Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 313

Search results for: Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator

313 Expression of Tissue Plasminogen Activator in Transgenic Tobacco Plants by Signal Peptides Targeting for Delivery to Apoplast, Endoplasmic Reticulum and Cytosol Spaces

Authors: Sadegh Lotfieblisofla, Arash Khodabakhshi

Abstract:

Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) as a serine protease plays an important role in the fibrinolytic system and the dissolution of fibrin clots in human body. The production of this drug in plants such as tobacco could reduce its production costs. In this study, expression of tPA gene and protein targeting to different plant cell compartments, using various signal peptides has been investigated. For high level of expression, Kozak sequence was used after CaMV35S in the beginning of the gene. In order to design the final construction, Extensin, KDEL (amino acid sequence including Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) and SP (γ-zein signal peptide coding sequence) were used as leader signals to conduct this protein into apoplast, endoplasmic reticulum and cytosol spaces, respectively. Cloned human tPA gene under the CaMV (Cauliflower mosaic virus) 35S promoter and NOS (Nopaline Synthase) terminator into pBI121 plasmid was transferred into tobacco explants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. The presence and copy number of genes in transgenic tobacco was proved by Southern blotting. Enzymatic activity of the rt-PA protein in transgenic plants compared to non-transgenic plants was confirmed by Zymography assay. The presence and amount of rt-PA recombinant protein in plants was estimated by ELISA analysis on crude protein extract of transgenic tobacco using a specific antibody. The yield of recombinant tPA in transgenic tobacco for SP, KDEL, Extensin signals were counted 0.50, 0.68, 0.69 microgram per milligram of total soluble proteins.

Keywords: Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, plant cell comportment, leader signals, transgenic tobacco.

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312 Construction of Recombinant E.coli Expressing Fusion Protein to Produce 1,3-Propanediol

Authors: Rosarin Rujananon, Poonsuk Prasertsan, Amornrat Phongdara, Tanate Panrat, Jibin Sun, Sugima Rappert, An-Ping Zeng

Abstract:

In this study, a synthetic pathway was created by assembling genes from Clostridium butyricum and Escherichia coli in different combinations. Among the genes were dhaB1 and dhaB2 from C. butyricum VPI1718 coding for glycerol dehydratase (GDHt) and its activator (GDHtAc), respectively, involved in the conversion of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA). The yqhD gene from E.coli BL21 was also included which codes for an NADPHdependent 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase isoenzyme (PDORI) reducing 3-HPA to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD). Molecular modeling analysis indicated that the conformation of fusion protein of YQHD and DHAB1 was favorable for direct molecular channeling of the intermediate 3-HPA. According to the simulation results, the yqhD and dhaB1 gene were assembled in the upstream of dhaB2 to express a fusion protein, yielding the recombinant strain E. coliBL21 (DE3)//pET22b+::yqhD-dhaB1_dhaB2 (strain BP41Y3). Strain BP41Y3 gave 10-fold higher 1,3-PD concentration than E. coliBL21 (DE3)//pET22b+::yqhD-dhaB1_dhaB2 (strain BP31Y2) expressing the recombinant enzymes simultaneously but in a non-fusion mode. This is the first report using a gene fusion approach to enhance the biological conversion of glycerol to the value added compound 1,3- PD.

Keywords: Recombinant E.coli, 1, 3-propanediol, glycerol, fusion protein.

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311 Mineral Activator and Physical Characteristics of Slag Cement at Anhydrous and Hydrated States

Authors: A. Naceri, M. S. Bouglada, P. Grosseau

Abstract:

The setting agent Ca(OH)2 for activation of slag cement is used in the proportions of 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% by various methods (substitution and addition by mass of slag cement). The physical properties of slag cement activated by the calcium hydroxide at anhydrous and hydrated states (fineness, particle size distribution, consistency of the cement pastes and setting times) were studied. The activation method by the mineral activator of slag cement (latent hydraulicity) accelerates the hydration process and reduces the setting times of the cement activated.

Keywords: Mineral activator, slag cement, Anhydrous and hydrated states, physical characteristics.

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310 Cellulolytic Microbial Activator Influence on Decomposition of Rubber Factory Waste Composting

Authors: Thaniya Kaosol, Sirinthrar Wandee

Abstract:

In this research, an aerobic composting method is studied to reuse organic waste from rubber factory waste as soil fertilizer and to study the effect of cellulolytic microbial activator (CMA) as the activator in the rubber factory waste composting. The performance of the composting process was monitored as a function of carbon and organic matter decomposition rate, temperature and moisture content. The results indicate that the rubber factory waste is best composted with water hyacinth and sludge than composted alone. In addition, the CMA is more affective when mixed with the rubber factory waste, water hyacinth and sludge since a good fertilizer is achieved. When adding CMA into the rubber factory waste composted alone, the finished product does not achieve a standard of fertilizer, especially the C/N ratio. Finally, the finished products of composting rubber factory waste and water hyacinth and sludge (both CMA and without CMA), can be an environmental friendly alternative to solve the disposal problems of rubber factory waste. Since the C/N ratio, pH, moisture content, temperature, and nutrients of the finished products are acceptable for agriculture use.

Keywords: composting, rubber waste, C/N ratio, sludge, cellulolytic microbial activator

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309 Cloning of a β-Glucosidase Gene (BGL1) from Traditional Starter Yeast Saccharomycopsis fibuligera BMQ 908 and Expression in Pichia pastoris

Authors: Le Thuy Mai, Vu Nguyen Thanh

Abstract:

β-Glucosidase is an important enzyme for production of ethanol from lignocellulose. With hydrolytic activity on cellooligosaccharides, especially cellobiose, β-glucosidase removes product inhibitory effect on cellulases and forms fermentable sugars. In this study, β-glucosidase encoding gene (BGL1) from traditional starter yeast Saccharomycosis fibuligera BMQ908 was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. BGL1 of S. fibuligera BMQ 908 shared 98% nucleotide homology with the closest GenBank sequence (M22475) but identity in amino-acid sequences of catalytic domains. Recombinant plasmid pPICZαA/BGL1 containing the sequence encoding BGL1 mature protein and α-factor secretion signal was constructed and transformed into methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris by electroporation. The recombinant strain produced single extracellular protein with molecular weight of 120 kDa and cellobiase activity of 60 IU/ml. The optimum pH of the recombinant β-glucosidase was 5.0 and the optimum temperature was 50°C.

Keywords: β-Glucosidase, Pichia pastoris, Saccharomycopsisfibuligera, recombinant enzyme.

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308 Production of H5N1 Hemagglutinin inTrichoplusia ni Larvae by a Novel Bi-cistronic Baculovirus Expression Vector

Authors: Tzyy Rong Jinn, Nguyen Tiep Khac, Tzong Yuan Wu

Abstract:

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have created demand for a cost-effective vaccine to prevent a pandemic of the disease. Here, we report that Trichoplusia ni (T. ni) larvae can act as a cost-effective bioreactor to produce recombinant HA5 (rH5HA) proteins as an potential effective vaccine for chickens. To facilitate the recombinant virus identification, virus titer determination and access the infected larvae, we employed the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) derived from Perina nuda virus (PnV, belongs to insect picorna like Iflavirus genus) to construct a bi-cistronic baculovirus expression vector that can express the rH5HA protein and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) simultaneously. Western blot analysis revealed that the 70 kDa rH5HA protein and partially cleaved products (40 kDa H5HA1) were generated in T. ni larvae infected with recombinant baculovirus carrying the H5HA gene. These data suggest that the baculovirus-larvae recombinant protein expression system could be a cost-effective platform for H5N1 vaccine production.

Keywords: Avian Influenza, baculovirus, hemagglutinin, Trichoplusia ni larvae

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307 Development of a Non-invasive System to Measure the Thickness of the Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Layer for Human

Authors: Hyuck Ki Hong, Young Chang Jo, Yeon Shik Choi, Beom Joon Kim, Hyo Derk Park

Abstract:

To measure the thickness of the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, a non-invasive optical measurement system (λ=1300 nm) is introduced. Animal and human subjects are used for the experiments. The results of human subjects are compared with the data of ultrasound device measurements, and a high correlation (r=0.94 for n=11) is observed. There are two modes in the corresponding signals measured by the optical system, which can be explained by two-layered and three-layered tissue models. If the target tissue is thinner than the critical thickness, detected data using diffuse reflectance method follow the three-layered tissue model, so the data increase as the thickness increases. On the other hand, if the target tissue is thicker than the critical thickness, the data follow the two-layered tissue model, so they decrease as the thickness increases.

Keywords: Subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, non-invasive measurement system, two-layered and three-layered tissue models.

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306 Design and Fabrication of a Scaffold with Appropriate Features for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

Authors: S. S. Salehi, A. Shamloo

Abstract:

Poor ability of cartilage tissue when experiencing a damage leads scientists to use tissue engineering as a reliable and effective method for regenerating or replacing damaged tissues. An artificial tissue should have some features such as biocompatibility, biodegradation and, enough mechanical properties like the original tissue. In this work, a composite hydrogel is prepared by using natural and synthetic materials that has high porosity. Mechanical properties of different combinations of polymers such as modulus of elasticity were tested, and a hydrogel with good mechanical properties was selected. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells were also seeded into the pores of the sponge, and the results showed the adhesion and proliferation of cells within the hydrogel after one month. In comparison with previous works, this study offers a new and efficient procedure for the fabrication of cartilage like tissue and further cartilage repair.

Keywords: Cartilage tissue engineering, hydrogel, mechanical strength, mesenchymal stem cell.

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305 Differentiation of Cancerous Prostate tissue from Non-Cancerous Prostate tissue by using Elastic Light Single-Scattering Spectroscopy: A Feasibility Study

Authors: T. Denkçeken, M. Canpolat, Đ. Bassorgun, S. Yücel, M.A. Çiftçioğlu, M. Baykara Murat Canpolat , Tuba Denkçeken , Đbrahim Bassorgun , Selçuk Yücel , M. Akif Çiftçioğlu , Mehmet Baykara

Abstract:

Elastic light single-scattering spectroscopy system with a single optical fiber probe was employed to differentiate cancerous prostate tissue from non-cancerous prostate tissue ex-vivo just after radical prostatectomy. First, ELSSS spectra were acquired from cancerous prostate tissue to define its spectral features. Then, spectra were acquired from normal prostate tissue to define difference in spectral features between the cancerous and normal prostate tissues. Of the total 66 tissue samples were evaluated from nine patients by ELSSS system. Comparing of histopathology results and ELSSS measurements revealed that sign of the spectral slopes of cancerous prostate tissue is negative and non-cancerous tissue is positive in the wavelength range from 450 to 750 nm. Based on the correlation between histopathology results and sign of the spectral slopes, ELSSS system differentiates cancerous prostate tissue from non- cancerous with a sensitivity of 0.95 and a specificity of 0.94.

Keywords: Diagnosis, prostatic neoplasm, prostatectomy, spectrum analysis

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304 Kinetics Study for the Recombinant Cellulosome to the Degradation of Chlorella Cell Residuals

Authors: C.-C. Lin, S.-C. Kan, C.-W. Yeh, C.-I Chen, C.-J. Shieh, Y.-C. Liu

Abstract:

In this study, lipid-deprived residuals of microalgae were hydrolyzed for the production of reducing sugars by using the recombinant Bacillus cellulosome, carrying eight genes from the Clostridium thermocellum ATCC27405. The obtained cellulosome was found to exist mostly in the broth supernatant with a cellulosome activity of 2.4 U/mL. Furthermore, the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and Vmax of cellulosome were found to be 14.832 g/L and 3.522 U/mL. The activation energy of the cellulosome to hydrolyze microalgae LDRs was calculated as 32.804 kJ/mol.

Keywords: Lipid-deprived residuals of microalgae, cellulosome, cellulose, reducing sugars, kinetics.

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303 Human Elastin-derived Biomimetic Coating Surface to Support Cell Growth

Authors: Antonella Bandiera

Abstract:

A new sythetic gene coding for a Human Elastin-Like Polypeptide was constructed and expressed. The recombinant product was tested as coating agent to realize a surface suitable for cell growth. Coatings showed peculiar features and different human cell lines were seeded and cultured. All cell lines tested showed to adhere and proliferate on this substrate that has been shown also to exert a specific effect on cells, depending on cell type.

Keywords: elastin, recombinant protein, coating, cell adhesion.

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302 Attenuation in Transferred RF Power to a Biomedical Implant due to the Absorption of Biological Tissue

Authors: Batel Noureddine, Mehenni Mohamed, Kouadik Smain

Abstract:

In a transcutanious inductive coupling of a biomedical implant, a new formula is given for the study of the Radio Frequency power attenuation by the biological tissue. The loss of the signal power is related to its interaction with the biological tissue and the composition of this one. A confrontation with the practical measurements done with a synthetic muscle into a Faraday cage, allowed a checking of the obtained theoretical results. The supply/data transfer systems used in the case of biomedical implants, can be well dimensioned by taking in account this type of power attenuation.

Keywords: Biological tissue, coupled coils, implanted device, power attenuation.

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301 Numerical Modelling of Effective Diffusivity in Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Ayesha Sohail, Khadija Maqbool, Anila Asif, Haroon Ahmad

Abstract:

These days, the field of tissue engineering is getting serious attention due to its usefulness. Bone tissue engineering helps to address and sort-out the critical sized and non-healing orthopedic problems by the creation of manmade bone tissue. We will design and validate an efficient numerical model, which will simulate the effective diffusivity in bone tissue engineering. Our numerical model will be based on the finite element analysis of the diffusion-reaction equations. It will have the ability to optimize the diffusivity, even at multi-scale, with the variation of time. It will also have a special feature “parametric sweep”, with which we will be able to predict the oxygen, glucose and cell density dynamics, more accurately. We will fix these problems by modifying the governing equations, by selecting appropriate spatio-temporal finite element schemes and by transient analysis.

Keywords: Bone tissue engineering, Transient Analysis, Scaffolds, fabrication techniques.

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300 Multilayer Soft Tissue Continuum Model: Towards Realistic Simulation of Facial Expressions

Authors: A. Hung, K. Mithraratne, M. Sagar, P. Hunter

Abstract:

A biophysically based multilayer continuum model of the facial soft tissue composite has been developed for simulating wrinkle formation. The deformed state of the soft tissue block was determined by solving large deformation mechanics equations using the Galerkin finite element method. The proposed soft tissue model is composed of four layers with distinct mechanical properties. These include stratum corneum, epidermal-dermal layer (living epidermis and dermis), subcutaneous tissue and the underlying muscle. All the layers were treated as non-linear, isotropic Mooney Rivlin materials. Contraction of muscle fibres was approximated using a steady-state relationship between the fibre extension ratio, intracellular calcium concentration and active stress in the fibre direction. Several variations of the model parameters (stiffness and thickness of epidermal-dermal layer, thickness of subcutaneous tissue layer) have been considered.

Keywords: Bio-physically based, soft tissue mechanics, facialtissue composite, wrinkling.

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299 Isolation and Identification Fibrinolytic Protease Endophytic Fungi from Hibiscus Leaves in Shah Alam

Authors: Mohd Sidek Ahmad, Zainon Mohd Noor, Zaidah Zainal Ariffin

Abstract:

Fibrin degradation is an important part in prevention or treatment of intravascular thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases. Plasmin like fibrinolytic enzymes has given new hope to patient with cardiovascular diseases by treating fibrin aggregation related diseases with traditional plasminogen activator which have many side effects. Various researches involving wide range of sources for production of fibrinolytic proteases, from bacteria, fungi, insects and fermented foods. But few have looked into endophytic fungi as a potential source. Sixteen (16) endophytic fungi were isolated from Hibiscus sp. leaves from six different locations in Shah Alam, Selangor. Only two endophytic fungi, FH3 and S13 showed positive fibrinolytic protease activities. FH3 produced 5.78cm and S13 produced 4.48cm on Skim Milk Agar after 4 days of incubation at 27°C. Fibrinolytic activity was observed; 3.87cm and 1.82cm diameter clear zone on fibrin plate of FH3 and S13 respectively. 18srRNA was done for identification of the isolated fungi with positive fibrinolytic protease. S13 had the highest similarity (100%) to that of Penicillium citrinum strain TG2 and FH3 had the highest similarity (99%) to that of Fusarium sp. FW2PhC1, Fusarium sp. 13002, Fusarium sp. 08006, Fusarium equiseti strain Salicorn 8 and Fungal sp. FCASAn-2. Media composition variation showed the effects of carbon nitrogen on protein concentration, where the decrement of 50% of media composition caused drastic decrease in protease of FH3 from 1.081 to 0.056 and also S13 from 2.946 to 0.198.

Keywords: Isolation, identification, fibrinolytic protease, endophytic fungi, Hibiscus leaves.

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298 The Construction of a Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacterium Expressing Acid-Resistant Phytase Enzyme

Authors: R. Majidzadeh Heravi, M. Sankian, H. Kermanshahi, M. R. Nassiri, A. Heravi Moussavi, S. A. Lari, A. R. Varasteh

Abstract:

The use of probiotics engineered to express specific enzymes has been the subject of considerable attention in poultry industry because of increased nutrient availability and reduced cost of enzyme supplementation. Phytase enzyme is commonly added to poultry feed to improve digestibility and availability of phosphorus from plant sources. To construct a probiotic with potential of phytate degradation, phytase gene (appA) from E. coli was cloned and transformed into two probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactococcus lactis. L. salivarous showed plasmid instability, unable to express the gene. The expression of appA gene in L. lactis was analyzed by detecting specific RNA and zymography assay. Phytase enzyme was isolated from cellular extracts of recombinant L. lactis, showing a 46 kDa band upon the SDS-PAGE analysis. Zymogram also confirmed the phytase activity of the 46 kDa band corresponding to the enzyme. An enzyme activity of 4.9U/ml was obtained in cell extracts of L. lactis. The growth of native and recombinant L. lactis was similar in the presence of two concentrations of ox bile.

Keywords: Lactobacillus salivarus, Lactococcus lactis, recombinant, phytase, poultry.

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297 Effect of Recombinant Human Follicle Stimulating Hormone on Meiotic Competence of In Vitro Grown Nili Ravi Buffalo Oocytes

Authors: Muhammad Ijaz Khan, Samina Jalali, Beenish Shahid, S. A. Shami, Muhammad Ikramullah

Abstract:

In the present study, the response of Nili Ravi buffalo oocytes to recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (rhFSH) (Organon) on meiotic maturation in vitro was examined. Oocytes were matured in vitro in medium containing either 0 or 0.05 IU/ ml rhFSH and the stage of nuclear maturation recorded after 24 hours. The percentage of oocytes in the control group undergoing germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) observed after 24 hours of culture was 29 % whereas as in rhFSH group the percentage was 10 % were at this stage (P< 0.001).Thus in the presence of rhFSH, a significantly greater number of oocytes had progressed to the more advanced stages of nuclear maturation. Indeed, the maturation of GV (Germinal Vesicle) stage oocytes to the metaphase II (M II) stage after 24 hours was significantly (P< 0.0001) increased by the addition of rhFSH (82 % VS 47 %). The percentage of degenerated oocytes after 24 hours of culture was 24 % in control group, whereas in rhFSH group the percentage was 8 % after 24 hours. Degeneration of the oocytes after 24 hours was not significantly (P = 0. 9361) decreased.

Keywords: Buffalo, in vitro, oocytes, recombinant FSH.

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296 Conformation Prediction of Human Plasmin and Docking on Gold Nanoparticle

Authors: Wen-Shyong Tzou, Chih-Ching Huang, Chin-Hwa Hu, Ying-Tsang Lo, Tun-Wen Pai, Chia-Yin Chiang, Chung-Hao Li, Hong-Jyuan Jian

Abstract:

Plasmin plays an important role in the human circulatory system owing to its catalytic ability of fibrinolysis. The immediate injection of plasmin in patients of strokes has intrigued many scientists to design vectors that can transport plasmin to the desired location in human body. Here we predict the structure of human plasmin and investigate the interaction of plasmin with the gold-nanoparticle. Because the crystal structure of plasminogen has been solved, we deleted N-terminal domain (Pan-apple domain) of plasminogen and generate a mimic of the active form of this enzyme (plasmin). We conducted a simulated annealing process on plasmin and discovered a very large conformation occurs. Kringle domains 1, 4 and 5 had been observed to leave its original location relative to the main body of the enzyme and the original doughnut shape of this enzyme has been transformed to a V-shaped by opening its two arms. This observation of conformational change is consistent with the experimental results of neutron scattering and centrifugation. We subsequently docked the plasmin on the simulated gold surface to predict their interaction. The V-shaped plasmin could utilize its Kringle domain and catalytic domain to contact the gold surface. Our findings not only reveal the flexibility of plasmin structure but also provide a guide for the design of a plasmin-gold nanoparticle.

Keywords: Docking, gold nanoparticle, molecular simulation, plasmin.

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295 Fabrication of Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Using Rapid Prototyping Techniques

Authors: Osama A. Abdelaal, Saied M. Darwish

Abstract:

Rapid prototyping (RP) techniques are a group of advanced manufacturing processes that can produce custom made objects directly from computer data such as Computer Aided Design (CAD), Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data. Using RP fabrication techniques, constructs with controllable and complex internal architecture with appropriate mechanical properties can be achieved. One of the attractive and promising utilization of RP techniques is related to tissue engineering (TE) scaffold fabrication. Tissue engineering scaffold is a 3D construction that acts as a template for tissue regeneration. Although several conventional techniques such as solvent casting and gas forming are utilized in scaffold fabrication; these processes show poor interconnectivity and uncontrollable porosity of the produced scaffolds. So, RP techniques become the best alternative fabrication methods of TE scaffolds. This paper reviews the current state of the art in the area of tissue engineering scaffolds fabrication using advanced RP processes, as well as the current limitations and future trends in scaffold fabrication RP techniques.

Keywords: Biomanufacturing, Rapid prototyping, Solid FreeForm Fabrication, Scaffold Fabrication, Tissue Engineering

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294 Measurement of Rheologic Properties of Soft Tissue (Muscle Tissue) by Myotonometer

Authors: Petr Šifta, Václav Bittner, Martin Kysela, Matěj Kolář

Abstract:

The purpose of the research described in this work is to answer how to measure the rheologic (viscoelastic) properties tendo–deformational characteristics of soft tissue. The method would also resemble muscle palpation examination as it is known in clinical practice. For this purpose, an instrument with the working name “myotonometer” has been used. At present, there is lack of objective methods for assessing the muscle tone by viscous and elastic properties of soft tissue. That is why we decided to focus on creating or finding quantitative and qualitative methodology capable to specify muscle tone.

Keywords: Rheologicproperties, tendo–deformational characteristics, viscosity, elasticity, hypertonus, spasticity.

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293 Investigation of Genetic Variation for Agronomic Traits among the Recombinant Inbred Lines of Wheat from the Norstar × Zagross Cross under Water Stress Condition

Authors: Mohammad Reza Farzami Pour

Abstract:

Determination of genetic variation is useful for plant breeding and hence production of more efficient plant species under different conditions, like drought stress. In this study a sample of 28 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of wheat developed from the cross of Norstar and Zagross varieties, together with their parents, were evaluated for two years (2010-2012) under normal and water stress conditions using split plot design with three replications. Main plots included two irrigation treatments of 70 and 140 mm evaporation from Class A pan and sub-plots consisted of 30 genotypes. The effect of genotypes and interaction of genotypes with years and water regimes were significant for all characters. Significant genotypic effect implies the existence of genetic variation among the lines under study. Heritability estimates were high for 1000 grain weight (0.87). Biomass and grain yield showed the lowest heritability values (0.42 and 0.50, respectively). Highest genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation (GCV and PCV) belonged to harvest index. Moderate genetic advance for most of the traits suggested the feasibility of selection among the RILs under investigation. Some RILs were higher yielding than either parent at both environments.

Keywords: Wheat, genetic gain, heritability, recombinant inbred lines.

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292 The Application of FSI Techniques in Modeling of Realist Pulmonary Systems

Authors: Abdurrahim Bolukbasi, Hassan Athari, Dogan Ciloglu

Abstract:

The modeling lung respiratory system that has complex anatomy and biophysics presents several challenges including tissue-driven flow patterns and wall motion. Also, the pulmonary lung system because of that they stretch and recoil with each breath, has not static walls and structures. The direct relationship between air flow and tissue motion in the lung structures naturally prefers an FSI simulation technique. Therefore, in order to toward the realistic simulation of pulmonary breathing mechanics the development of a coupled FSI computational model is an important step. A simple but physiologically relevant three-dimensional deep long geometry is designed and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) coupling technique is utilized for simulating the deformation of the lung parenchyma tissue that produces airflow fields. The real understanding of respiratory tissue system as a complex phenomenon have been investigated with respect to respiratory patterns, fluid dynamics and tissue viscoelasticity and tidal breathing period. 

Keywords: Lung deformation and mechanics, tissue mechanics, viscoelasticity, fluid-structure interactions, ANSYS.

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291 Synchrotron X-ray based Investigation of Fe and Zn Atoms in Tissue Samples at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Sunil Dehipawala, Todd Holden, E. Cheung, Robert Regan, P. Schneider, G. Tremberger Jr, D. Lieberman, T. Cheung

Abstract:

The zinc and iron environments in different growth stages have been studied with EXAFS and XANES with Brookhaven Synchrotron Light Source. Tissue samples included meat, organ, vegetable, leaf, and yeast. The project studied the EXAFS and XANES of tissue samples using Zn and Fe K-edges. Duck embryo samples show that brain and intestine would contain shorter EXFAS determined Zn-N/O bond; as with the cases of fresh yeast versus reconstituted live yeast and green leaf versus yellow leaf. The XANES Fourier transform characteristic-length would be useful as a functionality index for selected types of tissue samples in various physical states. The extension to the development of functional synchrotron imaging for tissue engineering application based on spectroscopic technique is discussed.

Keywords: EXAFS, Fourier Transform, metalloproteins, XANES

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290 Determination of Electromagnetic Properties of Human Tissues

Authors: Iliana Marinova, Valentin Mateev

Abstract:

In this paper a computer system for electromagnetic properties measurements is designed. The system employs Agilent 4294A precision impedance analyzer to measure the amplitude and the phase of a signal applied over a tested biological tissue sample. Measured by the developed computer system data could be used for tissue characterization in wide frequency range from 40Hz to 110MHz. The computer system can interface with output devices acquiring flexible testing process.

Keywords: Electromagnetic properties, human tissue, bioimpedance, measurement system.

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289 Analysis of the Internal Mechanical Conditions in the Lower Limb Due to External Loads

Authors: Kent Salomonsson, Xuefang Zhao, Sara Kallin

Abstract:

Human soft tissue is loaded and deformed by any activity, an effect known as a stress-strain relationship, and is often described by a load and tissue elongation curve. Several advances have been made in the fields of biology and mechanics of soft human tissue. However, there is limited information available on in vivo tissue mechanical characteristics and behavior. Confident mechanical properties of human soft tissue cannot be extrapolated from e.g. animal testing. Thus, there is need for non invasive methods to analyze mechanical characteristics of soft human tissue. In the present study, the internal mechanical conditions of the lower limb, which is subject to an external load, is studied by use of the finite element method. A detailed finite element model of the lower limb is made possible by use of MRI scans. Skin, fat, bones, fascia and muscles are represented separately and the material properties for them are obtained from literature. Previous studies have been shown to address macroscopic deformation features, e.g. indentation depth, to a large extent. However, the detail in which the internal anatomical features have been modeled does not reveal the critical internal strains that may induce hypoxia and/or eventual tissue damage. The results of the present study reveals that lumped material models, i.e. averaging of the material properties for the different constituents, does not capture regions of critical strains in contrast to more detailed models.

Keywords: FEM, human soft tissue, indentation, properties.

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288 Low Cost Technique for Measuring Luminance in Biological Systems

Authors: N. Chetty, K. Singh

Abstract:

In this work, the relationship between the melanin content in a tissue and subsequent absorption of light through that tissue was determined using a digital camera. This technique proved to be simple, cost effective, efficient and reliable. Tissue phantom samples were created using milk and soy sauce to simulate the optical properties of melanin content in human tissue. Increasing the concentration of soy sauce in the milk correlated to an increase in melanin content of an individual. Two methods were employed to measure the light transmitted through the sample. The first was direct measurement of the transmitted intensity using a conventional lux meter. The second method involved correctly calibrating an ordinary digital camera and using image analysis software to calculate the transmitted intensity through the phantom. The results from these methods were then graphically compared to the theoretical relationship between the intensity of transmitted light and the concentration of absorbers in the sample. Conclusions were then drawn about the effectiveness and efficiency of these low cost methods.

Keywords: Tissue phantoms, scattering coefficient, albedo, low-cost method.

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287 Muscularity and Leg Tissue Composition of Lambs Fed with Hydrolyzed Sugarcane

Authors: V. Endo, A.G. Silva Sobrinho, N.L.L. Lima, G.M. Manzi, L.G.A. Cirne, V.T. Santana, F.A. Almeida

Abstract:

This study aimed to evaluate the muscularity and tissue composition of 24 legs of Ile de France lambs. They were fed with diets containing “in nature" or hydrolyzed sugarcane with 0.6% of calcium oxide in aerobic and anaerobic environments. Animals entered the trial at 15 and were slaughtered at 32 kg of body weight. The leg tissue composition, as well as muscularity (0.47), muscle:bone (6.66) and muscle:fat (4.25) were not affected (P>0.05) by treatments. The proportions found were: 67.62% for muscle, 17.52% for bone and 10.15% for fat. In relation to lambs fed with “in nature" sugarcane, hydrolyzed sugarcane with calcium oxide in aerobic and anaerobic environments did not affect muscularity and leg tissue composition of lambs.

Keywords: calcium oxide, feedlot, Saccharum officinarum

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286 Ultrasound Therapy: Amplitude Modulation Technique for Tissue Ablation by Acoustic Cavitation

Authors: Fares A. Mayia, Mahmoud A. Yamany, Mushabbab A. Asiri

Abstract:

In recent years, non-invasive Focused Ultrasound (FU) has been utilized for generating bubbles (cavities) to ablate target tissue by mechanical fractionation. Intensities >10 kW/cm2 are required to generate the inertial cavities. The generation, rapid growth, and collapse of these inertial cavities cause tissue fractionation and the process is called Histotripsy. The ability to fractionate tissue from outside the body has many clinical applications including the destruction of the tumor mass. The process of tissue fractionation leaves a void at the treated site, where all the affected tissue is liquefied to particles at sub-micron size. The liquefied tissue will eventually be absorbed by the body. Histotripsy is a promising non-invasive treatment modality. This paper presents a technique for generating inertial cavities at lower intensities (< 1 kW/cm2). The technique (patent pending) is based on amplitude modulation (AM), whereby a low frequency signal modulates the amplitude of a higher frequency FU wave. Cavitation threshold is lower at low frequencies; the intensity required to generate cavitation in water at 10 kHz is two orders of magnitude lower than the intensity at 1 MHz. The Amplitude Modulation technique can operate in both continuous wave (CW) and pulse wave (PW) modes, and the percentage modulation (modulation index) can be varied from 0 % (thermal effect) to 100 % (cavitation effect), thus allowing a range of ablating effects from Hyperthermia to Histotripsy. Furthermore, changing the frequency of the modulating signal allows controlling the size of the generated cavities. Results from in vitro work demonstrate the efficacy of the new technique in fractionating soft tissue and solid calcium carbonate (Chalk) material. The technique, when combined with MR or Ultrasound imaging, will present a precise treatment modality for ablating diseased tissue without affecting the surrounding healthy tissue.

Keywords: Focused ultrasound therapy, Histotripsy, generation of inertial cavitation, mechanical tissue ablation.

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285 Synchrotron X-Ray Based Investigation of As and Fe Bonding Environment in Collard Green Tissue Samples at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Sunil Dehipawala, Aregama Sirisumana, P. Schneider, G. Tremberger Jr, D. Lieberman, Todd Holden T. Cheung

Abstract:

The arsenic and iron environments in different growth stages have been studied with EXAFS and XANES using Brookhaven Synchrotron Light Source. Collard Greens plants were grown and tissue samples were harvested. The project studied the EXAFS and XANES of tissue samples using As and Fe K-edges. The Fe absorption and the Fourier transform bond length information were used as a control comparison. The Fourier transform of the XAFS data revealed the coexistence of As (III) and As (V) in the As bonding environment inside the studied plant tissue samples, although the soil only had As (III). The data suggests that Collard Greens has a novel pathway to handle arsenic absorption in soil.

Keywords: EXAFS, Fourier Transform, metalloproteins, XANES.

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284 Study of EEGs from Somatosensory Cortex and Alzheimer's Disease Sources

Authors: Md R. Bashar, Yan Li, Peng Wen

Abstract:

This study is to investigate the electroencephalogram (EEG) differences generated from a normal and Alzheimer-s disease (AD) sources. We also investigate the effects of brain tissue distortions due to AD on EEG. We develop a realistic head model from T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using finite element method (FEM) for normal source (somatosensory cortex (SC) in parietal lobe) and AD sources (right amygdala (RA) and left amygdala (LA) in medial temporal lobe). Then, we compare the AD sourced EEGs to the SC sourced EEG for studying the nature of potential changes due to sources and 5% to 20% brain tissue distortions. We find an average of 0.15 magnification errors produced by AD sourced EEGs. Different brain tissue distortion models also generate the maximum 0.07 magnification. EEGs obtained from AD sources and different brain tissue distortion levels vary scalp potentials from normal source, and the electrodes residing in parietal and temporal lobes are more sensitive than other electrodes for AD sourced EEG.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease (AD), brain tissue distortion, electroencephalogram, finite element method.

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