Search results for: Dark channel prior
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1207

Search results for: Dark channel prior

1207 Image Dehazing Using Dark Channel Prior and Fast Guided Filter in Daubechies Lifting Wavelet Transform Domain

Authors: Harpreet Kaur, Sudipta Majumdar

Abstract:

In this paper a method for image dehazing is proposed in lifting wavelet transform domain. Lifting Daubechies (D4) wavelet has been used to obtain the approximate image and detail images.  As the haze is contained in low frequency part, only the approximate image is used for further processing. This region is processed by dehazing algorithm based on dark channel prior (DCP). The dehazed approximate image is then recombined with the detail images using inverse lifting wavelet transform. Implementation of lifting wavelet transform has the advantage of auxiliary memory saving, fast implementation and simplicity. Also, the proposed method deals with near white scene problem, blue horizon issue and localized light sources in a way to enhance image quality and makes the algorithm robust. Simulation results present improvement in terms of visual quality, parameters such as root mean square (RMS) contrast, structural similarity index (SSIM), entropy and execution time.

Keywords: Dark channel prior, image dehazing, lifting wavelet transform.

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1206 Image Haze Removal Using Scene Depth Based Spatially Varying Atmospheric Light in Haar Lifting Wavelet Domain

Authors: Prabh Preet Singh, Harpreet Kaur

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for single image dehazing based on dark channel prior (DCP). The property that the intensity of the dark channel gives an approximate thickness of the haze is used to estimate the transmission and atmospheric light. Instead of constant atmospheric light, the proposed method employs scene depth to estimate spatially varying atmospheric light as it truly occurs in nature. Haze imaging model together with the soft matting method has been used in this work to produce high quality haze free image. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach produces better results than the classic DCP approach as color fidelity and contrast of haze free image are improved and no over-saturation in the sky region is observed. Further, lifting Haar wavelet transform is employed to reduce overall execution time by a factor of two to three as compared to the conventional approach.

Keywords: Depth based atmospheric light, dark channel prior, lifting wavelet.

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1205 Optimization and Determination of Process Parameters in Thin Film SOI Photo-BJMOSFET

Authors: Hai-Qing Xie, Yun Zeng, Yong-Hong Yan, Guo-Liang Zhang, Tai-Hong Wang

Abstract:

We propose photo-BJMOSFET (Bipolar Junction Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) fabricated on SOI film. ITO film is adopted in the device as gate electrode to reduce light absorption. I-V characteristics of photo-BJMOSFET obtained in dark (dark current) and under 570nm illumination (photo current) are studied furthermore to achieve high photo-to-dark-current contrast ratio. Two variables in the calculation were the channel length and the thickness of the film which were set equal to six different values, i.e., L=2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12μm and three different values, i.e., dsi =100, 200 and 300nm, respectively. The results indicate that the greatest photo-to-dark-current contrast ratio is achieved with L=10μm and dsi=200 nm at VGK=0.6V.

Keywords: Photo-to-dark-current contrast ratio, Photo-current, Dark-current, Process parameter

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1204 Social Media as a Distribution Channel for Thailand’s Rice Berry Product

Authors: Phutthiwat Waiyawuththanapoom, Wannapong Waiyawuththanapoom, Pimploi Tirastittam

Abstract:

Nowadays, it is a globalization era which social media plays an important role to the lifestyle as an information source, tools to connect people together and etc. This research is object to find out about the significant level of the social media as a distribution channel to the agriculture product of Thailand. In this research, the agriculture product is the Rice Berry which is the cross-bred unmilled rice producing dark violet grain, is a combination of Hom Nin Rice and Thai Jasmine/ Fragrant Rice 105. Rice Berry has a very high nutrition and nice aroma so the product is in the growth stage of the product cycle. The problem for the Rice Berry product in Thailand is the production and the distribution channel. This study is to confirm that the social media is another option as the distribution channel for the product which is not a mass production product. This will be the role model for the other niche market product to select the distribution channel.

Keywords: Distribution, Social Media, Rice Berry, Distribution Channel.

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1203 Bright–Dark Pulses in Nonlinear Polarisation Rotation Based Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser

Authors: R. Z. R. R. Rosdin, N. M. Ali, S. W. Harun, H. Arof

Abstract:

We have experimentally demonstrated bright-dark pulses in a nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) based mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with a long cavity configuration. Bright–dark pulses could be achieved when the laser works in the passively mode-locking regime and the net group velocity dispersion is quite anomalous. The EDFL starts to generate a bright pulse train with degenerated dark pulse at the mode-locking threshold pump power of 35.09 mW by manipulating the polarization states of the laser oscillation modes using a polarization controller (PC). A split bright–dark pulse is generated when further increasing the pump power up to 37.95 mW. Stable bright pulses with no obvious evidence of a dark pulse can also be generated when further adjusting PC and increasing the pump power up to 52.19 mW. At higher pump power of 54.96 mW, a new form of bright-dark pulse emission was successfully identified with the repetition rate of 29 kHz. The bright and dark pulses have a duration of 795.5 ns and 640 ns, respectively.

Keywords: Erbium-doped fiber laser, Nonlinear polarization rotation, bright-dark pulse.

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1202 Newtonian Mechanics Descriptions for General Relativity Experimental Tests, Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Authors: Jing-Gang Xie

Abstract:

As the continuation to the previous studies of gravitational frequency shift, gravitational time dilation, gravitational light bending, gravitational waves, dark matter, and dark energy are explained in the context of Newtonian mechanics. The photon is treated as the particle with mass of hν/C2 under the gravitational field of much larger mass of M. Hence the quantum mechanics theory could be applied to gravitational field on cosmology scale. The obtained results are the same as those obtained by general relativity considering weak gravitational field approximation; however, the results are different when the gravitational field is substantially strong.

Keywords: Gravitational time dilation, gravitational light bending, gravitational waves, dark matter, dark energy, General Relativity, gravitational frequency shift.

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1201 Labeling Method in Steganography

Authors: H. Motameni, M. Norouzi, M. Jahandar, A. Hatami

Abstract:

In this paper a way of hiding text message (Steganography) in the gray image has been presented. In this method tried to find binary value of each character of text message and then in the next stage, tried to find dark places of gray image (black) by converting the original image to binary image for labeling each object of image by considering on 8 connectivity. Then these images have been converted to RGB image in order to find dark places. Because in this way each sequence of gray color turns into RGB color and dark level of grey image is found by this way if the Gary image is very light the histogram must be changed manually to find just dark places. In the final stage each 8 pixels of dark places has been considered as a byte and binary value of each character has been put in low bit of each byte that was created manually by dark places pixels for increasing security of the main way of steganography (LSB).

Keywords: Binary image, labeling, low bit, neighborhood, RGB image, steganography, threshold.

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1200 BER Performance of UWB Modulations through S-V Channel Model

Authors: Risanuri Hidayat

Abstract:

BER analysis of Impulse Radio Ultra Wideband (IRUWB) pulse modulations over S-V channel model is proposed in this paper. The UWB pulse is Gaussian monocycle pulse modulated using Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) and Pulse Position Modulation (PPM). The channel model is generated from a modified S-V model. Bit-error rate (BER) is measured over several of bit rates. The result shows that all modulation are appropriate for both LOS and NLOS channel, but PAM gives better performance in bit rates and SNR. Moreover, as standard of speed has been given for UWB, the communication is appropriate with high bit rates in LOS channel.

Keywords: IR-UWB, S-V Channel Model, LOS NLOS, PAM, PPM

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1199 Analysis of Joint Source Channel LDPC Coding for Correlated Sources Transmission over Noisy Channels

Authors: Marwa Ben Abdessalem, Amin Zribi, Ammar Bouallègue

Abstract:

In this paper, a Joint Source Channel coding scheme based on LDPC codes is investigated. We consider two concatenated LDPC codes, one allows to compress a correlated source and the second to protect it against channel degradations. The original information can be reconstructed at the receiver by a joint decoder, where the source decoder and the channel decoder run in parallel by transferring extrinsic information. We investigate the performance of the JSC LDPC code in terms of Bit-Error Rate (BER) in the case of transmission over an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel, and for different source and channel rate parameters. We emphasize how JSC LDPC presents a performance tradeoff depending on the channel state and on the source correlation. We show that, the JSC LDPC is an efficient solution for a relatively low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) channel, especially with highly correlated sources. Finally, a source-channel rate optimization has to be applied to guarantee the best JSC LDPC system performance for a given channel.

Keywords: AWGN channel, belief propagation, joint source channel coding, LDPC codes.

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1198 Numerical Simulation of Effect of Various Rib Configurations on Enhancing Heat Transfer of Matrix Cooling Channel

Authors: Seok Min Choi, Minho Bang, Seuong Yun Kim, Hyungmin Lee, Won-Gu Joo, Hyung Hee Cho

Abstract:

The matrix cooling channel was used for gas turbine blade cooling passage. The matrix cooling structure is useful for the structure stability however the cooling performance of internal cooling channel was not enough for cooling. Therefore, we designed the rib configurations in the matrix cooling channel to enhance the cooling performance. The numerical simulation was conducted to analyze cooling performance of rib configured matrix cooling channel. Three different rib configurations were used which are vertical rib, angled rib and c-type rib. Three configurations were adopted in two positions of matrix cooling channel which is one fourth and three fourth of channel. The result shows that downstream rib has much higher cooling performance than upstream rib. Furthermore, the angled rib in the channel has much higher cooling performance than vertical rib. This is because; the angled rib improves the swirl effect of matrix cooling channel more effectively. The friction factor was increased with the installation of rib. However, the thermal performance was increased with the installation of rib in the matrix cooling channel.

Keywords: Matrix cooling, rib, heat transfer, gas turbine.

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1197 Bit Error Rate Analysis of Mobile Communication Network in Nakagami Fading Channel: Interference Considerations

Authors: Manoranjan Das, Benudhar Sahu, Urmila Bhanja

Abstract:

Co-channel interference is one of the major problems in wireless systems. The effects of co-channel interference in a Nakagami fading channel on the ABER (Average Bit Error Rate) with static nodes are well analyzed. In this paper, we derive the ABER with the presence of mobile nodes. ABER is also derived for mobile systems in the presence of co-channel interference.

Keywords: ABER, co-channel interference, Nakagami fading.

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1196 Adaptive Transmission Scheme Based on Channel State in Dual-Hop System

Authors: Seung-Jun Yu, Yong-Jun Kim, Jung-In Baik, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In this paper, a dual-hop relay based on channel state is studied. In the conventional relay scheme, a relay uses the same modulation method without reference to channel state. But, a relay uses an adaptive modulation method with reference to channel state. If the channel state is poor, a relay eliminates latter 2 bits and uses Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulation. If channel state is good, a relay modulates the received symbols with 16-QAM symbols by using 4 bits. The performance of the proposed scheme for Symbol Error Rate (SER) and throughput is analyzed.

Keywords: Adaptive transmission, channel state, dual-hop, hierarchical modulation, relay.

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1195 Robust Image Transmission Over Time-varying Channels using Hierarchical Joint Source Channel Coding

Authors: Hatem. Elmeddeb, Noureddine, Hamdi, Ammar. Bouallègue

Abstract:

In this paper, a joint source-channel coding (JSCC) scheme for time-varying channels is presented. The proposed scheme uses hierarchical framework for both source encoder and transmission via QAM modulation. Hierarchical joint source channel codes with hierarchical QAM constellations are designed to track the channel variations which yields to a higher throughput by adapting certain parameters of the receiver to the channel variation. We consider the problem of still image transmission over time-varying channels with channel state information (CSI) available at 1) receiver only and 2) both transmitter and receiver being informed about the state of the channel. We describe an algorithm that optimizes hierarchical source codebooks by minimizing the distortion due to source quantizer and channel impairments. Simulation results, based on image representation, show that, the proposed hierarchical system outperforms the conventional schemes based on a single-modulator and channel optimized source coding.

Keywords: Channel-optimized VQ (COVQ), joint optimization, QAM, hierarchical systems.

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1194 Formation of Round Channel for Microfluidic Applications

Authors: A. Zahra, G. de Cesare, D. Caputo, A. Nascetti

Abstract:

PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) polymer is a suitable material for biological and MEMS (Microelectromechanical systems) designers, because of its biocompatibility, transparency and high resistance under plasma treatment. PDMS round channel is always been of great interest due to its ability to confine the liquid with membrane type micro valves. In this paper we are presenting a very simple way to form round shapemicrofluidic channel, which is based on reflow of positive photoresist AZ® 40 XT. With this method, it is possible to obtain channel of different height simply by varying the spin coating parameters of photoresist.

Keywords: Lab-on-Chip, PDMS, Reflow, Round microfluidic channel.

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1193 Cyber Aggression / Cyber Bullying and the Dark Triad: Effect on Workplace Behavior / Performance

Authors: Anishya Obhrai Madan

Abstract:

In an increasingly connected world, where speed of communication attempts to match the speed of thought and thus intentions; conflict gets actioned faster using media like the internet and telecommunication technology. This has led to a new form of aggression: “cyber bullying”. The present paper attempts to integrate existing theory on bullying, and the dark triad personality traits in a work environment and extrapolate it to the cyber context.

Keywords: Conflict at Work, Cyber bullying, Dark Triad of Personality, Toxic Employee.

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1192 Parallel Joint Channel Coding and Cryptography

Authors: Nataša Živić, Christoph Ruland

Abstract:

Method of Parallel Joint Channel Coding and Cryptography has been analyzed and simulated in this paper. The method is an extension of Soft Input Decryption with feedback, which is used for improvement of channel decoding of secured messages. Parallel Joint Channel Coding and Cryptography results in improved coding gain of channel decoding, which achieves more than 2 dB. Such results are an implication of a combination of receiver components and their interoperability.

Keywords: Block length, Coding gain, Feedback, L-values, Parallel Joint Channel Coding and Cryptography, Soft Input Decryption.

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1191 CFD simulation of Pressure Drops in Liquid Acquisition Device Channel with Sub-Cooled Oxygen

Authors: David J. Chato, John B. McQuillen, Brian J.Motil, David F. Chao, Nengli Zhang

Abstract:

In order to better understand the performance of screen channel liquid acquisition devices (LADs) in liquid oxygen (LOX), a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of LOX passing through a LAD screen channel was conducted. In the simulation, the screen is taken as a 'porous jump' where the pressure drop across the screen depends on the incoming velocity and is formulated by Δp = Av + Bv2 . The CFD simulation reveals the importance of the pressure losses due to the flow entering from across the screen and impacting and merging with the channel flow and the vortices in the channel to the cumulative flow resistance. In fact, both the flow resistance of flows impact and mergence and the resistance created by vortices are much larger than the friction and dynamic pressure losses in the channel and are comparable to the flow resistance across the screen. Therefore, these resistances in the channel must be considered as part of the evaluation for the LAD channel performance. For proper operation of a LAD in LOX these resistances must be less than the bubble point pressure for the screen channel in LOX. The simulation also presents the pressure and velocity distributions within the LAD screen channel, expanding the understanding of the fluid flow characteristics within the channel.

Keywords: Liquid acquisition devices, liquid oxygen, pressure drop, vortex, bubble point, flow rate limitation.

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1190 Gravitino Dark Matter in (nearly) SLagy D3/D7 m-Split SUSY

Authors: Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra

Abstract:

In the context of large volume Big Divisor (nearly) SLagy D3/D7 μ-Split SUSY [1], after an explicit identification of first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic superpartners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate by explicitly calculating the decay life times of gravitino (LSP) to be greater than age of universe and lifetimes of decays of the co-NLSPs (the first generation squark/slepton and a neutralino) to the LSP (the gravitino) to be very small to respect BBN constraints. Interested in non-thermal production mechanism of gravitino, we evaluate the relic abundance of gravitino LSP in terms of that of the co-NLSP-s by evaluating their (co-)annihilation cross sections and hence show that the former satisfies the requirement for a potential Dark Matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

Keywords: Split Supersymmetry, Large Volume Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau's, Dark Matter, (N)LSP decays, relic abundance.

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1189 Study of Adaptive Filtering Algorithms and the Equalization of Radio Mobile Channel

Authors: Said Elkassimi, Said Safi, B. Manaut

Abstract:

This paper presented a study of three algorithms, the equalization algorithm to equalize the transmission channel with ZF and MMSE criteria, application of channel Bran A, and adaptive filtering algorithms LMS and RLS to estimate the parameters of the equalizer filter, i.e. move to the channel estimation and therefore reflect the temporal variations of the channel, and reduce the error in the transmitted signal. So far the performance of the algorithm equalizer with ZF and MMSE criteria both in the case without noise, a comparison of performance of the LMS and RLS algorithm.

Keywords: Adaptive filtering second equalizer, LMS, RLS Bran A, Proakis (B) MMSE, ZF.

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1188 A Fast Adaptive Tomlinson-Harashima Precoder for Indoor Wireless Communications

Authors: M. Naresh Kumar, Abhijit Mitra, C. Ardil

Abstract:

A fast adaptive Tomlinson Harashima (T-H) precoder structure is presented for indoor wireless communications, where the channel may vary due to rotation and small movement of the mobile terminal. A frequency-selective slow fading channel which is time-invariant over a frame is assumed. In this adaptive T-H precoder, feedback coefficients are updated at the end of every uplink frame by using system identification technique for channel estimation in contrary with the conventional T-H precoding concept where the channel is estimated during the starting of the uplink frame via Wiener solution. In conventional T-H precoder it is assumed the channel is time-invariant in both uplink and downlink frames. However assuming the channel is time-invariant over only one frame instead of two, the proposed adaptive T-H precoder yields better performance than conventional T-H precoder if the channel is varied in uplink after receiving the training sequence.

Keywords: Tomlinson-Harashima precoder, Adaptive channel estimation, Indoor wireless communication, Bit error rate.

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1187 Influence of Channel Depth on the Performance of Wavy Fin Absorber Solar Air Heater

Authors: Abhishek Priyam, Prabha Chand

Abstract:

Channel depth is an important design parameter to be fixed in designing a solar air heater. In this paper, a mathematical model has been developed to study the influence of channel duct on the thermal performance of solar air heaters. The channel depth has been varied from 1.5 cm to 3.5 cm for the mass flow range 0.01 to 0.11 kg/s. Based on first law of thermodynamics, the channel depth of 1.5 cm shows better thermal performance for all the mass flow range. Also, better thermohydraulic performance has been found up to 0.05 kg/s, and beyond this, thermohydraulic efficiency starts decreasing. It has been seen that, with the increase in the mass flow rate, the difference between thermal and thermohydraulic efficiency increases because of the increase in pressure drop. At lower mass flow rate, 0.01 kg/s, the thermal and thermohydraulic efficiencies for respective channel depth remain the same.

Keywords: Channel depth, thermal efficiency, wavy fin, thermohydraulic efficiency.

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1186 A Novel Pilot Scheme for Frequency Offset and Channel Estimation in 2x2 MIMO-OFDM

Authors: N. Promsuwanna, P. Uthansakul, M. Uthansakul

Abstract:

The Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO) due to timevarying fading channel is the main cause of the loss of orthogonality among OFDM subcarriers which is linked to inter-carrier interference (ICI). Hence, it is necessary to precisely estimate and compensate the CFO. Especially for mobile broadband communications, CFO and channel gain also have to be estimated and tracked to maintain the system performance. Thus, synchronization pilots are embedded in every OFDM symbol to track the variations. In this paper, we present the pilot scheme for both channel and CFO estimation where channel estimation process can be carried out with only one OFDM symbol. Additional, the proposed pilot scheme also provides better performance in CFO estimation comparing with the conventional orthogonal pilot scheme due to the increasing of signal-tointerference ratio.

Keywords: MIMO, OFDM, carrier frequency offset, channel, estimation.

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1185 Brand Position Communication Channel for Rajabhat University

Authors: Narong Anurak

Abstract:

The objective of this research was to study Brand Position Communication Channel in Brand Building in Rajabhat University Affecting Decision Making of Higher Education from of qualitative research and in-depth interview with executive members Rajabhat University and also quantitative by questionnaires which are personal data of students, study of the acceptance and the finding of the information of Rajabhat University, study of pattern or Brand Position Communication Channel affecting the decision making of studying in Rajabhat University and the result of the communication in Brand Position Communication Channel. It is found that online channel and word of mount are highly important and necessary for education business since media channel is a tool and the management of marketing communication to create brand awareness, brand credibility and to achieve the high acclaim in terms of bringing out qualified graduates. Also, off-line channel can enable the institution to survive from the high competition especially in education business regarding management of the Rajabhat University. Therefore, Rajabhat University has to communicate by the various communication channel strategies for brand building for attractive student to make decision making of higher education.

Keywords: Brand Position, Communication Channel, Rajabhat University.

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1184 A Degraded Practical MIMOME Channel: Issues Insecret Data Communications

Authors: Mohammad Rakibul Islam

Abstract:

In this paper, a Gaussian multiple input multiple output multiple eavesdropper (MIMOME) channel is considered where a transmitter communicates to a receiver in the presence of an eavesdropper. We present a technique for determining the secrecy capacity of the multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channel under Gaussian noise. We transform the degraded MIMOME channel into multiple single input multiple output (SIMO) Gaussian wire-tap channels and then use scalar approach to convert it into two equivalent multiple input single output (MISO) channels. The secrecy capacity model is then developed for the condition where the channel state information (CSI) for main channel only is known to the transmitter. The results show that the secret communication is possible when the eavesdropper channel noise is greater than a cutoff noise level. The outage probability is also analyzed of secrecy capacity is also analyzed. The effect of fading and outage probability is also analyzed.

Keywords: Secrecy capacity, MIMO, wiretap channel, covariance matrix, fading.

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1183 Software-Defined Radio Based Channel Measurement System of Wideband HF Communication System in Low-Latitude Region

Authors: P. H. Mukti, I. Kurniawati, F. Oktaviansyah, A. D. Adhitya, N. Rachmadani, R. Corputty, G. Hendrantoro, T. Fukusako

Abstract:

HF Communication system is one of the attractive fields among many researchers since it can be reached long-distance areas with low-cost. This long-distance communication can be achieved by exploiting the ionosphere as a transmission medium for the HF radio wave. However, due to the dynamic nature of ionosphere, the channel characteristic of HF communication has to be investigated in order to gives better performances. Many techniques to characterize HF channel are available in the literature. However, none of those techniques describe the HF channel characteristic in low-latitude regions, especially equatorial areas. Since the ionosphere around equatorial region has an ESF phenomenon, it becomes an important investigation to characterize the wideband HF Channel in low-latitude region. On the other sides, the appearance of software-defined radio attracts the interest of many researchers. Accordingly, in this paper a SDR-based channel measurement system is proposed to be used for characterizing the HF channel in low-latitude region.

Keywords: Channel Characteristic, HF Communication System, LabVIEW, Software-Defined Radio, Universal Software Radio Pheripheral.

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1182 Natural Disaster Tourism as a Type of Dark Tourism

Authors: Dorota Rucińska

Abstract:

This theoretical paper combines the academic discourse regarding a specific part of dark tourism. Based on the literature analysis, distinction of natural disasters in thanatourism was investigated, which is connected with dynamic geographical conditions. Natural disasters used to play an important role in social life by their appearance in myths and religions. Nowadays, tourists pursuing natural hazards can be divided into three groups: Those interested in natural hazards themselves; those interested in landscape deformation and experiencing emotions shortly after extreme events - natural disasters - occur; and finally those interested in historic places log after an extreme event takes place. An important element of the natural disaster tourism is quick access to information on the location of a disaster and the destination of a potential excursion. Natural disaster tourism suits alternative tourism, yet it is opposed culture tourism, and sustainable tourism. The paper compares types and groups of tourists. It also considers the contradictions that describe dualism, which exists in dark tourism.

Keywords: Dark tourism, dualism, natural disasters, natural hazards, thanatoursim.

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1181 Low Overhead Dynamic Channel Selection with Cluster-Based Spatial-Temporal Station Reporting in Wireless Networks

Authors: Zeyad Abdelmageid, Xianbin Wang

Abstract:

Choosing the operational channel for a WLAN access point (AP) in WLAN networks has been a static channel assignment process initiated by the user during the deployment process of the AP, which fails to cope with the dynamic conditions of the assigned channel at the station side afterwards. However, the dramatically growing number of Wi-Fi APs and stations operating in the unlicensed band has led to dynamic, distributed and often severe interference. This highlights the urgent need for the AP to dynamically select the best overall channel of operation for the basic service set (BSS) by considering the distributed and changing channel conditions at all stations. Consequently, dynamic channel selection algorithms which consider feedback from the station side have been developed. Despite the significant performance improvement, existing channel selection algorithms suffer from very high feedback overhead. Feedback latency from the STAs, due the high overhead, can cause the eventually selected channel to no longer be optimal for operation due to the dynamic sharing nature of the unlicensed band. This has inspired us to develop our own dynamic channel selection algorithm with reduced overhead through the proposed low-overhead, cluster-based station reporting mechanism. The main idea behind the cluster-based station reporting is the observation that STAs which are very close to each other tend to have very similar channel conditions. Instead of requesting each STA to report on every candidate channel while causing high overhead, the AP divides STAs into clusters then assigns each STA in each cluster one channel to report feedback on. With proper design of the cluster based reporting, the AP does not lose any information about the channel conditions at the station side while reducing feedback overhead. The simulation results show equal performance and at times better performance with a fraction of the overhead. We believe that this algorithm has great potential in designing future dynamic channel selection algorithms with low overhead.

Keywords: Channel assignment, Wi-Fi networks, clustering, DBSCAN, overhead.

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1180 IMM based Kalman Filter for Channel Estimation in MB OFDM Systems

Authors: C.Ramesh, V.Vaidehi

Abstract:

Ultra-wide band (UWB) communication is one of the most promising technologies for high data rate wireless networks for short range applications. This paper proposes a blind channel estimation method namely IMM (Interactive Multiple Model) Based Kalman algorithm for UWB OFDM systems. IMM based Kalman filter is proposed to estimate frequency selective time varying channel. In the proposed method, two Kalman filters are concurrently estimate the channel parameters. The first Kalman filter namely Static Model Filter (SMF) gives accurate result when the user is static while the second Kalman filter namely the Dynamic Model Filter (DMF) gives accurate result when the receiver is in moving state. The static transition matrix in SMF is assumed as an Identity matrix where as in DMF, it is computed using Yule-Walker equations. The resultant filter estimate is computed as a weighted sum of individual filter estimates. The proposed method is compared with other existing channel estimation methods.

Keywords: Channel estimation, Kalman filter, UWB, Channel model, AR model

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1179 Channel Length Modulation Effect on Monolayer Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistor

Authors: Mehdi Saeidmanesh, Razali Ismail

Abstract:

Recently, Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistors (GNR FETs) attract a great deal of attention due to their better performance in comparison with conventional devices. In this paper, channel length Modulation (CLM) effect on the electrical characteristics of GNR FETs is analytically studied and modeled. To this end, the special distribution of the electric potential along the channel and current-voltage characteristic of the device is modeled. The obtained results of analytical model are compared to the experimental data of published works. As a result, it is observable that considering the effect of CLM, the current-voltage response of GNR FET is more realistic.

Keywords: Graphene nanoribbon, field effect transistors, short channel effects, channel length modulation.

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1178 MIMO-OFDM Channel Tracking Using a Dynamic ANN Topology

Authors: Manasjyoti Bhuyan, Kandarpa Kumar Sarma

Abstract:

All the available algorithms for blind estimation namely constant modulus algorithm (CMA), Decision-Directed Algorithm (DDA/DFE) suffer from the problem of convergence to local minima. Also, if the channel drifts considerably, any DDA looses track of the channel. So, their usage is limited in varying channel conditions. The primary limitation in such cases is the requirement of certain overhead bits in the transmit framework which leads to wasteful use of the bandwidth. Also such arrangements fail to use channel state information (CSI) which is an important aid in improving the quality of reception. In this work, the main objective is to reduce the overhead imposed by the pilot symbols, which in effect reduces the system throughput. Also we formulate an arrangement based on certain dynamic Artificial Neural Network (ANN) topologies which not only contributes towards the lowering of the overhead but also facilitates the use of the CSI. A 2×2 Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) system is simulated and the performance variation with different channel estimation schemes are evaluated. A new semi blind approach based on dynamic ANN is proposed for channel tracking in varying channel conditions and the performance is compared with perfectly known CSI and least square (LS) based estimation.

Keywords: MIMO, Artificial Neural Network (ANN), CMA, LS, CSI.

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