@article{(Open Science Index):https://publications.waset.org/pdf/9692,
	  title     = {Multilayer Soft Tissue Continuum Model: Towards Realistic Simulation of Facial Expressions},
	  author    = {A. Hung and  K. Mithraratne and  M. Sagar and  P. Hunter},
	  country	= {},
	  institution	= {},
	  abstract     = {A biophysically based multilayer continuum model of the facial soft tissue composite has been developed for simulating wrinkle formation. The deformed state of the soft tissue block was determined by solving large deformation mechanics equations using the Galerkin finite element method. The proposed soft tissue model is composed of four layers with distinct mechanical properties. These include stratum corneum, epidermal-dermal layer (living epidermis and dermis), subcutaneous tissue and the underlying muscle. All the layers were treated as non-linear, isotropic Mooney Rivlin materials. Contraction of muscle fibres was approximated using a steady-state relationship between the fibre extension ratio, intracellular calcium concentration and active stress in the fibre direction. Several variations of the model parameters (stiffness and thickness of epidermal-dermal layer, thickness of subcutaneous tissue layer) have been considered.
},
	    journal   = {International Journal of Biomedical and Biological Engineering},
	  volume    = {3},
	  number    = {6},
	  year      = {2009},
	  pages     = {62 - 66},
	  ee        = {https://publications.waset.org/pdf/9692},
	  url   	= {https://publications.waset.org/vol/30},
	  bibsource = {https://publications.waset.org/},
	  issn  	= {eISSN: 1307-6892},
	  publisher = {World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology},
	  index 	= {Open Science Index 30, 2009},
	}