Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 827

Search results for: Oasis dynamics

827 Deterioration of Groundwater in Arid Environments: What Impact in Oasis Dynamics? Case Study of Tafilalet, Morocco

Authors: W. EL Khoumsi, A. Hammani, M. Kuper, A. Bouaziz

Abstract:

Oases are complex and fragile agro-ecosystems. They have always existed in environments characterized by an arid climate, scarcity of rainfall, high temperatures and high evaporation. These palms have grown up despite the severity of the physical characteristics thanks to the water's existence and irrigation practice. The oases are generally spread along non-perennial rivers (wadis), shallow water table or deep artesian groundwater. However, the sustainability of oasis system is threatened by water scarcity and declining of water table levels particularly in arid areas. Located in the southern east area of Morocco, Tafilalet plain encompasses one of the largest palm groves in the kingdom. In recent years, this area has become increasingly threatened by water shortage and has seen a sharp deterioration under the effect of several combined anthropogenic and climatic factors. The Bayoud disease, successive years of drought, Hassan Addakhil dam construction etc are all factors that have affected both water and phoenicicole heritage of the area. The objective of this study is to understand the interaction between qualitative and quantitative degradation of groundwater resources, and the palm grove dynamics, while reviewing the assumption that groundwater resources contribute in a direct way to the conservation of this oasis agroecosystem. A historical analysis tracing both the oasis dynamics and the groundwater evolution has been established. Data were collected from satellite images, surveys with different actors (farmers, Regional Office for Agricultural Development, Basin agency...). They were complemented by a synthesis of numerous technical reports in the area. The results showed that within 40 years, the thickness of the groundwater table has dropped in 50 %. Along with this, there has been a downsizing of date palm by 50 %. Areas with higher groundwater level were the least affected by the downsizing. So we can say that the shallow groundwater contribute significantly and directly to the water supply of date palm through its root system, and largely ensures the oasis ecosystem sustainability.

Keywords: Oasis dynamics, Arid environments, Groundwater deterioration, Date palm.

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826 Exterior Calculus: Economic Profit Dynamics

Authors: Troy L. Story

Abstract:

A mathematical model for the Dynamics of Economic Profit is constructed by proposing a characteristic differential oneform for this dynamics (analogous to the action in Hamiltonian dynamics). After processing this form with exterior calculus, a pair of characteristic differential equations is generated and solved for the rate of change of profit P as a function of revenue R (t) and cost C (t). By contracting the characteristic differential one-form with a vortex vector, the Lagrangian is obtained for the Dynamics of Economic Profit.

Keywords: Differential geometry, exterior calculus, Hamiltonian geometry, mathematical economics, economic functions, and dynamics

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825 Data Traffic Dynamics and Saturation on a Single Link

Authors: Reginald D. Smith

Abstract:

The dynamics of User Datagram Protocol (UDP) traffic over Ethernet between two computers are analyzed using nonlinear dynamics which shows that there are two clear regimes in the data flow: free flow and saturated. The two most important variables affecting this are the packet size and packet flow rate. However, this transition is due to a transcritical bifurcation rather than phase transition in models such as in vehicle traffic or theorized large-scale computer network congestion. It is hoped this model will help lay the groundwork for further research on the dynamics of networks, especially computer networks.

Keywords: congestion, packet flow, Internet, traffic dynamics, transcritical bifurcation

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824 Simulating Action Potential as a Linear Combination of Gating Dynamics

Authors: S. H. Sabzpoushan

Abstract:

In this research we show that the dynamics of an action potential in a cell can be modeled with a linear combination of the dynamics of the gating state variables. It is shown that the modeling error is negligible. Our findings can be used for simplifying cell models and reduction of computational burden i.e. it is useful for simulating action potential propagation in large scale computations like tissue modeling. We have verified our finding with the use of several cell models.

Keywords: Linear model, Action potential, gating dynamics.

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823 Analysis of Heart Beat Dynamics through Singularity Spectrum

Authors: Harish Kumar, Hussein Yahia, Oriol Pont, Michel Haissaguerre, Nicolas Derval, Meleze Hocini

Abstract:

The analysis to detect arrhythmias and life-threatening conditions are highly essential in today world and this analysis can be accomplished by advanced non-linear processing methods for accurate analysis of the complex signals of heartbeat dynamics. In this perspective, recent developments in the field of multiscale information content have lead to the Microcanonical Multiscale Formalism (MMF). We show that such framework provides several signal analysis techniques that are especially adapted to the study of heartbeat dynamics. In this paper, we just show first hand results of whether the considered heartbeat dynamics signals have the multiscale properties by computing local preticability exponents (LPEs) and the Unpredictable Points Manifold (UPM), and thereby computing the singularity spectrum.

Keywords: Microcanonical Multiscale Formalism (MMF), UnpredictablePoints Manifold (UPM), Heartbeat Dynamics.

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822 Sensing Pressure for Authentication System Using Keystroke Dynamics

Authors: Hidetoshi Nonaka, Masahito Kurihara

Abstract:

In this paper, an authentication system using keystroke dynamics is presented. We introduced pressure sensing for the improvement of the accuracy of measurement and durability against intrusion using key-logger, and so on, however additional instrument is needed. As the result, it has been found that the pressure sensing is also effective for estimation of real moment of keystroke.

Keywords: Biometric authentication, Keystroke dynamics, Pressure sensing, Time-frequency analysis.

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821 Using the Keystrokes Dynamic for Systems of Personal Security

Authors: Gláucya C. Boechat, Jeneffer C. Ferreira, Edson C. B. Carvalho

Abstract:

This paper presents a boarding on biometric authentication through the Keystrokes Dynamics that it intends to identify a person from its habitual rhythm to type in conventional keyboard. Seven done experiments: verifying amount of prototypes, threshold, features and the variation of the choice of the times of the features vector. The results show that the use of the Keystroke Dynamics is simple and efficient for personal authentication, getting optimum resulted using 90% of the features with 4.44% FRR and 0% FAR.

Keywords: Biometrics techniques, Keystroke Dynamics, patternrecognition.

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820 Belt Conveyor Dynamics in Transient Operation for Speed Control

Authors: D. He, Y. Pang, G. Lodewijks

Abstract:

Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control. According to literature review, current research rarely takes the conveyor dynamics in transient operation into account. However, in belt conveyor speed control, the conveyor dynamic behaviors are significantly important since the poor dynamics might result in risks. In this paper, the potential risks in transient operation will be analyzed. An existing finite element model will be applied to build a conveyor model, and simulations will be carried out to analyze the conveyor dynamics. In order to realize the soft speed regulation, Harrison’s sinusoid acceleration profile will be applied, and Lodewijks estimator will be built to approximate the required acceleration time. A long inclined belt conveyor will be studied with two major simulations. The conveyor dynamics will be given.

Keywords: Belt conveyor, speed control, transient operation, dynamics

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819 State Estimation Method Based on Unscented Kalman Filter for Vehicle Nonlinear Dynamics

Authors: Wataru Nakamura, Tomoaki Hashimoto, Liang-Kuang Chen

Abstract:

This paper provides a state estimation method for automatic control systems of nonlinear vehicle dynamics. A nonlinear tire model is employed to represent the realistic behavior of a vehicle. In general, all the state variables of control systems are not precisedly known, because those variables are observed through output sensors and limited parts of them might be only measurable. Hence, automatic control systems must incorporate some type of state estimation. It is needed to establish a state estimation method for nonlinear vehicle dynamics with restricted measurable state variables. For this purpose, unscented Kalman filter method is applied in this study for estimating the state variables of nonlinear vehicle dynamics. The objective of this paper is to propose a state estimation method using unscented Kalman filter for nonlinear vehicle dynamics. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by numerical simulations.

Keywords: State estimation, control systems, observer systems, unscented Kalman filter, nonlinear vehicle dynamics.

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818 PID Parameter Optimization of an UAV Longitudinal Flight Control System

Authors: Kamran Turkoglu, Ugur Ozdemir, Melike Nikbay, Elbrous M. Jafarov

Abstract:

In this paper, an automatic control system design based on Integral Squared Error (ISE) parameter optimization technique has been implemented on longitudinal flight dynamics of an UAV. It has been aimed to minimize the error function between the reference signal and the output of the plant. In the following parts, objective function has been defined with respect to error dynamics. An unconstrained optimization problem has been solved analytically by using necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality, optimum PID parameters have been obtained and implemented in control system dynamics.

Keywords: Optimum Design, KKT Conditions, UAV, Longitudinal Flight Dynamics, ISE Parameter Optimization.

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817 Behavior of Solutions of the System of Recurrence Equations Based on the Verhulst-Pearl Model

Authors: Vladislav N. Dumachev, Vladimir A. Rodin

Abstract:

By utilizing the system of the recurrence equations, containing two parameters, the dynamics of two antagonistically interconnected populations is studied. The following areas of the system behavior are detected: the area of the stable solutions, the area of cyclic solutions occurrence, the area of the accidental change of trajectories of solutions, and the area of chaos and fractal phenomena. The new two-dimensional diagram of the dynamics of the solutions change (the fractal cabbage) has been obtained. In the cross-section of this diagram for one of the equations the well-known Feigenbaum tree of doubling has been noted.Keywordsbifurcation, chaos, dynamics of populations, fractals

Keywords: bifurcation, chaos, dynamics of populations, fractals

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816 Dynamics, Hierarchy and Commensalities: A Study of Inter Caste Relationship in a North Indian Village

Authors: K. Pandey

Abstract:

The present study is a functional analysis of the relationship between castes which indicates the dynamics of the caste structure in the rural setting. The researcher has tried to show both the cooperation and competition on important ceremonial and social occasions. The real India exists in the villages, so we need to know about their solidarity and also what the village life is and has been shaping into. We need to emphasize a microcosmic study of Indian rural life. Furthermore, caste integration is an acute problem country faces today. To resolve this we are required to know the dynamics of behavior of the people of different castes and for the study of the caste dynamics a study of caste relations are needed. The present study is an attempt in this direction.

Keywords: Hierarchial groups, jajmani system, functional dependence, commensalities.

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815 Strategic Management via System Dynamics Simulation Models

Authors: G. Papageorgiou, A. Hadjis

Abstract:

This paper examines the problem of strategic management in highly turbulent dynamic business environmental conditions. As shown the high complexity of the problem can be managed with the use of System Dynamics Models and Computer Simulation in obtaining insights, and thorough understanding of the interdependencies between the organizational structure and the business environmental elements, so that effective product –market strategies can be designed. Simulation reveals the underlying forces that hold together the structure of an organizational system in relation to its environment. Such knowledge will contribute to the avoidance of fundamental planning errors and enable appropriate proactive well focused action.

Keywords: Strategic Management, System Dynamics, Modelingand Simulation, Strategic Planning, Organizational Dynamics

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814 Sustainable Water Utilization in Arid Region of Iran by Qanats

Authors: F. Boustani

Abstract:

To make use of the limited amounts of water in arid region, the Iranians developed man-made underground water channels called qanats (kanats) .In fact, qanats may be considered as the first long-distance water transfer system. Qanats are an ancient water transfer system found in arid regions wherein groundwater from mountainous areas, aquifers and sometimes from rivers, was brought to points of re-emergence such as an oasis, through one or more underground tunnels. The tunnels, many of which were kilometers in length, had designed for slopes to provide gravitational flow. The tunnels allowed water to drain out to the surface by gravity to supply water to lower and flatter agricultural land. Qanats have been an ancient, sustainable system facilitating the harvesting of water for centuries in Iran, and more than 35 additional countries of the world such as India, Arabia, Egypt, North Africa, Spain and even to New world. There are about 22000 qanats in Iran with 274000 kilometers of underground conduits all built by manual labor. The amount of water of the usable qanats of Iran produce is altogether 750 to 1000 cubic meter per second. The longest chain of qanat is situated in Gonabad region in Khorasan province. It is 70 kilometers long. Qanats are renewable water supply systems that have sustained agricultural settlement on the Iranian plateau for millennia. The great advantages of Qanats are no evaporation during transit, little seepage , no raising of the water- table and no pollution in the area surrounding the conduits. Qanat systems have a profound influence on the lives of the water users in Iran, and conform to Iran-s climate. Qanat allows those living in a desert environment adjacent to a mountain watershed to create a large oasis in an otherwise stark environment. This paper explains qanats structure designs, their history, objectives causing their creation, construction materials, locations and their importance in different times, as well as their present sustainable role in Iran.

Keywords: Iran, qanat, Sustainable water utilization.

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813 Exterior Calculus: Economic Growth Dynamics

Authors: Troy L. Story

Abstract:

Mathematical models of dynamics employing exterior calculus are mathematical representations of the same unifying principle; namely, the description of a dynamic system with a characteristic differential one-form on an odd-dimensional differentiable manifold leads, by analysis with exterior calculus, to a set of differential equations and a characteristic tangent vector (vortex vector) which define transformations of the system. Using this principle, a mathematical model for economic growth is constructed by proposing a characteristic differential one-form for economic growth dynamics (analogous to the action in Hamiltonian dynamics), then generating a pair of characteristic differential equations and solving these equations for the rate of economic growth as a function of labor and capital. By contracting the characteristic differential one-form with the vortex vector, the Lagrangian for economic growth dynamics is obtained.

Keywords: Differential geometry, exterior calculus, Hamiltonian geometry, mathematical economics.

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812 Extracting the Coupled Dynamics in Thin-Walled Beams from Numerical Data Bases

Authors: Mohammad A. Bani-Khaled

Abstract:

In this work we use the Discrete Proper Orthogonal Decomposition transform to characterize the properties of coupled dynamics in thin-walled beams by exploiting numerical simulations obtained from finite element simulations. The outcomes of the will improve our understanding of the linear and nonlinear coupled behavior of thin-walled beams structures. Thin-walled beams have widespread usage in modern engineering application in both large scale structures (aeronautical structures), as well as in nano-structures (nano-tubes). Therefore, detailed knowledge in regard to the properties of coupled vibrations and buckling in these structures are of great interest in the research community. Due to the geometric complexity in the overall structure and in particular in the cross-sections it is necessary to involve computational mechanics to numerically simulate the dynamics. In using numerical computational techniques, it is not necessary to over simplify a model in order to solve the equations of motions. Computational dynamics methods produce databases of controlled resolution in time and space. These numerical databases contain information on the properties of the coupled dynamics. In order to extract the system dynamic properties and strength of coupling among the various fields of the motion, processing techniques are required. Time- Proper Orthogonal Decomposition transform is a powerful tool for processing databases for the dynamics. It will be used to study the coupled dynamics of thin-walled basic structures. These structures are ideal to form a basis for a systematic study of coupled dynamics in structures of complex geometry.

Keywords: Coupled dynamics, geometric complexity, Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD), thin walled beams.

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811 Role of Acoustic Pressure on the Dynamics of Moving Single-Bubble Sonoluminescence

Authors: Reza Rezaei-Nasirabad, Zeinab Galavani, Rasoul Sadighi-Bonabi, Mohammad Asgarian

Abstract:

Role of acoustic driving pressure on the translational-radial dynamics of a moving single bubble sonoluminescence (m-SBSL) has been numerically investigated. The results indicate that increase in the amplitude of the driving pressure leads to increase in the bubble peak temperature. The length and the shape of the trajectory of the bubble depends on the acoustic pressure and because of the spatially dependence of the radial dynamics of the moving bubble, its peak temperature varies during the acoustical pulses. The results are in good agreement with the experimental reports on m-SBSL.

Keywords: Bubble dynamics, Equation of the gas state, Hydrodynamic force, Moving sonoluminescence.

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810 Model Predictive Control Using Thermal Inputs for Crystal Growth Dynamics

Authors: Takashi Shimizu, Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract:

Recently, crystal growth technologies have made progress by the requirement for the high quality of crystal materials. To control the crystal growth dynamics actively by external forces is useuful for reducing composition non-uniformity. In this study, a control method based on model predictive control using thermal inputs is proposed for crystal growth dynamics of semiconductor materials. The control system of crystal growth dynamics considered here is governed by the continuity, momentum, energy, and mass transport equations. To establish the control method for such thermal fluid systems, we adopt model predictive control known as a kind of optimal feedback control in which the control performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance index that has a moving initial time and terminal time. The objective of this study is to establish a model predictive control method for crystal growth dynamics of semiconductor materials.

Keywords: Model predictive control, optimal control, crystal growth, process control.

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809 Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Furfural at the Liquid-Solid Interface

Authors: Sanwu Wang, Hongli Dang, Wenhua Xue, Darwin Shields, Xin Liu, Friederike C. Jentoft, Daniel E. Resasco

Abstract:

The bonding configuration and the heat of adsorption of a furfural molecule on the Pd(111) surface were determined by ab initio density-functional-theory calculations. The dynamics of pure liquid water, the liquid-solid interface formed by liquid water and the Pd(111) surface, as well as furfural at the water-Pd interface, were investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at finite temperatures. Calculations and simulations suggest that the bonding configurations at the water-Pd interface promote decarbonylation of furfural.

Keywords: Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, bio-fuels, density functional theory, liquid-solid interfaces.

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808 Evolutionary Dynamics on Small-World Networks

Authors: Jan Rychtar, Brian Stadler

Abstract:

We study how the outcome of evolutionary dynamics on graphs depends on a randomness on the graph structure. We gradually change the underlying graph from completely regular (e.g. a square lattice) to completely random. We find that the fixation probability increases as the randomness increases; nevertheless, the increase is not significant and thus the fixation probability could be estimated by the known formulas for underlying regular graphs.

Keywords: evolutionary dynamics, small-world networks

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807 A Numerical Study of Force-Based Boundary Conditions in Multiparticle Collision Dynamics

Authors: Arturo Ayala-Hernandez, Humberto H´ıjar

Abstract:

We propose a new alternative method for imposing fluid-solid boundary conditions in simulations of Multiparticle Collision Dynamics. Our method is based on the introduction of an explicit potential force acting between the fluid particles and a surface representing a solid boundary. We show that our method can be used in simulations of plane Poiseuille flows. Important quantities characterizing the flow and the fluid-solid interaction like the slip coefficient at the solid boundary and the effective viscosity of the fluid, are measured in terms of the set of independent parameters defining the numerical implementation. We find that our method can be used to simulate the correct hydrodynamic flow within a wide range of values of these parameters.

Keywords: Multiparticle Collision Dynamics, Fluid-Solid Boundary Conditions, Molecular Dynamics.

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806 Modelling Export Dynamics in the CSEE Countries Using GVAR Model

Authors: S. Jakšić, B. Žmuk

Abstract:

The paper investigates the key factors of export dynamics for a set of Central and Southeast European (CSEE) countries in the context of current economic and financial crisis. In order to model the export dynamics a Global Vector Auto Regressive (GVAR) model is defined. As opposed to models which model each country separately, the GVAR combines all country models in a global model which enables obtaining important information on spillover effects in the context of globalisation and rising international linkages. The results of the study indicate that for most of the CSEE countries, exports are mainly driven by domestic shocks, both in the short run and in the long run. This study is the first application of the GVAR model to studying the export dynamics in the CSEE countries and therefore the results of the study present an important empirical contribution.

Keywords: Export, GFEVD, Global VAR, International trade, weak exogeneity.

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805 Design of Experiment and Computational Fluid Dynamics Used to Optimize Hydrodynamic Characteristics of the Marine Propeller

Authors: Rohit Suryawanshi

Abstract:

In this study, the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), ANSYS-Fluent, has been used to optimize the marine propeller with the design of experiment (DOE) method. At the initial stage, different propeller parameters ware selected for the three different levels. The four characteristics factors are: no. of the blade, camber value, pitch delta & chord at the hub. Then, CAD modelling is performed by considering the selected factor and level. In this investigation, a total of 9 test models are simulated with the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The standard, realizable

Keywords: Marine propeller, Computational Fluid Dynamics, optimization, DOE, propeller thrust.

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804 A Stochastic Approach of Mitochondrial Dynamics

Authors: Athanasios T. Alexiou, Maria M. Psiha, John A. Rekkas, Panayiotis M. Vlamos

Abstract:

Mitochondria are dynamic organelles, capable to interact with each other. While the number of mitochondria in a cell varies, their quality and functionality depends on the operation of fusion, fission, motility and mitophagy. Nowadays, several researches declare as an important factor in neurogenerative diseases the disruptions in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics. In this paper a stochastic model in BioAmbients calculus is presented, concerning mitochondrial fusion and its distribution in the renewal of mitochondrial population in a cell. This model describes the successive and dependent stages of protein synthesis, protein-s activation and merging of two independent mitochondria.

Keywords: Mitochondrial Dynamics, P-Calculus, StochasticModeling.

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803 Using Mixed Methods in Studying Classroom Social Network Dynamics

Authors: Nashrawan N. Taha, Andrew M. Cox

Abstract:

In a multi-cultural learning context, where ties are weak and dynamic, combining qualitative with quantitative research methods may be more effective. Such a combination may also allow us to answer different types of question, such as about people’s perception of the network. In this study the use of observation, interviews and photos were explored as ways of enhancing data from social network questionnaires. Integrating all of these methods was found to enhance the quality of data collected and its accuracy, also providing a richer story of the network dynamics and the factors that shaped these changes over time.

Keywords: Mixed Methods, Social Network Analysis, multi-cultural learning, Social Network Dynamics.

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802 Using Molecular Dynamics to Assess Mechanical Properties of PAN-Based Carbon Fibers Comprising Imperfect Crystals with Amorphous Structures

Authors: A. Ito, S. Okamoto

Abstract:

We constructed an atomic structure model for a PAN-based carbon fiber containing amorphous structures using molecular dynamics methods. It was found that basic physical properties such as crystallinity, Young’s modulus, and thermal conductivity of our model were nearly identical to those of real carbon fibers. We then obtained the tensile strength of a carbon fiber, which has no macro defects. We finally determined that the limitation of the tensile strength was 19 GPa.

Keywords: Amorphous, carbon fiber, molecular dynamics, tensile strength.

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801 Dynamics and Control of a Chaotic Electromagnetic System

Authors: Shun-Chang Chang

Abstract:

In this paper, different nonlinear dynamics analysis techniques are employed to unveil the rich nonlinear phenomena of the electromagnetic system. In particular, bifurcation diagrams, time responses, phase portraits, Poincare maps, power spectrum analysis, and the construction of basins of attraction are all powerful and effective tools for nonlinear dynamics problems. We also employ the method of Lyapunov exponents to show the occurrence of chaotic motion and to verify those numerical simulation results. Finally, two cases of a chaotic electromagnetic system being effectively controlled by a reference signal or being synchronized to another nonlinear electromagnetic system are presented.

Keywords: bifurcation, Poincare map, Lyapunov exponent, chaotic motion.

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800 Project and Experiment-Based Fluid Dynamics Education

Authors: Etsuo Morishita

Abstract:

This paper presents the project and experiment-based fluid dynamics education in Meisei University, a private institution in Tokyo, Japan. We pay attention not only to the basic engineering courses but also to the practical aspect of engineering experience. So, we prepare courses called the Projects from I to VI. The Projects I and II are designed for the first year, III and IV are designated for the second year, V and VI are prepared for the third year, respectively. Each supervisor is responsible for two of these projects every year. When students take the Project V and VI at the third year, we automatically assume that these students will join the lab of the project for the graduation thesis. We would like to show our experience in the Project I in the summer term, 2016. In this project, we introduce a traction flight vehicle called Cat Flyer. This is a kind of a kite towed by a car for example. This is very similar to parasailing, but flight is possible even on the roads. Experiments in mechanical engineering education are also very important, and we would like to explain our course on centrifugal pump, venture, and orifice. Although these are described in detail in the text books of fluid dynamics, it is still crucial to have practical experiments as a student.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, experiment, fluid dynamics, project.

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799 Dynamics Simulation Approach in Analyzing Pension Expenditure

Authors: Hasimah Sapiri, Anton Abdulbasah Kamil, Razman Mat Tahar, Hanafi Tumin

Abstract:

Salary risk and demographic risk have been identified as main risks in analyzing pension expenditure particularly in Defined Benefit pension plan. Therefore, public pension plan in Malaysia is studied to analyze pension expenditure due to salary and demographic risk. Through the literature review and interview session with several officers in public sector, factors affecting pension expenditure are determined. Then, the inter-relationships between these factors are analyzed through causal loop diagram. The System Dynamics model is later developed using iThink software to show how demographic and salary changes affect the pension expenditure. Then, by using actual data, the impact of different policy scenarios on pension expenditure is analyzed. It is shown that dynamics simulation model of pension expenditure is useful to evaluate the impact of changes and policy decisions on risk particularly involving demographic and salary risk.

Keywords: Demographic and Salary risk, Pension Expenditure, Public Policy, System Dynamics.

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798 Voice Over IP Technology Development in Offshore Industry: System Dynamics Approach

Authors: B. Kiyani, R. H. Amiri, S. H. Hosseini, A. Bourouni, A. Karimi

Abstract:

Nowadays, offshore's complicated facilities need their own communications requirements. Nevertheless, developing and real-world applications of new communications technology are faced with tremendous problems for new technology users, developers and implementers. Traditional systems engineering cannot be capable to develop a new technology effectively because it does not consider the dynamics of the process. This paper focuses on the design of a holistic model that represents the dynamics of new communication technology development within offshore industry. The model shows the behavior of technology development efforts. Furthermore, implementing this model, results in new and useful insights about the policy option analysis for developing a new communications technology in offshore industry.

Keywords: Technology development, Offshore industry, Systemdynamics, Voice Over IP.

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