Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: azimuth

29 MIMO Radar-Based System for Structural Health Monitoring and Geophysical Applications

Authors: Davide D’Aria, Paolo Falcone, Luigi Maggi, Aldo Cero, Giovanni Amoroso

Abstract:

The paper presents a methodology for real-time structural health monitoring and geophysical applications. The key elements of the system are a high performance MIMO RADAR sensor, an optical camera and a dedicated set of software algorithms encompassing interferometry, tomography and photogrammetry. The MIMO Radar sensor proposed in this work, provides an extremely high sensitivity to displacements making the system able to react to tiny deformations (up to tens of microns) with a time scale which spans from milliseconds to hours. The MIMO feature of the system makes the system capable of providing a set of two-dimensional images of the observed scene, each mapped on the azimuth-range directions with noticeably resolution in both the dimensions and with an outstanding repetition rate. The back-scattered energy, which is distributed in the 3D space, is projected on a 2D plane, where each pixel has as coordinates the Line-Of-Sight distance and the cross-range azimuthal angle. At the same time, the high performing processing unit allows to sense the observed scene with remarkable refresh periods (up to milliseconds), thus opening the way for combined static and dynamic structural health monitoring. Thanks to the smart TX/RX antenna array layout, the MIMO data can be processed through a tomographic approach to reconstruct the three-dimensional map of the observed scene. This 3D point cloud is then accurately mapped on a 2D digital optical image through photogrammetric techniques, allowing for easy and straightforward interpretations of the measurements. Once the three-dimensional image is reconstructed, a 'repeat-pass' interferometric approach is exploited to provide the user of the system with high frequency three-dimensional motion/vibration estimation of each point of the reconstructed image. At this stage, the methodology leverages consolidated atmospheric correction algorithms to provide reliable displacement and vibration measurements.

Keywords: Interferometry, MIMO RADAR, SAR, tomography.

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28 The Design of Broadband 8x2 Phased Array 5G Antenna MIMO 28 GHz for Base Station

Authors: Muhammad Saiful Fadhil Reyhan, Yusnita Rahayu, Fadhel Muhammadsyah

Abstract:

This paper proposed a design of 16 elements, 8x2 linear fed patch antenna array with 16 ports, for 28 GHz, mm-wave band 5G for base station. The phased array covers along the azimuth plane to provide the coverage to the users in omnidirectional. The proposed antenna is designed RT Duroid 5880 substrate with the overall size of 85x35.6x0.787 mm3. The array is operating from 27.43 GHz to 28.34 GHz with a 910 MHz impedance bandwidth. The gain of the array is 18.3 dB, while the suppression of the side lobes is -1.0 dB. The main lobe direction of the array is 15 deg. The array shows a high array gain throughout the impedance bandwidth with overall of VSWR is below 1.12. The design will be proposed in single element and 16 elements antenna.

Keywords: 5G antenna, 28 GHz, MIMO, omnidirectional, phased array, base station, broadband.

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27 The Magnetized Quantum Breathing in Cylindrical Dusty Plasma

Authors: A. Abdikian

Abstract:

A quantum breathing mode has been theatrically studied in quantum dusty plasma. By using linear quantum hydrodynamic model, not only the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode but also void structure has been derived in the presence of an external magnetic field. Although the phase velocity of the magnetized quantum breathing mode is greater than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode, attenuation of the magnetized quantum breathing mode along radial distance seems to be slower than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode. Clearly, drawing the quantum breathing mode in the presence and absence of a magnetic field, we found that the magnetic field alters the distribution of dust particles and changes the radial and azimuthal velocities around the axis. Because the magnetic field rotates the dust particles and collects them, it could compensate the void structure.

Keywords: The linear quantum hydrodynamic model, the magnetized quantum breathing mode, the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode, void structure.

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26 Orbit Determination Modeling with Graphical Demonstration

Authors: Assem M. F. Sallam, Ah. El-S. Makled

Abstract:

In this paper, there is an implementation, verification, and graphical demonstration of a software application, which can be used swiftly over different preliminary orbit determination methods. A passive orbit determination method is used in this study to determine the location of a satellite or a flying body. It is named a passive orbit determination because it depends on observation without the use of any aids (radio and laser) installed on satellite. In order to understand how these methods work and how their output is accurate when compared with available verification data, the built models help in knowing the different inputs used with each method. Output from the different orbit determination methods (Gibbs, Lambert, and Gauss) will be compared with each other and verified by the data obtained from Satellite Tool Kit (STK) application. A modified model including all of the orbit determination methods using the same input will be introduced to investigate different models output (orbital parameters) for the same input (azimuth, elevation, and time). Simulation software is implemented using MATLAB. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) application named OrDet is produced using the GUI of MATLAB. It includes all the available used inputs and it outputs the current Classical Orbital Elements (COE) of satellite under observation. Produced COE are then used to propagate for a complete revolution and plotted on a 3-D view. Modified model which uses an adapter to allow same input parameters, passes these parameters to the preliminary orbit determination methods under study. Result from all orbit determination methods yield exactly the same COE output, which shows the equality of concept in determination of satellite’s location, but with different numerical methods.

Keywords: Orbit determination, STK, MATLAB-GUI, satellite tracking.

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25 The Enhancement of Target Localization Using Ship-Borne Electro-Optical Stabilized Platform

Authors: Jaehoon Ha, Byungmo Kang, Kilho Hong, Jungsoo Park

Abstract:

Electro-optical (EO) stabilized platforms have been widely used for surveillance and reconnaissance on various types of vehicles, from surface ships to unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). EO stabilized platforms usually consist of an assembly of structure, bearings, and motors called gimbals in which a gyroscope is installed. EO elements such as a CCD camera and IR camera, are mounted to a gimbal, which has a range of motion in elevation and azimuth and can designate and track a target. In addition, a laser range finder (LRF) can be added to the gimbal in order to acquire the precise slant range from the platform to the target. Recently, a versatile functionality of target localization is needed in order to cooperate with the weapon systems that are mounted on the same platform. The target information, such as its location or velocity, needed to be more accurate. The accuracy of the target information depends on diverse component errors and alignment errors of each component. Specially, the type of moving platform can affect the accuracy of the target information. In the case of flying platforms, or UAVs, the target location error can be increased with altitude so it is important to measure altitude as precisely as possible. In the case of surface ships, target location error can be increased with obliqueness of the elevation angle of the gimbal since the altitude of the EO stabilized platform is supposed to be relatively low. The farther the slant ranges from the surface ship to the target, the more extreme the obliqueness of the elevation angle. This can hamper the precise acquisition of the target information. So far, there have been many studies on EO stabilized platforms of flying vehicles. However, few researchers have focused on ship-borne EO stabilized platforms of the surface ship. In this paper, we deal with a target localization method when an EO stabilized platform is located on the mast of a surface ship. Especially, we need to overcome the limitation caused by the obliqueness of the elevation angle of the gimbal. We introduce a well-known approach for target localization using Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) and present the problem definition showing the above-mentioned limitation. Finally, we want to show the effectiveness of the approach that will be demonstrated through computer simulations.

Keywords: Target localization, ship-borne electro-optical stabilized platform, unscented Kalman filter.

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24 A Spatial Repetitive Controller Applied to an Aeroelastic Model for Wind Turbines

Authors: Riccardo Fratini, Riccardo Santini, Jacopo Serafini, Massimo Gennaretti, Stefano Panzieri

Abstract:

This paper presents a nonlinear differential model, for a three-bladed horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) suited for control applications. It is based on a 8-dofs, lumped parameters structural dynamics coupled with a quasi-steady sectional aerodynamics. In particular, using the Euler-Lagrange Equation (Energetic Variation approach), the authors derive, and successively validate, such model. For the derivation of the aerodynamic model, the Greenbergs theory, an extension of the theory proposed by Theodorsen to the case of thin airfoils undergoing pulsating flows, is used. Specifically, in this work, the authors restricted that theory under the hypothesis of low perturbation reduced frequency k, which causes the lift deficiency function C(k) to be real and equal to 1. Furthermore, the expressions of the aerodynamic loads are obtained using the quasi-steady strip theory (Hodges and Ormiston), as a function of the chordwise and normal components of relative velocity between flow and airfoil Ut, Up, their derivatives, and section angular velocity ε˙. For the validation of the proposed model, the authors carried out open and closed-loop simulations of a 5 MW HAWT, characterized by radius R =61.5 m and by mean chord c = 3 m, with a nominal angular velocity Ωn = 1.266rad/sec. The first analysis performed is the steady state solution, where a uniform wind Vw = 11.4 m/s is considered and a collective pitch angle θ = 0.88◦ is imposed. During this step, the authors noticed that the proposed model is intrinsically periodic due to the effect of the wind and of the gravitational force. In order to reject this periodic trend in the model dynamics, the authors propose a collective repetitive control algorithm coupled with a PD controller. In particular, when the reference command to be tracked and/or the disturbance to be rejected are periodic signals with a fixed period, the repetitive control strategies can be applied due to their high precision, simple implementation and little performance dependency on system parameters. The functional scheme of a repetitive controller is quite simple and, given a periodic reference command, is composed of a control block Crc(s) usually added to an existing feedback control system. The control block contains and a free time-delay system eτs in a positive feedback loop, and a low-pass filter q(s). It should be noticed that, while the time delay term reduces the stability margin, on the other hand the low pass filter is added to ensure stability. It is worth noting that, in this work, the authors propose a phase shifting for the controller and the delay system has been modified as e^(−(T−γk)), where T is the period of the signal and γk is a phase shifting of k samples of the same periodic signal. It should be noticed that, the phase shifting technique is particularly useful in non-minimum phase systems, such as flexible structures. In fact, using the phase shifting, the iterative algorithm could reach the convergence also at high frequencies. Notice that, in our case study, the shifting of k samples depends both on the rotor angular velocity Ω and on the rotor azimuth angle Ψ: we refer to this controller as a spatial repetitive controller. The collective repetitive controller has also been coupled with a C(s) = PD(s), in order to dampen oscillations of the blades. The performance of the spatial repetitive controller is compared with an industrial PI controller. In particular, starting from wind speed velocity Vw = 11.4 m/s the controller is asked to maintain the nominal angular velocity Ωn = 1.266rad/s after an instantaneous increase of wind speed (Vw = 15 m/s). Then, a purely periodic external disturbance is introduced in order to stress the capabilities of the repetitive controller. The results of the simulations show that, contrary to a simple PI controller, the spatial repetitive-PD controller has the capability to reject both external disturbances and periodic trend in the model dynamics. Finally, the nominal value of the angular velocity is reached, in accordance with results obtained with commercial software for a turbine of the same type.

Keywords: Wind turbines, aeroelasticity, repetitive control, periodic systems.

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23 Embodiment Design of an Azimuth-Altitude Solar Tracker

Authors: M. Culman, O. Lengerke

Abstract:

To provide an efficient solar generation system, the embodiment design of a two axis solar tracker for an array of photovoltaic (PV) panels destiny to supply the power demand on off-the-grid areas was developed. Photovoltaic cells have high costs in relation to t low efficiency; and while a lot of research and investment has been made to increases its efficiency a few points, there is a profitable solution that increases by 30-40% the annual power production: two axis solar trackers. A solar tracker is a device that supports a load in a perpendicular position toward the sun during daylight. Mounted on solar trackers, the solar panels remain perpendicular to the incoming sunlight at day and seasons so the maximum amount of energy is outputted. Through a preview research done it was justified why the generation of solar energy through photovoltaic panels mounted on dual axis structures is an attractive solution to bring electricity to remote off-the-grid areas. The work results are the embodiment design of an azimuth-altitude solar tracker to guide an array of photovoltaic panels based on a specific design methodology. The designed solar tracker is mounted on a pedestal that uses two slewing drives‚ with a nominal torque of 1950 Nm‚ to move a solar array that provides 3720 W from 12 PV panels.

Keywords: Azimuth-altitude sun tracker, dual-axis solar tracker, photovoltaic system, solar energy, stand-alone power system.

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22 Atmospheric Full Scale Testing of a Morphing Trailing Edge Flap System for Wind Turbine Blades

Authors: Thanasis K. Barlas, Helge A. Madsen

Abstract:

A novel Active Flap System (AFS) has been developed at DTU Wind Energy, as a result of a 3-year R&D project following almost 10 years of innovative research in this field. The full scale AFS comprises an active deformable trailing edge has been tested at the unique rotating test facility at the Risø Campus of DTU Wind Energy in Denmark. The design and instrumentation of the wing section and the AFS are described. The general description and objectives of the rotating test rig at the Risø campus of DTU are presented, along with an overview of sensors on the setup and the test cases. The post-processing of data is discussed and results of steady, flap step and azimuth control flap cases are presented.

Keywords: morphing, adaptive, flap, smart blade, wind turbine.

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21 Simulator Dynamic Positioning System with Azimuthal Thruster

Authors: Robson C. Santos, Christian N. Barreto, Gerson G. Cunha, Severino J. C. Neto

Abstract:

This paper aims to project the construction of a prototype azimuthal thruster, mounted with materials of low cost and easy access, testing in a controlled environment to measure their performance, characteristics and feasibility of future projects. The construction of the simulation of dynamic positioning software, responsible for simulating a vessel and reposition it when necessary. Validation tests were performed in the form of partial or complete system. These tests validate the system manually or automatically. The system provides an interface to the user and simulates the conditions unfavorable positioning of a vessel, accurately calculates the azimuth angle, the direction of rotation of the helix and the time that this should be turned on so that the vessel back to position original. A serial communication connects the Simulation Dynamic Positioning System with Embedded System causing the usergenerated data to simulate the DP system arrives in the form of control signals to the motors of the propellant. This article addresses issues in the marine industry employees.

Keywords: Azimuthal Thruster, Dynamic Positioning, Embedded System.

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20 Solar Calculations of Modified Arch (Semi Spherical) Type Greenhouse System for Bayburt City

Authors: Uğur Çakır, Erol Sahin, Kemal Çomaklı, Aysegül Çokgez Kus

Abstract:

Greenhouses offer us suitable conditions which can be controlled easily for the growth of the plant and they are made by using a covering material that allows the sun light entering into the system. Covering material can be glass, fiber glass, plastic or another transparent element. This study investigates the solar energy usability rates and solar energy benefitting rates of a semi-spherical (modified arch) type greenhouse system according to different orientations and positions which exists under climatic conditions of Bayburt. In the concept of this study it is tried to determine the best direction and best sizes of a semi-spherical greenhouse to get best solar benefit from the sun. To achieve this aim a modeling study is made by using MATLAB. However, this modeling study is run for some determined shapes and greenhouses it can be used for different shaped greenhouses or buildings. The basic parameters are determined as greenhouse azimuth angle, the rate of size of long edge to short and seasonal solar energy gaining of greenhouse. The optimum azimuth angles of 400, 300, 250, 200, 150, 100, 50 m2 modified arch greenhouse are 90o, 90o, 35o, 35o, 34o, 33o and 22o while their optimum k values (ratio of length to width) are 10, 10, 10, 10, 6, 4 and 4 respectively. Positioning the buildings in order to get more solar heat energy in winter and less in summer brings out energy and money savings and increases the comfort.

Keywords: Greenhousing, solar energy, direct radiation, renewable energy.

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19 Design of Reconfigurable Parasitic Antenna for Single RF Chain MIMO Systems

Authors: C. Arunachalaperumal, B. Chandru, J. M. Mathana

Abstract:

In recent years parasitic antenna play major role in MIMO systems because of their gain and spectral efficiency. In this paper, single RF chain MIMO transmitter is designed using reconfigurable parasitic antenna. The Spatial Modulation (SM) is a recently proposed scheme in MIMO scenario which activates only one antenna at a time. The SM entirely avoids ICI and IAS, and only requires a single RF chain at the transmitter. This would switch ON a single transmit-antenna for data transmission while all the other antennas are kept silent. The purpose of the parasitic elements is to change the radiation pattern of the radio waves which is emitted from the driven element and directing them in one direction and hence introduces transmit diversity. Diode is connect between the patch and ground by changing its state (ON and OFF) the parasitic element act as reflector and director and also capable of steering azimuth and elevation angle. This can be achieved by changing the input impedance of each parasitic element through single RF chain. The switching of diode would select the single parasitic antenna for spatial modulation. This antenna is expected to achieve maximum gain with desired efficiency.

Keywords: MIMO system, single RF chain, Parasitic Antenna.

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18 Single-Crystal Kerfless 2D Array Transducer for Volumetric Medical Imaging: Theoretical Study

Authors: Jurij Tasinkiewicz

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to present a theoretical analysis of a 2D ultrasound transducer comprised of crossed arrays of metal strips placed on both sides of thin piezoelectric layer (a). Such a structure is capable of electronic beam-steering of generated wavebeam both in elevation and azimuth. In this paper a semi-analytical model of the considered transducer is developed. It is based on generalization of the well-known BIS-expansion method. Specifically, applying the electrostatic approximation, the electric field components on the surface of the layer are expanded into fast converging series of double periodic spatial harmonics with corresponding amplitudes represented by the properly chosen Legendre polynomials. The problem is reduced to numerical solving of certain system of linear equations for unknown expansion coefficients.

Keywords: Beamforming, transducer array, BIS-expansion.

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17 Generalized Maximum Entropy Method for Cosmic Source Localization

Authors: Youssef Khmou, Said Safi, Miloud Frikel

Abstract:

The Maximum entropy principle in spectral analysis was used as an estimator of Direction of Arrival (DoA) of electromagnetic or acoustic sources impinging on an array of sensors, indeed the maximum entropy operator is very efficient when the signals of the radiating sources are ergodic and complex zero mean random processes which is the case for cosmic sources. In this paper, we present basic review of the maximum entropy method (MEM) which consists of rank one operator but not a projector, and we elaborate a new operator which is full rank and sum of all possible projectors. Two dimensional Simulation results based on Monte Carlo trials prove the resolution power of the new operator where the MEM presents some erroneous fluctuations.

Keywords: Maximum entropy, Cosmic source, Localization, operator, projector, azimuth, elevation, DoA, circular array.

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16 Spin Coherent State Path Integral for the Interaction of Two-Level System with Time Dependent Non-Uniform Magnetic Field

Authors: Rekik Rima, Aouachria Mekki

Abstract:

We study the movement of a two-level atom in interaction with time dependent nonuniform magnetic filed using the path integral formalism. The propagator is first written in the standard form by replacing the spin by a unit vector aligned along the polar and azimuthal directions. Then it is determined exactly using perturbation methods. Thus the Rabi formula of the system are deduced.

Keywords: Path integral, Formalism, Propagator, Transition probability.

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15 Numerical Study of Laminar Mixed Convection Heat Transfer of a Nanofluid in a Concentric Annular Tube Using Two-Phase Mixture Model

Authors: Roghayyeh Motallebzadeh, Shahin Hajizadeh, Mohammad Reza Ghasemi

Abstract:

Laminar mixed Convection heat transfer of a nanofluid with prescribed constant heat flux on the inner wall of horizontal annular tube has been studied numerically based on two-phase mixture model in different Rayleigh Numbers and Azimuth angles. Effects of applying of different volume fractions of Al2O3 nanoparticles in water as a base fluid on hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors of the fluid flow such as axial velocity, secondary flow, temperature, heat transfer coefficient and friction coefficient at the inner and outer wall region, has been investigated. Conservation equations in elliptical form has been utilized and solved in three dimensions for a steady flow. It is observed that, there is a good agreement between results in this work and previously published experimental and numerical works on mixed convection in horizontal annulus. These particles cause to increase convection heat transfer coefficient of the fluid, meanwhile there is no considerable effect on friction coefficient.

Keywords: Buoyancy force, Laminar mixed convection, Mixture model, Nanofluid, Two-phase.

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14 Theoretical Analysis of a Crossed-Electrode 2D Array for 3D Imaging

Authors: Yuriy Tasinkevych, Eugene Danicki

Abstract:

Planar systems of electrodes arranged on both sides of dielectric piezoelectric layer are applied in numerous transducers. They are capable of electronic beam-steering of generated wave both in azimuth and elevation. The wave-beam control is achieved by addressable driving of two-dimensional transducer through proper voltage supply of electrodes on opposite surfaces of the layer. In this paper a semi-analytical method of analysis of the considered transducer is proposed, which is a generalization of the well-known BIS-expansion method. It was earlier exploited with great success in the theory of interdigital transducers of surface acoustic waves, theory of elastic wave scattering by cracks and certain advanced electrostatic problems. The corresponding nontrivial electrostatic problem is formulated and solved numerically.

Keywords: Beamforming, transducer array, BIS-expansion.

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13 Theoretical Analysis of a Crossed-Electrode 2D Array for 3D Imaging

Authors: Yuriy Tasinkevych, Eugene Danicki

Abstract:

Planar systems of electrodes arranged on both sides of dielectric piezoelectric layer are applied in numerous transducers. They are capable of electronic beam-steering of generated wave both in azimuth and elevation. The wave-beam control is achieved by addressable driving of two-dimensional transducer through proper voltage supply of electrodes on opposite surfaces of the layer. In this paper a semi-analytical method of analysis of the considered transducer is proposed, which is a generalization of the well-known BIS-expansion method. It was earlier exploited with great success in the theory of interdigital transducers of surface acoustic waves, theory of elastic wave scattering by cracks and certain advanced electrostatic problems. The corresponding nontrivial electrostatic problem is formulated and solved numerically.

Keywords: Beamforming, transducer array, BIS-expansion.

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12 Cold Analysis for Dispersion, Attenuation and RF Efficiency Characteristics of a Gyrotron Cavity

Authors: R. K. Singh

Abstract:

In the present paper, a gyrotron cavity is analyzed in the absence of electron beam for dispersion, attenuation and RF efficiency. For all these characteristics, azimuthally symmetric TE0n modes have been considered. The attenuation characteristics for TE0n modes indicated decrease in attenuation constant as the frequency is increased. Interestingly, the lowest order TE01 mode resulted in lowest attenuation. Further, three different cavity wall materials have been selected for attenuation characteristics. The cavity made of material with higher conductivity resulted in lower attenuation. The effect of material electrical conductivity on the RF efficiency has also been observed and has been found that the RF efficiency rapidly decreases as the electrical conductivity of the cavity material decreases. The RF efficiency rapidly decreases with increasing diffractive quality factor. The ohmic loss variation as a function of frequency of operation for three different cavities made of copper, aluminum and nickel has been observed. The ohmic losses are lowest for the copper cavity and hence the highest RF efficiency.

Keywords: Gyrotron, dispersion, attenuation, quality factor.

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11 System Identification and Control the Azimuth Angle of the Platform of MLRS by PID Controller

Authors: Parkpoom Ch., Narongkorn D.

Abstract:

This paper presents the system identification by physical-s law method and designs the controller for the Azimuth Angle Control of the Platform of the Multi-Launcher Rocket System (MLRS) by Root Locus technique. The plant mathematical model was approximated using MATLAB for simulation and analyze the system. The controller proposes the implementation of PID Controller using Programmable Logic Control (PLC) for control the plant. PID Controllers are widely applicable in industrial sectors and can be set up easily and operate optimally for enhanced productivity, improved quality and reduce maintenance requirement. The results from simulation and experiments show that the proposed a PID Controller to control the elevation angle that has superior control performance by the setting time less than 12 sec, the rise time less than 1.6 sec., and zero steady state. Furthermore, the system has a high over shoot that will be continue development.

Keywords: Azimuth angle control, PID Controller, The platform of Multi-Launcher Rocket System.

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10 A Development of Home Service Robot using Omni-Wheeled Mobility and Task-Based Manipulation

Authors: Hijun Kim, Jungkeun Sung, Seungwoo Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, a Smart Home Service Robot, McBot II, which performs mess-cleanup function etc. in house, is designed much more optimally than other service robots. It is newly developed in much more practical system than McBot I which we had developed two years ago. One characteristic attribute of mobile platforms equipped with a set of dependent wheels is their omni- directionality and the ability to realize complex translational and rotational trajectories for agile navigation in door. An accurate coordination of steering angle and spinning rate of each wheel is necessary for a consistent motion. This paper develops trajectory controller of 3-wheels omni-directional mobile robot using fuzzy azimuth estimator. A specialized anthropomorphic robot manipulator which can be attached to the housemaid robot McBot II, is developed in this paper. This built-in type manipulator consists of both arms with 3 DOF (Degree of Freedom) each and both hands with 3 DOF each. The robotic arm is optimally designed to satisfy both the minimum mechanical size and the maximum workspace. Minimum mass and length are required for the built-in cooperated-arms system. But that makes the workspace so small. This paper proposes optimal design method to overcome the problem by using neck joint to move the arms horizontally forward/backward and waist joint to move them vertically up/down. The robotic hand, which has two fingers and a thumb, is also optimally designed in task-based concept. Finally, the good performance of the developed McBot II is confirmed through live tests of the mess-cleanup task.

Keywords: Holonomic Omni-wheeled Mobile Robot, Special-purpose, Manipulation, Home Service Robot

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9 Numerical Analysis of the Influence of Airfoil Asymmetry on VAWT Performance

Authors: Marco Raciti Castelli, Giulia Simioni, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

This paper presents a model for the evaluation of energy performance and aerodynamic forces acting on a three-bladed small vertical axis Darrieus wind turbine depending on blade chord curvature with respect to rotor axis. The adopted survey methodology is based on an analytical code coupled to a solid modeling software, capable of generating the desired blade geometry depending on the blade design geometric parameters, which is linked to a finite volume CFD code for the calculation of rotor performance. After describing and validating the model with experimental data, the results of numerical simulations are proposed on the bases of two different blade profile architectures, which are respectively characterized by a straight chord and by a curved one, having a chord radius equal to rotor external circumference. A CFD campaign of analysis is completed for three blade-candidate airfoil sections, that is the recently-developed DU 06-W-200 cambered blade profile, a classical symmetrical NACA 0021 and its derived cambered airfoil, characterized by a curved chord, having a chord radius equal to rotor external circumference. The effects of blade chord curvature on angle of attack, blade tangential and normal forces are first investigated and then the overall rotor torque and power are analyzed as a function of blade azimuthal position, achieving a numerical quantification of the influence of blade camber on overall rotor performance.

Keywords: VAWT, NACA 0021, DU 06-W-200, cambered airfoil

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8 Comparison of Two Airfoil Sections for Application in Straight-Bladed Darrieus VAWT

Authors: Marco Raciti Castelli, Ernesto Benini

Abstract:

This paper presents a model for the evaluation of energy performance and aerodynamic forces acting on a small straight-bladed Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine depending on blade geometrical section. It consists of an analytical code coupled to a solid modeling software, capable of generating the desired blade geometry based on the desired blade design geometric parameters. Such module is then linked to a finite volume commercial CFD code for the calculation of rotor performance by integration of the aerodynamic forces along the perimeter of each blade for a full period of revolution.After describing and validating the computational model with experimental data, the results of numerical simulations are proposed on the bases of two candidate airfoil sections, that is a classical symmetrical NACA 0021 blade profile and the recently developed DU 06-W-200 non-symmetric and laminar blade profile.Through a full CFD campaign of analysis, the effects of blade geometrical section on angle of attack are first investigated and then the overall rotor torque and power are analyzed as a function of blade azimuthal position, achieving a numerical quantification of the influence of airfoil geometry on overall rotor performance.

Keywords: Wind turbine, NACA 0021, DU 06-W-200.

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7 Error Effects on SAR Image Resolution using Range Doppler Imaging Algorithm

Authors: Su Su Yi Mon, Fang Jiancheng

Abstract:

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an imaging radar form by taking full advantage of the relative movement of the antenna with respect to the target. Through the simultaneous processing of the radar reflections over the movement of the antenna via the Range Doppler Algorithm (RDA), the superior resolution of a theoretical wider antenna, termed synthetic aperture, is obtained. Therefore, SAR can achieve high resolution two dimensional imagery of the ground surface. In addition, two filtering steps in range and azimuth direction provide accurate enough result. This paper develops a simulation in which realistic SAR images can be generated. Also, the effect of velocity errors in the resulting image has also been investigated. Taking some velocity errors into account, the simulation results on the image resolution would be presented. Most of the times, algorithms need to be adjusted for particular datasets, or particular applications.

Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Range Doppler Algorithm (RDA), Image Resolution.

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6 Free Convection in an Infinite Porous Dusty Medium Induced by Pulsating Point Heat Source

Authors: K. Kannan, V. Venkataraman

Abstract:

Free convection effects and heat transfer due to a pulsating point heat source embedded in an infinite, fluid saturated, porous dusty medium are studied analytically. Both velocity and temperature fields are discussed in the form of series expansions in the Rayleigh number, for both the fluid and particle phases based on the mean heat generation rate from source and on the permeability of the porous dusty medium. This study is carried out by assuming the Rayleigh number small and the validity of Darcy-s law. Analytical expressions for both phases are obtained for second order mean in both velocity and temperature fields and evolution of different wave patterns are observed in the fluctuating part. It has been observed that, at the vicinity of the origin, the second order mean flow is influenced only by relaxation time of dust particles and not by dust concentration.

Keywords: Pulsating point heat source, azimuthal velocity, porous dusty medium, Darcy's law.

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5 Apply Super-SVA to SAR Imaging with Both Aperture Gaps and Bandwidth Gaps

Authors: Wenshuai Zhai, Yunhua Zhang

Abstract:

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging usually requires echo data collected continuously pulse by pulse with certain bandwidth. However in real situation, data collection or part of signal spectrum can be interrupted due to various reasons, i.e. there will be gaps in spatial spectrum. In this case we need to find ways to fill out the resulted gaps and get image with defined resolution. In this paper we introduce our work on how to apply iterative spatially variant apodization (Super-SVA) technique to extrapolate the spatial spectrum in both azimuthal and range directions so as to fill out the gaps and get correct radar image.

Keywords: SAR imaging, Sparse aperture, Stepped frequencychirp signal, high resolution, Super-SVA

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4 Multiband CPW-Fed Slot Antenna with L-slot Bowtie Tuning Stub

Authors: Prapoch Jirasakulporn

Abstract:

This paper presents a multiband CPW-fed slot antenna with L-slot bowtie tuning stub. The proposed antenna has been designed for PCS 1900, UMTS, WLAN 802.11 a/b/g and bluetooth applications, with a cost-effective FR4 substrate. The proposed antenna still radiate as omni-directional in azimuth plane and sufficient bandwidth for all above mentions. The proposed antenna works as dual-wideband, bandwidth at low frequency band and high frequency are about 45.49 % and 22.39 % respectively. The experimental results of the constructed prototype are presented and also compared with simulation results using a commercial software tool.

Keywords: multiband antenna, slot antenna, CPW-fed, L-slotbowtie stub

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3 A General Stochastic Spatial MIMO Channel Model for Evaluating Various MIMO Techniques

Authors: Fang Shu, Li Lihua, Zhang Ping

Abstract:

A general stochastic spatial MIMO channel model is proposed for evaluating various MIMO techniques in this paper. It can generate MIMO channels complying with various MIMO configurations such as smart antenna, spatial diversity and spatial multiplexing. The modeling method produces the stochastic fading involving delay spread, Doppler spread, DOA (direction of arrival), AS (angle spread), PAS (power azimuth Spectrum) of the scatterers, antenna spacing and the wavelength. It can be applied in various MIMO technique researches flexibly with low computing complexity.

Keywords: MIMO channel, Spatial Correlation, DOA, AS, PAS.

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2 Eigenwave Analysis and Simulation of Disc Loaded Interaction Structure for Wideband Gyro-TWT Amplifier

Authors: R. K. Singh, P. K. Jain

Abstract:

In the present paper, disc loaded interaction structure for potential application in wideband Gyro-TWT amplifier has been analyzed, taking all the space and modal harmonics into consideration, for the eigenwave solutions. The analysis has been restricted to azimuthally symmetric TE0,n mode. Dispersion characteristics have been plotted by varying the structure parameters and have been validated against HFSS simulation results. The variation of eigenvalue with respect to different structure parameters has also been presented. It has been observed that disc periodicity plays very important role for wideband operation of disc-loaded Gyro-TWT.

Keywords: Broadbanding, Disc-loaded interaction structure, Eigenvalue, Gyro-TWT, HFSS.

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1 Tuning Neurons to Interaural Intensity Differences Using Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity

Authors: Bertrand Fontaine, Herbert Peremans

Abstract:

Mammals are known to use Interaural Intensity Difference (IID) to determine azimuthal position of high frequency sounds. In the Lateral Superior Olive (LSO) neurons have firing behaviours which vary systematicaly with IID. Those neurons receive excitatory inputs from the ipsilateral ear and inhibitory inputs from the contralateral one. The IID sensitivity of a LSO neuron is thought to be due to delay differences between both ears, delays due to different synaptic delays and to intensity-dependent delays. In this paper we model the auditory pathway until the LSO. Inputs to LSO neurons are at first numerous and differ in their relative delays. Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity is then used to prune those connections. We compare the pruned neuron responses with physiological data and analyse the relationship between IID-s of teacher stimuli and IID sensitivities of trained LSO neurons.

Keywords: Interaural difference, lateral superior olive, spike time-dependent plasticity.

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