongho Kim, Sung Choi, Kyowoong Pee, Youngsik Cho, Seungwoo Jeong, Soo-Ho Kim

Abstract:

This study is about the orbital TIG welding robot system which travels on the guide rail installed on the pipe, and welds and tracks the pipe seam using the LVS (Laser Vision Sensor) joint profile data. The orbital welding robot system consists of the robot, welder, controller, and LVS. Moreover we can define the relationship between welding travel speed and wire feed speed, and we can make the linear equation using the maximum and minimum amount of weld metal. Using the linear equation we can determine the welding travel speed and the wire feed speed accurately corresponding to the area of weld captured by LVS. We applied this orbital TIG welding robot system to the stainless steel or duplex pipe on DSME (Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co. Ltd.,) shipyard and the result of radiographic test is almost perfect. (Defect rate: 0.033%).

Keywords: Adaptive welding, automatic welding, Pipe welding, Orbital welding, Laser vision sensor, LVS, welding D/B.

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138 Characterization of Two Hybrid Welding Techniques on SA 516 Grade 70 Weldments

Authors: M. T. Z. Butt, T. Ahmad, N. A. Siddiqui

Abstract:

Commercially SA 516 Grade 70 is frequently used for the manufacturing of pressure vessels, boilers and storage tanks etc. in fabrication industry. Heat input is the major parameter during welding that may bring significant changes in the microstructure as well as the mechanical properties. Different welding technique has different heat input rate per unit surface area. Materials with large thickness are dealt with different combination of welding techniques to achieve required mechanical properties. In the present research two schemes: Scheme 1: SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding) & GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) and Scheme 2: SMAW & SAW (Submerged Arc Welding) of hybrid welding techniques have been studied. The purpose of these schemes was to study hybrid welding effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the weldment, heat affected zone and base metal area. It is significant to note that the thickness of base plate was 12 mm, also welding conditions and parameters were set according to ASME Section IX. It was observed that two different hybrid welding techniques performed on two different plates demonstrated that the mechanical properties of both schemes are more or less similar. It means that the heat input, welding techniques and varying welding operating conditions & temperatures did not make any detrimental effect on the mechanical properties. Hence, the hybrid welding techniques mentioned in the present study are favorable to implicate for the industry using the plate thickness around 12 mm thick.

Keywords: Grade 70, GTAW, hybrid welding, SAW, SMAW.

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137 Studies on Distortion of Dissimilar Thin Sheet Weld Joints Using Laser Beam Welding

Authors: K. Kalaiselvan, A. Elango

Abstract:

To achieve reliable welds with minimum distortion for the fabrication of components in aerospace industry laser beam welding is attempted. Laser welding can provide a significant benefit for the welding of Titanium and Aluminium thin sheet alloys of its precision and rapid processing capability. For laser welding, pulse shape, energy, duration, repetition rate and peak power are the most important parameters that influence directly the quality of welds. In this experimental work for joining 1mm thick TI6AL4V and AA2024 alloy and JK600 Nd:YAG pulsed laser units used. The distortions at different welding power and speed of titanium and aluminium thin sheet alloys are investigated. Test results reveal that increase in welding speed increases distortion in weldment

Keywords: Laser Beam Welding, Titanium, Aluminium alloy sheets and distortion.

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136 Effect of Butt Joint Distortion and Comparison Study on Ti/Al Dissimilar Metal Using Laser Beam Welding

Authors: K. Kalaiselvan, A. Elango

Abstract:

In general, it is desirable to finish the weld quickly, before a large volume of surrounding metal heats up and expands. The welding process used, type, welding current and speed of travel, thus, affect the degree of shrinkage and distortion of a weldment. The use of mechanized welding equipment reduces welding time, metal affected zone and consequently distortion. This article helps to define what weld distortion is and then provide a practical understanding of the causes of distortion, effects of shrinkage in butt joint welded assemblies using TI6AL4VA and Aluminium AA2024 alloy sheet. The beam offset position to the joint interface towards titanium and aluminium side. The factors affecting distortion during welding is also given. Test results reveal that welding speed is the significant parameter to decide the extent of distortion. Also welding from Al side reduces the distortion while Ti side increases the distortion.

Keywords: Nd:YAG Pulsed laser welding, Titanium/Aluminium thin sheet butt joint, distortion.

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135 Study of the Effect of Inclusion of TiO2 in Active Flux on Submerged Arc Welding of Low Carbon Mild Steel Plate and Parametric Optimization of the Process by Using DEA Based Bat Algorithm

Authors: Sheetal Kumar Parwar, J. Deb Barma, A. Majumder

Abstract:

Submerged arc welding is a very complex process. It is a very efficient and high performance welding process. In this present study an attempt have been done to reduce the welding distortion by increased amount of oxide flux through TiO2 in submerged arc welding process. Care has been taken to avoid the excessiveness of the adding agent for attainment of significant results. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) based BAT algorithm is used for the parametric optimization purpose in which DEA is used to convert multi response parameters into a single response parameter. The present study also helps to know the effectiveness of the addition of TiO2 in active flux during submerged arc welding process.

Keywords: BAT algorithm, design of experiment, optimization, submerged arc welding.

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134 Effect of Vibration Amplitude and Welding Force on Weld Strength of Ultrasonic Metal Welding

Authors: Ziad. Sh. Al Sarraf

Abstract:

Ultrasonic metal welding has been the subject of ongoing research and development, most recently concentrating on metal joining in miniature devices, for example to allow solder-free wire bonding. As well as at the small scale, there are also opportunities to research the joining of thicker sheet metals and to widen the range of similar and dissimilar materials that can be successfully joined using this technology. This study presents the design, characterisation and test of a lateral-drive ultrasonic metal spot welding device. The ultrasonic metal spot welding horn is modelled using finite element analysis (FEA) and its vibration behaviour is characterised experimentally to ensure ultrasonic energy is delivered effectively to the weld coupon. The welding stack and fixtures are then designed and mounted on a test machine to allow a series of experiments to be conducted for various welding and ultrasonic parameters. Weld strength is subsequently analysed using tensile-shear tests. The results show how the weld strength is particularly sensitive to the combination of clamping force and ultrasonic vibration amplitude of the welding tip, but there are optimal combinations of these and also limits that must be clearly identified.

Keywords: Ultrasonic welding, vibration amplitude, welding force, weld strength.

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133 An Evaluation of TIG Welding Parametric Influence on Tensile Strength of 5083 Aluminium Alloy

Authors: Lakshman Singh, Rajeshwar Singh, Naveen Kumar Singh, Davinder Singh, Pargat Singh

Abstract:

Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding is a high quality welding process used to weld the thin metals and their alloy. 5083 Aluminium alloys play an important role in engineering and metallurgy field because of excellent corrosion properties, ease of fabrication and high specific strength coupled with best combination of toughness and formability.

TIG welding technique is one of the precise and fastest processes used in aerospace, ship and marine industries. TIG welding process is used to analyze the data and evaluate the influence of input parameters on tensile strength of 5083 Al-alloy specimens with dimensions of 100mm long x 15mm wide x 5mm thick. Welding current (I), gas flow rate (G) and welding speed (S) are the input parameters which effect tensile strength of 5083 Al-alloy welded joints. As welding speed increased, tensile strength increases first till optimum value and after that both decreases by increasing welding speed further. Results of the study show that maximum tensile strength of 129 MPa of weld joint are obtained at welding current of 240 Amps, gas flow rate of 7 Lt/min and welding speed of 98 mm/min. These values are the optimum values of input parameters which help to produce efficient weld joint that have good mechanical properties as a tensile strength.

Keywords: 5083 Aluminium alloy, Gas flow rate, TIG welding, Welding current, Welding speed and Tensile strength.

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132 Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys: A Review

Authors: S. K. Tiwari, Dinesh Kumar Shukla, R. Chandra

Abstract:

Friction stir welding is a solid state joining process. High strength aluminum alloys are widely used in aircraft and marine industries. Generally, the mechanical properties of fusion welded aluminum joints are poor. As friction stir welding occurs in solid state, no solidification structures are created thereby eliminating the brittle and eutectic phases common in fusion welding of high strength aluminum alloys. In this review the process parameters, microstructural evolution, and effect of friction stir welding on the properties of weld specific to aluminum alloys have been discussed.

Keywords: Aluminum alloys, Friction stir welding (FSW), Microstructure, Properties.

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131 Nugget Formation during Resistance Spot Welding using Finite Element Model

Authors: Jawad Saleem, Abdul Majid, Kent Bertilsson, Torbjörn Carlberg, Nazar Ul Islam

Abstract:

Resistance spot welding process comprises of electric, thermal and mechanical phenomenon, which makes this process complex and highly non-linear and thus, it becomes difficult to model it. In order to obtain good weld nugget during spot welding, hit and trial welds are usually done which is very costly. Therefore the numerical simulation research has been conducted to understand the whole process. In this paper three different cases were analyzed by varying the tip contact area and it was observed that, with the variation of tip contact area the nugget formation at the faying surface is affected. The tip contact area of the welding electrode becomes large with long welding cycles. Therefore in order to maintain consistency of nugget formation during the welding process, the current compensation in control feedback is required. If the contact area of the welding electrode tip is reduced, a large amount of current flows through the faying surface, as a result of which sputtering occurs.

Keywords: Resistance spot welding, Finite element modeling, Nugget formation, Welding electrode, Numerical method simulation,

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130 Effect of Welding Processes on Tensile Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Joints

Authors: Chaitanya Sharma, Vikas Upadhyay, A. Tripathi

Abstract:

Friction stir welding and tungsten inert gas welding techniques were employed to weld armor grade aluminum alloy to investigate the effect of welding processes on tensile behavior of weld joints. Tensile tests, Vicker microhardness tests and optical microscopy were performed on developed weld joints and base metal. Welding process influenced tensile behavior and microstructure of weld joints. Friction stir welded joints showed tensile behavior better than tungsten inert gas weld joints.

Keywords: Friction stir welding, microstructure, tensile properties and fracture locations.

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129 Comparison of Welding Fumes Exposure during Standing and Sitting Welder’s Position

Authors: Azian Hariri, M. Z. M Yusof, A. M. Leman

Abstract:

Experimental study was conducted to assess personal welding fumes exposure toward welders during an aluminum metal inert gas (MIG) process. The welding process was carried out by a welding machine attached to a Computer Numerical Control (CNC) workbench. A dummy welder was used to replicate welder during welding works and was attached with sampling pumps and filter cassettes for welding fumes sampling. Direct reading instruments to measure air velocity, humidity, temperature and particulate matter with diameter size 10µm or less (PM10) were located behind the dummy welder and parallel to the neck collar level to make sure the measured welding fumes exposure were not being influenced by other factors. Welding fumes exposure during standing and sitting position with and without the usage of local exhaust ventilation (LEV) was investigated. Welding fume samples were then digested and analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) according to ASTM D7439-08 method. The results of the study showed the welding fume exposure during sitting was lower compared to standing position. LEV helped reduce aluminum and lead exposure to acceptable levels during standing position. However during sitting position reduction of exposure was smaller. It can be concluded that welder position and the correct positioning of LEV should be implemented for effective exposure reduction. 

Keywords: ICP-MS, MIG process, personal sampling, welding fumes exposure.

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128 A Study of Gas Metal Arc Welding Affecting Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel AISI 304

Authors: Sittichai K., Santirat N., Sompong., P

Abstract:

The objective of this research was to study influence parameters affecting to mechanical property of austenitic stainless steel grade 304 (AISI 304) with Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW). The research was applying factorial design experiment, which have following interested parameters: welding current at 80, 90, and 100 Amps, welding speeds at 250, 300, and 350 mm/min, and shield gas of 75% Ar + 25% CO2, 70% Ar + 25% CO2 + 5% O2 and 69.5% Ar + 25% CO2 + 5% O2 + 0.5% He gas. The study was done in following aspects: ultimate tensile strength and elongation. A research study of ultimate tensile strength found that main factor effect, which had the highest strength to AISI 304 welding was shield gas of 70% Ar + 25% CO2 + 5% O2 at average of 954.81 N/mm2. Result of the highest elongation was showed significantly different at interaction effect between shield gas of 69.5%Ar+25%CO2+5%O2+.5%He and welding speed at 250 mm/min at 47.94%.

Keywords: Austenitic Stainless Steel AISI 304/ Mechanical Property/ Welding Gas Shield/ Gas Shield

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127 High-Production Laser and Plasma Welding Technologies for High-Speed Vessels Production

Authors: V. M. Levshakov, N. A. Steshenkova, N. A. Nosyrev

Abstract:

Application of hulls processing technologies, based on high-concentrated energy sources (laser and plasma technologies), allow improve shipbuilding production. It is typical for high-speed vessels construction using steel and aluminum alloys with high precision hulls required. Report describes high-performance technologies for plasma welding (using direct current of reversed polarity), laser, and hybrid laser-arc welding of hulls structures developed by JSC “SSTC”

Keywords: Flat sections, hybrid laser-arc welding, plasma welding, plasmatron.

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126 Effect of Laser Welding Properties on Ti/Al Dissimilar Thin Sheets – A Review

Authors: K. Kalaiselvan, A. Elango, N.M. Nagarajan

Abstract:

Laser beam welding is an important joining technique for Titanium/Aluminum thin sheet alloys with their increasing applications in aerospace, aircraft, automotive, electronics and other industries. In this paper the research and progress in laser welding of Ti/Al thin sheets are critically reviewed from different perspectives. Some important aspects such as microstructure, metallurgical defects and mechanical properties in weldments are discussed. Also the recent progress in laser welding of Ti/Al dissimilar thin sheets to provide a basis for further research work is reported.

Keywords: Laser welding, Titanium/Aluminium sheets, microstructure, metallurgical defects and mechanical properties.

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125 Structure Improvement of Aluminothermic Welding Joints by Using Modifiers

Authors: Mihai Brânzei, Tudor Coman

Abstract:

Aluminothermic rail welding was from the beginning a great success because its low price even in 1895 in Germany. This method is now, widely used all over the world for the railways construction, maintenance and modernization. Instructions give you guidelines for preparing papers for conferences or journals. After 1989, the welding needs of the potentials beneficiaries (Romanian Railways, Urban Transportation Companies) keep raise because of the railways maintenance and modernization necessity. The main materials that determine the Thermit (T) composition result from manufacturing scraps all over the country. This can help the environment by consuming these scraps. The Romanian need for alumino-thermic welding is now by 11300 per year, and in a favourable economical environment, this amount can reach 30000 units. This paper tries to show the effect of two types of modifiers introduced in the T composition on the structure and properties of an alumino-thermic welding.

Keywords: aluminothermic rail welding, modifier, Thermit.

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124 Rough Set Based Intelligent Welding Quality Classification

Authors: L. Tao, T. J. Sun, Z. H. Li

Abstract:

The knowledge base of welding defect recognition is essentially incomplete. This characteristic determines that the recognition results do not reflect the actual situation. It also has a further influence on the classification of welding quality. This paper is concerned with the study of a rough set based method to reduce the influence and improve the classification accuracy. At first, a rough set model of welding quality intelligent classification has been built. Both condition and decision attributes have been specified. Later on, groups of the representative multiple compound defects have been chosen from the defect library and then classified correctly to form the decision table. Finally, the redundant information of the decision table has been reducted and the optimal decision rules have been reached. By this method, we are able to reclassify the misclassified defects to the right quality level. Compared with the ordinary ones, this method has higher accuracy and better robustness.

Keywords: intelligent decision, rough set, welding defects, welding quality level

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123 Welding Process Selection for Storage Tank by Integrated Data Envelopment Analysis and Fuzzy Credibility Constrained Programming Approach

Authors: Rahmad Wisnu Wardana, Eakachai Warinsiriruk, Sutep Joy-A-Ka

Abstract:

Selecting the most suitable welding process usually depends on experiences or common application in similar companies. However, this approach generally ignores many criteria that can be affecting the suitable welding process selection. Therefore, knowledge automation through knowledge-based systems will significantly improve the decision-making process. The aims of this research propose integrated data envelopment analysis (DEA) and fuzzy credibility constrained programming approach for identifying the best welding process for stainless steel storage tank in the food and beverage industry. The proposed approach uses fuzzy concept and credibility measure to deal with uncertain data from experts' judgment. Furthermore, 12 parameters are used to determine the most appropriate welding processes among six competitive welding processes.

Keywords: Welding process selection, data envelopment analysis, fuzzy credibility constrained programming, storage tank.

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122 Study of Mechanical Properties of Aluminium Alloys on Normal Friction Stir Welding and Underwater Friction Stir Welding for Structural Applications

Authors: Lingaraju Dumpala, Laxmi Mohan Kumar Chintada, Devadas Deepu, Pravin Kumar Yadav

Abstract:

Friction stir welding is the new-fangled and cutting-edge technique in welding applications; it is widely used in the fields of transportation, aerospace, defense, etc. For thriving significant welding joints and properties of friction stir welded components, it is essential to carry out this advanced process in a prescribed systematic procedure. At this moment, Underwater Friction Stir Welding (UFSW) Process is the field of interest to do research work. In the continuous assessment, the study of UFSW process is to comprehend problems occurred in the past and the structure through which the mechanical properties of the welded joints can be value-added and contributes to conclude results an acceptable and resourceful joint. A meticulous criticism is given on how to modify the experimental setup from NFSW to UFSW. It can discern the influence of tool materials, feeds, spindle angle, load, rotational speeds and mechanical properties. By expending the DEFORM-3D simulation software, the achieved outcomes are validated.

Keywords: Underwater friction stir welding, al alloys, mechanical properties, normal friction stir welding.

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121 Laser Beam Welding of Ti/Al Dissimilar Thin Sheets - A Literature Review

Authors: K. Kalaiselvan, A. Elango, N.M. Nagarajan, N. Mathiazhagan

Abstract:

Dissimilar joining of Titanium and Aluminum thin sheets has potential applications in aerospace and automobile industry which can reduce weight and cost and improve strength, corrosion resistance and high temperature properties. However successful welding of Titanium/Aluminium sheets is of challenge due to differences in physical, chemical and metallurgical properties between the two. This paper describes research results of Laser Beam Welding (LBW) of Ti/Al thin sheets in which many researchers have recently performed and critically reviewed from different perspectives. Also some of notable works in the field of laser welding with changes in mechanical properties, crack propagation, diffusion behavior, chemical potential, interfacial reaction and the microstructure are reported.

Keywords: Laser Beam Welding (LBW), Mechanical properties, Titanium and Aluminium thin sheets.

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120 Development of a Portable Welding Robot with EtherCAT Interface

Authors: Juyi Park, Sang-Bum Lee, Jin-Wook Kim, Ji-Yoon Kim, Jung-Min Kim, Hee-Hwan Park, Jae-Won Seo, Gye-Hyung Kang, Soo-Ho Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents a portable robot that is to use for welding process in shipbuilding yard. It has six degree of freedom and 3kg payload capability. Its weight is 21.5kg so that human workers can carry it to the work place. Its body mainly made of magnesium alloy and aluminum alloy for few parts that require high strength. Since the distance between robot and controller should be 50m at most, the robot controller controls the robot through EtherCAT. RTX and KPA are used for real time EtherCAT control on Windows XP. The performance of the developed robot was satisfactory, in welding of U type cell in shipbuilding yard.

Keywords: Portable welding robot, Shipbuilding, EtherCAT

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119 Advantages of Vibration in the GMAW Process for Improving the Quality and Mechanical Properties

Authors: C. A. C. Castro, D. C. Urashima, E. P. Silva, P. M. L.Silva

Abstract:

Since 1920, the industry has almost completely changed the rivets production techniques for the manufacture of permanent welding join production of structures and manufacture of other products. The welding arc is the process more widely used in industries. This is accomplished by the heat of an electric arc which melts the base metal while the molten metal droplets are transferred through the arc to the welding pool, protected from the atmosphere by a gas curtain. The GMAW (Gas metal arc welding) process is influenced by variables such as: current, polarity, welding speed, electrode: extension, position, moving direction; type of joint, welder's ability, among others. It is remarkable that the knowledge and control of these variables are essential for obtaining satisfactory quality welds, knowing that are interconnected so that changes in one of them requiring changes in one or more of the other to produce the desired results. The optimum values are affected by the type of base metal, the electrode composition, the welding position and the quality requirements. Thus, this paper proposes a new methodology, adding the variable vibration through a mechanism developed for GMAW welding, in order to improve the mechanical and metallurgical properties which does not affect the ability of the welder and enables repeatability of the welds made. For confirmation metallographic analysis and mechanical tests were made.

Keywords: HAZ, GMAW, vibration, welding.

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118 Transient Three Dimensional FE Modeling for Thermal Analysis of Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Aluminum Alloy

Authors: N. Karunakaran, V. Balasubramanian

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of a study aimed at establishing the temperature distribution during the welding of aluminum alloy plates by Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (PCGTAW) and Constant Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (CCGTAW) processes. Pulsing of the GTA welding current influences the dimensions and solidification rate of the fused zone, it also reduces the weld pool volume hence a narrower bead. In this investigation, the base material considered was aluminum alloy AA 6351 T6, which is finding use in aircraft, automobile and high-speed train components. A finite element analysis was carried out using ANSYS, and the results of the FEA were compared with the experimental results. It is evident from the study that the finite element analysis using ANSYS can be effectively used to model PCGTAW process for finding temperature distribution.

Keywords: Gas tungsten arc welding, pulsed current, finite element analysis, thermal analysis, aluminum alloy.

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117 Optimization of Assembly and Welding of Complex 3D Structures on the Base of Modeling with Use of Finite Elements Method

Authors: M. N. Zelenin, V. S. Mikhailov, R. P. Zhivotovsky

Abstract:

It is known that residual welding deformations give negative effect to processability and operational quality of welded structures, complicating their assembly and reducing strength. Therefore, selection of optimal technology, ensuring minimum welding deformations, is one of the main goals in developing a technology for manufacturing of welded structures. Through years, JSC SSTC has been developing a theory for estimation of welding deformations and practical activities for reducing and compensating such deformations during welding process. During long time a methodology was used, based on analytic dependence. This methodology allowed defining volumetric changes of metal due to welding heating and subsequent cooling. However, dependences for definition of structures deformations, arising as a result of volumetric changes of metal in the weld area, allowed performing calculations only for simple structures, such as units, flat sections and sections with small curvature. In case of complex 3D structures, estimations on the base of analytic dependences gave significant errors. To eliminate this shortage, it was suggested to use finite elements method for resolving of deformation problem. Here, one shall first calculate volumes of longitudinal and transversal shortenings of welding joints using method of analytic dependences and further, with obtained shortenings, calculate forces, which action is equivalent to the action of active welding stresses. Further, a finiteelements model of the structure is developed and equivalent forces are added to this model. Having results of calculations, an optimal sequence of assembly and welding is selected and special measures to reduce and compensate welding deformations are developed and taken.

Keywords: Finite elements method, modeling, expected welding deformations, welding, assembling.

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116 Comparative Studies on Dissimilar Metals thin Sheets Using Laser Beam Welding - A Review

Authors: K. Kalaiselvan, A. Elango, N. M. Nagarajan

Abstract:

Laser beam welding for the dissimilar Titanium and Aluminium thin sheets is an emerging area which is having wider applications in aerospace, aircraft, automotive, electronics and in other industries due to its high speed, non-contact, precision with low heat effects, least welding distortion, low labor costs and convenient operation. Laser beam welding of dissimilar metal combinations are increasingly demanded due to high energy densities with small fusion and heat affected zones. Furthermore, no filler or electrode material is required and contamination of weld is also very small. The present study is to reviews the influence of different parameters like laser power, welding speed, power density, beam diameter, focusing distance and type of shielding gas on the mechanical properties of dissimilar metal combinations like SS/Al, Cu/Al and Ti/Al focusing on aluminum to other materials. Research findings reveal that Ti/Al combination gives better metallurgical and mechanical properties than other combinations such as SS/Al and Cu/Al.

Keywords: Laser Beam Welding, dissimilar metals, SS/Al, Cu/Al and Ti/Al sheets.

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115 Multipurpose Three Dimensional Finite Element Procedure for Thermal Analysis in Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of AZ 31B Magnesium Alloy Sheets

Authors: N.Karunakaran, V.Balasubramanian

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of a study aimed at establishing the temperature distribution during the welding of magnesium alloy sheets by Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (PCGTAW) and Constant Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (CCGTAW) processes. Pulsing of the GTAW welding current influences the dimensions and solidification rate of the fused zone, it also reduces the weld pool volume hence a narrower bead. In this investigation, the base material considered was 2mm thin AZ 31 B magnesium alloy, which is finding use in aircraft, automobile and high-speed train components. A finite element analysis was carried out using ANSYS, and the results of the FEA were compared with the experimental results. It is evident from this study that the finite element analysis using ANSYS can be effectively used to model PCGTAW process for finding temperature distribution.

Keywords: gas tungsten arc welding, pulsed current, finiteelement analysis, thermal analysis, magnesium alloy.

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114 A Review on Process Parameters of Ti/Al Dissimilar Joint Using Laser Beam Welding

Authors: K. Kalaiselvan, K. Sekar, S. Elavarasi

Abstract:

The use of laser beam welding for joining titanium and aluminum offers more advantages compared with conventional joining processes. Dissimilar metal combination is very much needed for aircraft structural industries and research activities. The quality of a weld joint is directly influenced by the welding input parameters. The common problem that is faced by the manufactures is the control of the process parameters to obtain a good weld joint with minimal detrimental. To overcome this issue, various parameters can be preferred to obtain quality of weld joint. In this present study an overall literature review on processing parameters such as offset distance, welding speed, laser power, shielding gas and filler metals are discussed with the effects on quality weldment. Additionally, mechanical properties of welds joint are discussed. The aim of the report is to review the recent progress in the welding of dissimilar titanium (Ti) and aluminum (Al) alloys to provide a basis for follow up research.

Keywords: Laser beam welding, titanium, aluminum, process parameters.

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113 Artificial Neural Network Application on Ti/Al Joint Using Laser Beam Welding – A Review

Authors: K. Kalaiselvan, A. Elango, N. M. Nagarajan

Abstract:

Today automobile and aerospace industries realise Laser Beam Welding for a clean and non contact source of heating and fusion for joining of sheets. The welding performance is mainly based on by the laser welding parameters. Some concepts related to Artificial Neural Networks and how can be applied to model weld bead geometry and mechanical properties in terms of equipment parameters are reported in order to evaluate the accuracy and compare it with traditional modeling schemes. This review reveals the output features of Titanium and Aluminium weld bead geometry and mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation and reduction of the area of the weld using Artificial Neural Network.

Keywords: Laser Beam Welding (LBW), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Optimization, Titanium and Aluminium sheets.

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112 Micro-Study of Dissimilar Welded Materials

Authors: E. M. Anawa, A. G. Olabi

Abstract:

The dissimilar joint between aluminum/titanium alloys (Al 6082 and Ti G2) were successfully achieved by CO2 laser welding with a single pass and without filler material using the overlap joint design. Laser welding parameters ranges combinations were experimentally determined using Taguchi approach with the objective of producing welded joint with acceptable welding profile and high quality of mechanical properties. In this study a joining of dissimilar Al 6082 / Ti G2 was resulted in three distinct regions fusion area in the weldment. These regions are studied in terms of its microstructural characteristics and microhardness which are directly affecting the welding quality. The weld metal was mainly composed of martensite alpha prime. In two different metals in the two different sides of joint HAZ, grain growth was detected. The microhardness of the joint distribution also has shown microhardness increasing in the HAZ of two base metals and a varying microhardness in fusion zone.

Keywords: Micro-hardness, Microstructure, laser welding, dissimilar jointed materials.

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