Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2353

Search results for: packet flow

2353 Data Traffic Dynamics and Saturation on a Single Link

Authors: Reginald D. Smith

Abstract:

The dynamics of User Datagram Protocol (UDP) traffic over Ethernet between two computers are analyzed using nonlinear dynamics which shows that there are two clear regimes in the data flow: free flow and saturated. The two most important variables affecting this are the packet size and packet flow rate. However, this transition is due to a transcritical bifurcation rather than phase transition in models such as in vehicle traffic or theorized large-scale computer network congestion. It is hoped this model will help lay the groundwork for further research on the dynamics of networks, especially computer networks.

Keywords: congestion, packet flow, Internet, traffic dynamics, transcritical bifurcation

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2352 Power Line Carrier Equipment Supporting IP Traffic Transmission in the Enterprise Networks of Energy Companies

Authors: M. S. Anton Merkulov

Abstract:

This article discusses the questions concerning of creating small packet networks for energy companies with application of high voltage power line carrier equipment (PLC) with functionality of IP traffic transmission. The main idea is to create converged PLC links between substations and dispatching centers where packet data and voice are transmitted in one data flow. The article contents description of basic conception of the network, evaluation of voice traffic transmission parameters, and discussion of header compression techniques in relation to PLC links. The results of exploration show us, that convergent packet PLC links can be very useful in the construction of small packet networks between substations in remote locations, such as deposits or low populated areas.

Keywords: packet PLC, VoIP, time delay, packet traffic, overhead compression

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2351 Implementation of IEEE 802.15.4 Packet Analyzer

Authors: Sung Jun Ban, Hyeonwoo Cho, ChangWoo Lee, Sang Woo Kim

Abstract:

A packet analyzer is a tool for debugging sensor network systems and is convenient for developers. In this paper, we introduce a new packet analyzer based on an embedded system. The proposed packet analyzer is compatible with IEEE 802.15.4, which is suitable for the wireless communication standard for sensor networks, and is available for remote control by adopting a server-client scheme based on the Ethernet interface. To confirm the operations of the packet analyzer, we have developed two types of sensor nodes based on PIC4620 and ATmega128L microprocessors and tested the functions of the proposed packet analyzer by obtaining the packets from the sensor nodes.

Keywords: Sensor network, embedded system, packet analyzer.

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2350 Optimizing TCP Vegas- Performance with Packet Spacing and Effect of Variable FTP Packet Size over Wireless IPv6 Network

Authors: B. S. Yew , B. L. Ong , R. B. Ahmad

Abstract:

This paper describes the performance of TCP Vegas over the wireless IPv6 network. The performance of TCP Vegas is evaluated using network simulator (ns-2). The simulation experiment investigates how packet spacing affects the network delay, network throughput and network efficiency of TCP Vegas. Moreover, we investigate how the variable FTP packet sizes affect the network performance. The result of the simulation experiment shows that as the packet spacing is implements, the network delay is reduces, network throughput and network efficiency is optimizes. As the FTP packet sizes increase, the ratio of delay per throughput decreases. From the result of experiment, we propose the appropriate packet size in transmitting file transfer protocol application using TCP Vegas with packet spacing enhancement over wireless IPv6 environment in ns-2. Additionally, we suggest the appropriate ratio in determining the appropriate RTT and buffer size in a network.

Keywords: TCP Vegas, Packet Spacing, Packet Size, Wireless IPv6, ns-2

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2349 Performance Evaluation of the OCDM/WDM Technique for Optical Packet Switches

Authors: V. Eramo, L. Piazzo, M. Listanti, A. Germoni, A Cianfrani

Abstract:

The performance of the Optical Code Division Multiplexing/ Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM/OCDM) technique for Optical Packet Switch is investigated. The impact on the performance of the impairment due to both Multiple Access Interference and Beat noise is studied. The Packet Loss Probability due to output packet contentions is evaluated as a function of the main switch and traffic parameters when Gold coherent optical codes are adopted. The Packet Loss Probability of the OCDM/WDM switch can reach 10-9 when M=16 wavelengths, Gold code of length L=511 and only 24 wavelength converters are used in the switch.

Keywords: Optical code division multiplexing, bufferless optical packet switch, performance evaluation.

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2348 Packet Reserving and Clogging Control via Routing Aware Packet Reserving Framework in MANET

Authors: C. Sathiyakumar, K. Duraiswamy

Abstract:

In MANET, mobile nodes communicate with each other using the wireless channel where transmission takes place with significant interference. The wireless medium used in MANET is a shared resource used by all the nodes available in MANET. Packet reserving is one important resource management scheme which controls the allocation of bandwidth among multiple flows through node cooperation in MANET. This paper proposes packet reserving and clogging control via Routing Aware Packet Reserving (RAPR) framework in MANET. It mainly focuses the end-to-end routing condition with maximal throughput. RAPR is complimentary system where the packet reserving utilizes local routing information available in each node. Path setup in RAPR estimates the security level of the system, and symbolizes the end-to-end routing by controlling the clogging. RAPR reaches the packet to the destination with high probability ratio and minimal delay count. The standard performance measures such as network security level, communication overhead, end-to-end throughput, resource utilization efficiency and delay measure are considered in this work. The results reveals that the proposed packet reservation and clogging control via Routing Aware Packet Reserving (RAPR) framework performs well for the above said performance measures compare to the existing methods.

Keywords: Packet reserving, Clogging control, Packet reservation in MANET, RAPR.

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2347 Signing the First Packet in Amortization Scheme for Multicast Stream Authentication

Authors: Mohammed Shatnawi, Qusai Abuein, Susumu Shibusawa

Abstract:

Signature amortization schemes have been introduced for authenticating multicast streams, in which, a single signature is amortized over several packets. The hash value of each packet is computed, some hash values are appended to other packets, forming what is known as hash chain. These schemes divide the stream into blocks, each block is a number of packets, the signature packet in these schemes is either the first or the last packet of the block. Amortization schemes are efficient solutions in terms of computation and communication overhead, specially in real-time environment. The main effictive factor of amortization schemes is it-s hash chain construction. Some studies show that signing the first packet of each block reduces the receiver-s delay and prevents DoS attacks, other studies show that signing the last packet reduces the sender-s delay. To our knowledge, there is no studies that show which is better, to sign the first or the last packet in terms of authentication probability and resistance to packet loss. In th is paper we will introduce another scheme for authenticating multicast streams that is robust against packet loss, reduces the overhead, and prevents the DoS attacks experienced by the receiver in the same time. Our scheme-The Multiple Connected Chain signing the First packet (MCF) is to append the hash values of specific packets to other packets,then append some hashes to the signature packet which is sent as the first packet in the block. This scheme is aspecially efficient in terms of receiver-s delay. We discuss and evaluate the performance of our proposed scheme against those that sign the last packet of the block.

Keywords: multicast stream authentication, hash chain construction, signature amortization, authentication probability.

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2346 Delay and Packet Loss Analysis for Handovers between MANETs and NEMO Networks

Authors: Jirawat Thaenthong, Steven Gordon

Abstract:

MANEMO is the integration of Network Mobility (NEMO) and Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET). A MANEMO node has an interface to both a MANET and NEMO network, and therefore should choose the optimal interface for packet delivery, however such a handover between interfaces will introduce packet loss. We define the steps necessary for a MANEMO handover, using Mobile IP and NEMO to signal the new binding to the relevant Home Agent(s). The handover steps aim to minimize the packet loss by avoiding waiting for Duplicate Address Detection and Neighbour Unreachability Detection. We present expressions for handover delay and packet loss, and then use numerical examples to evaluate a MANEMO handover. The analysis shows how the packet loss depends on level of nesting within NEMO, the delay between Home Agents and the load on the MANET, and hence can be used to developing optimal MANEMO handover algorithms.

Keywords: IP mobility, handover, MANET, network mobility

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2345 Modeling and Analysis of Adaptive Buffer Sharing Scheme for Consecutive Packet Loss Reduction in Broadband Networks

Authors: Sakshi Kausha, R.K Sharma

Abstract:

High speed networks provide realtime variable bit rate service with diversified traffic flow characteristics and quality requirements. The variable bit rate traffic has stringent delay and packet loss requirements. The burstiness of the correlated traffic makes dynamic buffer management highly desirable to satisfy the Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. This paper presents an algorithm for optimization of adaptive buffer allocation scheme for traffic based on loss of consecutive packets in data-stream and buffer occupancy level. Buffer is designed to allow the input traffic to be partitioned into different priority classes and based on the input traffic behavior it controls the threshold dynamically. This algorithm allows input packets to enter into buffer if its occupancy level is less than the threshold value for priority of that packet. The threshold is dynamically varied in runtime based on packet loss behavior. The simulation is run for two priority classes of the input traffic – realtime and non-realtime classes. The simulation results show that Adaptive Partial Buffer Sharing (ADPBS) has better performance than Static Partial Buffer Sharing (SPBS) and First In First Out (FIFO) queue under the same traffic conditions.

Keywords: Buffer Management, Consecutive packet loss, Quality-of-Service, Priority based packet discarding, partial buffersharing.

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2344 PetriNets Manipulation to Reduce Roaming Duration: Criterion to Improve Handoff Management

Authors: Hossam el-ddin Mostafa, Pavel Čičak

Abstract:

IETF RFC 2002 originally introduced the wireless Mobile-IP protocol to support portable IP addresses for mobile devices that often change their network access points to the Internet. The inefficiency of this protocol mainly within the handoff management produces large end-to-end packet delays, during registration process, and further degrades the system efficiency due to packet losses between subnets. The criterion to initiate a simple and fast full-duplex connection between the home agent and foreign agent, to reduce the roaming duration, is a very important issue to be considered by a work in this paper. State-transition Petri-Nets of the modeling scenario-based CIA: communication inter-agents procedure as an extension to the basic Mobile-IP registration process was designed and manipulated. The heuristic of configuration file during practical Setup session for registration parameters, on Cisco platform Router-1760 using IOS 12.3 (15)T is created. Finally, stand-alone performance simulations results from Simulink Matlab, within each subnet and also between subnets, are illustrated for reporting better end-to-end packet delays. Results verified the effectiveness of our Mathcad analytical manipulation and experimental implementation. It showed lower values of end-to-end packet delay for Mobile-IP using CIA procedure. Furthermore, it reported packets flow between subnets to improve packet losses between subnets.

Keywords: Cisco configuration, handoff, packet delay, Petri-Nets, registration process, Simulink.

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2343 Position Based Routing Protocol with More Reliability in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

Authors: Mahboobeh Abdoos, Karim Faez, Masoud Sabaei

Abstract:

Position based routing protocols are the kinds of routing protocols, which they use of nodes location information, instead of links information to routing. In position based routing protocols, it supposed that the packet source node has position information of itself and it's neighbors and packet destination node. Greedy is a very important position based routing protocol. In one of it's kinds, named MFR (Most Forward Within Radius), source node or packet forwarder node, sends packet to one of it's neighbors with most forward progress towards destination node (closest neighbor to destination). Using distance deciding metric in Greedy to forward packet to a neighbor node, is not suitable for all conditions. If closest neighbor to destination node, has high speed, in comparison with source node or intermediate packet forwarder node speed or has very low remained battery power, then packet loss probability is increased. Proposed strategy uses combination of metrics distancevelocity similarity-power, to deciding about giving the packet to which neighbor. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy has lower lost packets average than Greedy, so it has more reliability.

Keywords: Mobile Ad Hoc Network, Position Based, Reliability, Routing.

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2342 The Effect of Correlated Service and Inter-arrival Times on System Performance

Authors: Gang Uk Hwang

Abstract:

In communication networks where communication nodes are connected with finite capacity transmission links, the packet inter-arrival times are strongly correlated with the packet length and the link capacity (or the packet service time). Such correlation affects the system performance significantly, but little attention has been paid to this issue. In this paper, we propose a mathematical framework to study the impact of the correlation between the packet service times and the packet inter-arrival times on system performance. With our mathematical model, we analyze the system performance, e.g., the unfinished work of the system, and show that the correlation affects the system performance significantly. Some numerical examples are also provided.

Keywords: Performance analysis, Correlated queueing system, Unfinished work, PH-type distribution, Communicationsystem.

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2341 Intrusion Detection System Based On The Integrity of TCP Packet

Authors: Moad Alhamaty , Ali Yazdian , Fathi Al-qadasi

Abstract:

A common way to elude the signature-based Network Intrusion Detection System is based upon changing a recognizable attack to an unrecognizable one via the IDS. For example, in order to evade sign accommodation with intrusion detection system markers, a hacker spilt the payload packet into many small pieces or hides them within messages. In this paper we try to model the main fragmentation attack and create a new module in the intrusion detection architecture system which recognizes the main fragmentation attacks through verification of integrity checking of TCP packet in order to prevent elusion of the system and also to announce the necessary alert to the system administrator.

Keywords: Intrusion detection system, Evasion techniques, Fragmentation attacks, TCP Packet integrity.

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2340 Multi-Focus Image Fusion Using SFM and Wavelet Packet

Authors: Somkait Udomhunsakul

Abstract:

In this paper, a multi-focus image fusion method using Spatial Frequency Measurements (SFM) and Wavelet Packet was proposed. The proposed fusion approach, firstly, the two fused images were transformed and decomposed into sixteen subbands using Wavelet packet. Next, each subband was partitioned into sub-blocks and each block was identified the clearer regions by using the Spatial Frequency Measurement (SFM). Finally, the recovered fused image was reconstructed by performing the Inverse Wavelet Transform. From the experimental results, it was found that the proposed method outperformed the traditional SFM based methods in terms of objective and subjective assessments.

Keywords: Multi-focus image fusion, Wavelet Packet, Spatial Frequency Measurement.

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2339 Design and Bandwidth Allocation of Embedded ATM Networks using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: H. El-Madbouly

Abstract:

In this paper, genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed for the design of an optimization algorithm to achieve the bandwidth allocation of ATM network. In Broadband ISDN, the ATM is a highbandwidth; fast packet switching and multiplexing technique. Using ATM it can be flexibly reconfigure the network and reassign the bandwidth to meet the requirements of all types of services. By dynamically routing the traffic and adjusting the bandwidth assignment, the average packet delay of the whole network can be reduced to a minimum. M/M/1 model can be used to analyze the performance.

Keywords: Bandwidth allocation, Genetic algorithm, ATMNetwork, packet delay.

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2338 Packet Forwarding with Multiprotocol Label Switching

Authors: R.N.Pise, S.A.Kulkarni, R.V.Pawar

Abstract:

MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) is an emerging technology that aims to address many of the existing issues associated with packet forwarding in today-s Internetworking environment. It provides a method of forwarding packets at a high rate of speed by combining the speed and performance of Layer 2 with the scalability and IP intelligence of Layer 3. In a traditional IP (Internet Protocol) routing network, a router analyzes the destination IP address contained in the packet header. The router independently determines the next hop for the packet using the destination IP address and the interior gateway protocol. This process is repeated at each hop to deliver the packet to its final destination. In contrast, in the MPLS forwarding paradigm routers on the edge of the network (label edge routers) attach labels to packets based on the forwarding Equivalence class (FEC). Packets are then forwarded through the MPLS domain, based on their associated FECs , through swapping the labels by routers in the core of the network called label switch routers. The act of simply swapping the label instead of referencing the IP header of the packet in the routing table at each hop provides a more efficient manner of forwarding packets, which in turn allows the opportunity for traffic to be forwarded at tremendous speeds and to have granular control over the path taken by a packet. This paper deals with the process of MPLS forwarding mechanism, implementation of MPLS datapath , and test results showing the performance comparison of MPLS and IP routing. The discussion will focus primarily on MPLS IP packet networks – by far the most common application of MPLS today.

Keywords: Forwarding equivalence class, incoming label map, label, next hop label forwarding entry.

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2337 Packet Losses Interpretation in Mobile Internet

Authors: Hossam el-ddin Mostafa, Pavel Čičak

Abstract:

The mobile users with Laptops need to have an efficient access to i.e. their home personal data or to the Internet from any place in the world, regardless of their location or point of attachment, especially while roaming outside the home subnet. An efficient interpretation of packet losses problem that is encountered from this roaming is to the centric of all aspects in this work, to be over-highlighted. The main previous works, such as BER-systems, Amigos, and ns-2 implementation that are considered to be in conjunction with that problem under study are reviewed and discussed. Their drawbacks and limitations, of stopping only at monitoring, and not to provide an actual solution for eliminating or even restricting these losses, are mentioned. Besides that, the framework around which we built a Triple-R sequence as a costeffective solution to eliminate the packet losses and bridge the gap between subnets, an area that until now has been largely neglected, is presented. The results show that, in addition to the high bit error rate of wireless mobile networks, mainly the low efficiency of mobile-IP registration procedure is a direct cause of these packet losses. Furthermore, the output of packet losses interpretation resulted an illustrated triangle of the registration process. This triangle should be further researched and analyzed in our future work.

Keywords: Amigos, BER-systems, ns-2 implementation, packetlosses, registration process, roaming.

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2336 Flexible Wormhole-Switched Network-on-chip with Two-Level Priority Data Delivery Service

Authors: Faizal A. Samman, Thomas Hollstein, Manfred Glesner

Abstract:

A synchronous network-on-chip using wormhole packet switching and supporting guaranteed-completion best-effort with low-priority (LP) and high-priority (HP) wormhole packet delivery service is presented in this paper. Both our proposed LP and HP message services deliver a good quality of service in term of lossless packet completion and in-order message data delivery. However, the LP message service does not guarantee minimal completion bound. The HP packets will absolutely use 100% bandwidth of their reserved links if the HP packets are injected from the source node with maximum injection. Hence, the service are suitable for small size messages (less than hundred bytes). Otherwise the other HP and LP messages, which require also the links, will experience relatively high latency depending on the size of the HP message. The LP packets are routed using a minimal adaptive routing, while the HP packets are routed using a non-minimal adaptive routing algorithm. Therefore, an additional 3-bit field, identifying the packet type, is introduced in their packet headers to classify and to determine the type of service committed to the packet. Our NoC prototypes have been also synthesized using a 180-nm CMOS standard-cell technology to evaluate the cost of implementing the combination of both services.

Keywords: Network-on-Chip, Parallel Pipeline Router Architecture, Wormhole Switching, Two-Level Priority Service.

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2335 Early Registration : Criterion to Improve Communication-Inter Agents in Mobile-IP Protocol

Authors: Hossam el-ddin Mostafa, Pavel Čičak

Abstract:

In IETF RFC 2002, Mobile-IP was developed to enable Laptobs to maintain Internet connectivity while moving between subnets. However, the packet loss that comes from switching subnets arises because network connectivity is lost while the mobile host registers with the foreign agent and this encounters large end-to-end packet delays. The criterion to initiate a simple and fast full-duplex connection between the home agent and foreign agent, to reduce the roaming duration, is a very important issue to be considered by a work in this paper. State-transition Petri-Nets of the modeling scenario-based CIA: communication inter-agents procedure as an extension to the basic Mobile-IP registration process was designed and manipulated to describe the system in discrete events. The heuristic of configuration file during practical Setup session for registration parameters, on Cisco platform Router-1760 using IOS 12.3 (15)T and TFTP server S/W is created. Finally, stand-alone performance simulations from Simulink Matlab, within each subnet and also between subnets, are illustrated for reporting better end-toend packet delays. Results verified the effectiveness of our Mathcad analytical manipulation and experimental implementation. It showed lower values of end-to-end packet delay for Mobile-IP using CIA procedure-based early registration. Furthermore, it reported packets flow between subnets to improve losses between subnets.

Keywords: Cisco configuration, handoff, Mobile-IP, packetdelay, Petri-Nets, registration process, Simulink

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2334 A POX Controller Module to Prepare a List of Flow Header Information Extracted from SDN Traffic

Authors: Wisam H. Muragaa, Kamaruzzaman Seman, Mohd Fadzli Marhusin

Abstract:

Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a paradigm designed to facilitate the way of controlling the network dynamically and with more agility. Network traffic is a set of flows, each of which contains a set of packets. In SDN, a matching process is performed on every packet coming to the network in the SDN switch. Only the headers of the new packets will be forwarded to the SDN controller. In terminology, the flow header fields are called tuples. Basically, these tuples are 5-tuple: the source and destination IP addresses, source and destination ports, and protocol number. This flow information is used to provide an overview of the network traffic. Our module is meant to extract this 5-tuple with the packets and flows numbers and show them as a list. Therefore, this list can be used as a first step in the way of detecting the DDoS attack. Thus, this module can be considered as the beginning stage of any flow-based DDoS detection method.

Keywords: Matching, OpenFlow tables, POX controller, SDN, table-miss.

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2333 Generation of Artificial Earthquake Accelerogram Compatible with Spectrum using the Wavelet Packet Transform and Nero-Fuzzy Networks

Authors: Peyman Shadman Heidari, Mohammad Khorasani

Abstract:

The principal purpose of this article is to present a new method based on Adaptive Neural Network Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) to generate additional artificial earthquake accelerograms from presented data, which are compatible with specified response spectra. The proposed method uses the learning abilities of ANFIS to develop the knowledge of the inverse mapping from response spectrum to earthquake records. In addition, wavelet packet transform is used to decompose specified earthquake records and then ANFISs are trained to relate the response spectrum of records to their wavelet packet coefficients. Finally, an interpretive example is presented which uses an ensemble of recorded accelerograms to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Adaptive Neural Network Fuzzy Inference System, Wavelet Packet Transform, Response Spectrum.

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2332 Adaptive Early Packet Discarding Policy Based on Two Traffic Classes

Authors: Rawya Rizk, Rehab Abdel-Kader, Rabab Ramadan

Abstract:

Unlike the best effort service provided by the internet today, next-generation wireless networks will support real-time applications. This paper proposes an adaptive early packet discard (AEPD) policy to improve the performance of the real time TCP traffic over ATM networks and avoid the fragmentation problem. Three main aspects are incorporated in the proposed policy. First, providing quality-of-service (QoS) guaranteed for real-time applications by implementing a priority scheduling. Second, resolving the partially corrupted packets problem by differentiating the buffered cells of one packet from another. Third, adapting a threshold dynamically using Fuzzy logic based on the traffic behavior to maintain a high throughput under a variety of load conditions. The simulation is run for two priority classes of the input traffic: real time and non-real time classes. Simulation results show that the proposed AEPD policy improves throughput and fairness over that using static threshold under the same traffic conditions.

Keywords: Early packet discard, Fuzzy logic, packet dropping policies, quality-of-service (QoS), TCP over ATM

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2331 Improving Packet Latency of Video Sensor Networks

Authors: Arijit Ghosh, Tony Givargis

Abstract:

Video sensor networks operate on stringent requirements of latency. Packets have a deadline within which they have to be delivered. Violation of the deadline causes a packet to be treated as lost and the loss of packets ultimately affects the quality of the application. Network latency is typically a function of many interacting components. In this paper, we propose ways of reducing the forwarding latency of a packet at intermediate nodes. The forwarding latency is caused by a combination of processing delay and queueing delay. The former is incurred in order to determine the next hop in dynamic routing. We show that unless link failures in a very specific and unlikely pattern, a vast majority of these lookups are redundant. To counter this we propose source routing as the routing strategy. However, source routing suffers from issues related to scalability and being impervious to network dynamics. We propose solutions to counter these and show that source routing is definitely a viable option in practical sized video networks. We also propose a fast and fair packet scheduling algorithm that reduces queueing delay at the nodes. We support our claims through extensive simulation on realistic topologies with practical traffic loads and failure patterns.

Keywords: Sensor networks, Packet latency, Network design, Networkperformance.

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2330 New Mitigating Technique to Overcome DDOS Attack

Authors: V. Praveena, N. Kiruthika

Abstract:

In this paper, we explore a new scheme for filtering spoofed packets (DDOS attack) which is a combination of path fingerprint and client puzzle concepts. In this each IP packet has a unique fingerprint is embedded that represents, the route a packet has traversed. The server maintains a mapping table which contains the client IP address and its corresponding fingerprint. In ingress router, client puzzle is placed. For each request, the puzzle issuer provides a puzzle which the source has to solve. Our design has the following advantages over prior approaches, 1) Reduce the network traffic, as we place a client puzzle at the ingress router. 2) Mapping table at the server is lightweight and moderate.

Keywords: Client puzzle, DDOS attack, Egress, Ingress, IP Spoofing, Spoofed Packet.

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2329 Per Flow Packet Scheduling Scheme to Improve the End-to-End Fairness in Mobile Ad Hoc Wireless Network

Authors: K. Sasikala, R. S. D Wahidabanu

Abstract:

Various fairness models and criteria proposed by academia and industries for wired networks can be applied for ad hoc wireless network. The end-to-end fairness in an ad hoc wireless network is a challenging task compared to wired networks, which has not been addressed effectively. Most of the traffic in an ad hoc network are transport layer flows and thus the fairness of transport layer flows has attracted the interest of the researchers. The factors such as MAC protocol, routing protocol, the length of a route, buffer size, active queue management algorithm and the congestion control algorithms affects the fairness of transport layer flows. In this paper, we have considered the rate of data transmission, the queue management and packet scheduling technique. The ad hoc network is dynamic in nature due to various parameters such as transmission of control packets, multihop nature of forwarding packets, changes in source and destination nodes, changes in the routing path influences determining throughput and fairness among the concurrent flows. In addition, the effect of interaction between the protocol in the data link and transport layers has also plays a role in determining the rate of the data transmission. We maintain queue for each flow and the delay information of each flow is maintained accordingly. The pre-processing of flow is done up to the network layer only. The source and destination address information is used for separating the flow and the transport layer information is not used. This minimizes the delay in the network. Each flow is attached to a timer and is updated dynamically. Finite State Machine (FSM) is proposed for queue and transmission control mechanism. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated in ns-2 simulation environment. The throughput and fairness based on mobility for different flows used as performance metrics. We have compared the performance of the proposed approach with ATP and the transport layer information is used. This minimizes the delay in the network. Each flow is attached to a timer and is updated dynamically. Finite State Machine (FSM) is proposed for queue and transmission control mechanism. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated in ns-2 simulation environment. The throughput and fairness based on not mobility for different flows used as performance metrics. We have compared the performance of the proposed approach with ATP and MC-MLAS and the performance of the proposed approach is encouraging.

Keywords: ATP, End-to-End fairness, FSM, MAC, QoS.

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2328 Characterization and Modeling of Packet Loss of a VoIP Communication

Authors: L. Estrada, D. Torres, H. Toral

Abstract:

In this work, a characterization and modeling of packet loss of a Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) communication is developed. The distributions of the number of consecutive received and lost packets (namely gap and burst) are modeled from the transition probabilities of two-state and four-state model. Measurements show that both models describe adequately the burst distribution, but the decay of gap distribution for non-homogeneous losses is better fit by the four-state model. The respective probabilities of transition between states for each model were estimated with a proposed algorithm from a set of monitored VoIP calls in order to obtain representative minimum, maximum and average values for both models.

Keywords: Packet loss, gap and burst distribution, Markovchain, VoIP measurements.

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2327 Improving Location Management in Mobile IPv4 Networks

Authors: Haidar Safa, Hassan Artail, Ahmad Mehio, Hicham Zahr, Ziad Matragi

Abstract:

The Mobile IP Standard has been developed to support mobility over the Internet. This standard contains several drawbacks as in the cases where packets are routed via sub-optimal paths and significant amount of signaling messages is generated due to the home registration procedure which keeps the network aware of the current location of the mobile nodes. Recently, a dynamic hierarchical mobility management strategy for mobile IP networks (DHMIP) has been proposed to reduce home registrations costs. However, this strategy induces a packet delivery delay and increases the risk of packet loss. In this paper, we propose an enhanced version of the dynamic hierarchical strategy that reduces the packet delivery delay and minimizes the risk of packet loss. Preliminary results obtained from simulations are promising. They show that the enhanced version outperforms the original dynamic hierarchical mobility management strategy version.

Keywords: Location management, Mobile IP (MIP), Home Agent, Foreign Agent.

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2326 Evaluation of the Energy Consumption per Bit inBENES Optical Packet Switch

Authors: V. Eramo, E. Miucci, A. Cianfrani, A. Germoni, M. Listanti

Abstract:

We evaluate the average energy consumption per bit in Optical Packet Switches equipped with BENES switching fabric realized in Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) technology. We also study the impact that the Amplifier Spontaneous Emission (ASE) noise generated by a transmission system has on the power consumption of the BENES switches due to the gain saturation of the SOAs used to realize the switching fabric. As a matter of example for 32×32 switches supporting 64 wavelengths and offered traffic equal to 0,8, the average energy consumption per bit is 2, 34 · 10-1 nJ/bit and increases if ASE noise introduced by the transmission systems is increased.

Keywords: Benes, Amplifier Spontaneous Emission Noise, EnergyConsumption, Optical Packet Switch.

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2325 Evaluation of Power Consumption of Spanke Optical Packet Switch

Authors: V. Eramo, E. Miucci, A. Cianfrani, A. Germoni, M. Listanti

Abstract:

The power consumption of an Optical Packet Switch equipped with SOA technology based Spanke switching fabric is evaluated. Sophisticated analytical models are introduced to evaluate the power consumption versus the offered traffic, the main switch parameters, and the used device characteristics. The impact of Amplifier Spontaneous Emission (ASE) noise generated by a transmission system on the power consumption is investigated. As a matter of example for 32×32 switches supporting 64 wavelengths and offered traffic equal to 0,8, the average energy consumption per bit is 5, 07 · 10-2 nJ/bit and increases if ASE noise introduced by the transmission systems is increased.

Keywords: Spanke, Amplifier Spontaneous Emission Noise, Power Consumption, Optical Packet Switch.

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2324 Delay Specific Investigations on QoS Scheduling Schemes for Real-Time Traffic in Packet Switched Networks

Authors: P.S.Prakash, S.Selvan

Abstract:

Packet switched data network like Internet, which has traditionally supported throughput sensitive applications such as email and file transfer, is increasingly supporting delay-sensitive multimedia applications such as interactive video. These delaysensitive applications would often rather sacrifice some throughput for better delay. Unfortunately, the current packet switched network does not offer choices, but instead provides monolithic best-effort service to all applications. This paper evaluates Class Based Queuing (CBQ), Coordinated Earliest Deadline First (CEDF), Weighted Switch Deficit Round Robin (WSDRR) and RED-Boston scheduling schemes that is sensitive to delay bound expectations for variety of real time applications and an enhancement of WSDRR is proposed.

Keywords: QoS, Delay-sensitive, Queuing delay, Scheduling

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