@article{(Open Science Index):https://publications.waset.org/pdf/13037,
	  title     = {Sustainable Water Utilization in Arid Region of Iran by Qanats},
	  author    = {F. Boustani},
	  country	= {},
	  institution	= {},
	  abstract     = {To make use of the limited amounts of water in arid
region, the Iranians developed man-made underground water
channels called qanats (kanats) .In fact, qanats may be considered as
the first long-distance water transfer system. Qanats are an ancient
water transfer system found in arid regions wherein groundwater
from mountainous areas, aquifers and sometimes from rivers, was
brought to points of re-emergence such as an oasis, through one or
more underground tunnels. The tunnels, many of which were
kilometers in length, had designed for slopes to provide gravitational
flow. The tunnels allowed water to drain out to the surface by gravity
to supply water to lower and flatter agricultural land.
Qanats have been an ancient, sustainable system facilitating the
harvesting of water for centuries in Iran, and more than 35 additional
countries of the world such as India, Arabia, Egypt, North Africa,
Spain and even to New world.
There are about 22000 qanats in Iran with 274000 kilometers of
underground conduits all built by manual labor. The amount of
water of the usable qanats of Iran produce is altogether 750 to
1000 cubic meter per second. The longest chain of qanat is
situated in Gonabad region in Khorasan province. It is 70
kilometers long. Qanats are renewable water supply systems that
have sustained agricultural settlement on the Iranian plateau for
millennia. The great advantages of Qanats are no evaporation
during transit, little seepage , no raising of the water- table and no
pollution in the area surrounding the conduits. Qanat systems
have a profound influence on the lives of the water users in Iran, and
conform to Iran-s climate. Qanat allows those living in a desert
environment adjacent to a mountain watershed to create a large oasis
in an otherwise stark environment.
This paper explains qanats structure designs, their history,
objectives causing their creation, construction materials, locations
and their importance in different times, as well as their present
sustainable role in Iran.},
	    journal   = {International Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering},
	  volume    = {2},
	  number    = {7},
	  year      = {2008},
	  pages     = {152 - 155},
	  ee        = {https://publications.waset.org/pdf/13037},
	  url   	= {https://publications.waset.org/vol/19},
	  bibsource = {https://publications.waset.org/},
	  issn  	= {eISSN: 1307-6892},
	  publisher = {World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology},
	  index 	= {Open Science Index 19, 2008},