Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: worm

23 Efficient STAKCERT KDD Processes in Worm Detection

Authors: Madihah Mohd Saudi, Andrea J Cullen, Mike E Woodward

Abstract:

This paper presents a new STAKCERT KDD processes for worm detection. The enhancement introduced in the data-preprocessing resulted in the formation of a new STAKCERT model for worm detection. In this paper we explained in detail how all the processes involved in the STAKCERT KDD processes are applied within the STAKCERT model for worm detection. Based on the experiment conducted, the STAKCERT model yielded a 98.13% accuracy rate for worm detection by integrating the STAKCERT KDD processes.

Keywords: data mining, incident response, KDD processes, security metrics and worm detection.

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22 File System-Based Data Protection Approach

Authors: Jaechun No

Abstract:

As data to be stored in storage subsystems tremendously increases, data protection techniques have become more important than ever, to provide data availability and reliability. In this paper, we present the file system-based data protection (WOWSnap) that has been implemented using WORM (Write-Once-Read-Many) scheme. In the WOWSnap, once WORM files have been created, only the privileged read requests to them are allowed to protect data against any intentional/accidental intrusions. Furthermore, all WORM files are related to their protection cycle that is a time period during which WORM files should securely be protected. Once their protection cycle is expired, the WORM files are automatically moved to the general-purpose data section without any user interference. This prevents the WORM data section from being consumed by unnecessary files. We evaluated the performance of WOWSnap on Linux cluster.

Keywords: Data protection, Protection cycle, WORM

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21 Combinatorial Optimisation of Worm Propagationon an Unknown Network

Authors: Eric Filiol, Edouard Franc, Alessandro Gubbioli, Benoit Moquet, Guillaume Roblot

Abstract:

Worm propagation profiles have significantly changed since 2003-2004: sudden world outbreaks like Blaster or Slammer have progressively disappeared and slower but stealthier worms appeared since, most of them for botnets dissemination. Decreased worm virulence results in more difficult detection. In this paper, we describe a stealth worm propagation model which has been extensively simulated and analysed on a huge virtual network. The main features of this model is its ability to infect any Internet-like network in a few seconds, whatever may be its size while greatly limiting the reinfection attempt overhead of already infected hosts. The main simulation results shows that the combinatorial topology of routing may have a huge impact on the worm propagation and thus some servers play a more essential and significant role than others. The real-time capability to identify them may be essential to greatly hinder worm propagation.

Keywords: Combinatorial worm, worm spreading, worm virulence, stealth worm, spreading simulation, vertex cover, networktopology, WAST simulator, SuWAST simulator.

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20 Worm Gearing Design Improvement by Considering Varying Mesh Stiffness

Authors: A. H. Elkholy, A. H. Falah

Abstract:

A new approach has been developed to estimate the load share and distribution of worm gear drives, and to calculate the instantaneous tooth meshing stiffness. In the approach, the worm gear drive was modelled as a series of spur gear slices, and each slice was analyzed separately using the well-established formulae of spur gear loading and stresses. By combining the results obtained for all slices, the entire envolute worm gear set loading and stressing was obtained. The geometric modelling method presented allows tooth elastic deformation and tooth root stresses of worm gear drives under different load conditions to be investigated. Based on the slicing method introduced in this study, the instantaneous meshing stiffness and load share are obtained. In comparison with existing methods, this approach has both good analysis accuracy and less computing time.

Keywords: Gear, load/stress distribution, worm, wheel, tooth stiffness, contact line.

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19 Propagation Model for a Mass-Mailing Worm with Mailing List

Authors: Akira Kanaoka, Eiji Okamoto

Abstract:

Mass-mail type worms have threatened to become a large problem for the Internet. Although many researchers have analyzed such worms, there are few studies that consider worm propagation via mailing lists. In this paper, we present a mass-mailing type worm propagation model including the mailing list effect on the propagation. We study its propagation by simulation with a real e¬mail social network model. We show that the impact of the mailing list on the mass-mail worm propagation is significant, even if the mailing list is not large.

Keywords: Malware, simulation, complex networks

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18 Distributed Detection and Optimal Traffic-blocking of Network Worms

Authors: Zoran Nikoloski, Narsingh Deo, Ludek Kucera

Abstract:

Despite the recent surge of research in control of worm propagation, currently, there is no effective defense system against such cyber attacks. We first design a distributed detection architecture called Detection via Distributed Blackholes (DDBH). Our novel detection mechanism could be implemented via virtual honeypots or honeynets. Simulation results show that a worm can be detected with virtual honeypots on only 3% of the nodes. Moreover, the worm is detected when less than 1.5% of the nodes are infected. We then develop two control strategies: (1) optimal dynamic trafficblocking, for which we determine the condition that guarantees minimum number of removed nodes when the worm is contained and (2) predictive dynamic traffic-blocking–a realistic deployment of the optimal strategy on scale-free graphs. The predictive dynamic traffic-blocking, coupled with the DDBH, ensures that more than 40% of the network is unaffected by the propagation at the time when the worm is contained.

Keywords: Network worms, distributed detection, optimaltraffic-blocking, individual-based simulation.

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17 Friction Calculation and Simulation of Column Electric Power Steering System

Authors: Seyed Hamid Mirmohammad Sadeghi, Raffaella Sesana, Daniela Maffiodo

Abstract:

This study presents a procedure for friction calculation of column electric power steering (C-EPS) system which affects handling and comfort in driving. The friction losses estimation is obtained from experimental tests and mathematical calculation. Parts in C-EPS mainly involved in friction losses are bearings and worm gear. In the theoretical approach, the gear geometry and Hertz law were employed to measure the normal load and the sliding velocity and contact areas from the worm gears driving conditions. The viscous friction generated in the worm gear was obtained with a theoretical approach and the result was applied to model the friction in the steering system. Finally, by viscous friction coefficient and Coulomb friction coefficient, values of friction in worm gear were calculated. According to the Bearing Company and the characteristics of each bearing, the friction torques due to load and due to speed were calculated. A MATLAB Simulink model for calculating the friction in bearings and worm gear in C-EPS were done and the total friction value was estimated.

Keywords: Friction, worm gear, column electric power steering system, Simulink, bearing, electric power steering, EPS.

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16 Improving Worm Detection with Artificial Neural Networks through Feature Selection and Temporal Analysis Techniques

Authors: Dima Stopel, Zvi Boger, Robert Moskovitch, Yuval Shahar, Yuval Elovici

Abstract:

Computer worm detection is commonly performed by antivirus software tools that rely on prior explicit knowledge of the worm-s code (detection based on code signatures). We present an approach for detection of the presence of computer worms based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) using the computer's behavioral measures. Identification of significant features, which describe the activity of a worm within a host, is commonly acquired from security experts. We suggest acquiring these features by applying feature selection methods. We compare three different feature selection techniques for the dimensionality reduction and identification of the most prominent features to capture efficiently the computer behavior in the context of worm activity. Additionally, we explore three different temporal representation techniques for the most prominent features. In order to evaluate the different techniques, several computers were infected with five different worms and 323 different features of the infected computers were measured. We evaluated each technique by preprocessing the dataset according to each one and training the ANN model with the preprocessed data. We then evaluated the ability of the model to detect the presence of a new computer worm, in particular, during heavy user activity on the infected computers.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Feature Selection, Temporal Analysis, Worm Detection.

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15 Dispersed Error Control based on Error Filter Design for Improving Halftone Image Quality

Authors: Sang-Chul Kim, Sung-Il Chien

Abstract:

The error diffusion method generates worm artifacts, and weakens the edge of the halftone image when the continuous gray scale image is reproduced by a binary image. First, to enhance the edges, we propose the edge-enhancing filter by considering the quantization error information and gradient of the neighboring pixels. Furthermore, to remove worm artifacts often appearing in a halftone image, we add adaptively random noise into the weights of an error filter.

Keywords: Artifact suppression, Edge enhancement, Error diffusion method, Halftone image

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14 Effectiveness Evaluation of a Machine Design Process Based on the Computation of the Specific Output

Authors: Barenten Suciu

Abstract:

In this paper, effectiveness of a machine design process is evaluated on the basis of the specific output calculus. Concretely, a screw-worm gear mechanical transmission is designed by using the classical and the 3D-CAD methods. Strength analysis and drawing of the designed parts is substantially aided by employing the SolidWorks software. Quality of the design process is assessed by manufacturing (printing) the parts, and by computing the efficiency, specific load, as well as the specific output (work) of the mechanical transmission. Influence of the stroke, travelling velocity and load on the mechanical output, is emphasized. Optimal design of the mechanical transmission becomes possible by the appropriate usage of the acquired results.

Keywords: Mechanical transmission, design, screw, worm-gear, efficiency, specific output, 3D-printing.

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13 Study of the Efficacy of Cysteine Protease Inhibitors Alone or Combined with Praziquantel as Chemotherapy for Mice Schistosomiasis mansoni

Authors: Farid A., Ismail A., Rabee I., Zalat R. El Amir A.

Abstract:

This study was designed for assessment of 3 types of Cysteine protease inhibitors (CPIs) fluromethylketone (FMK), vinyl sulfone (VS) and sodium nitro prussid (SNP), to define which of them is the best for curing S. mansoni infection in mice? In vitro, treated S. mansoni adult worms recorded a mortality rate after 1 hr of exposure to 500 ppm of FMK, VS and SNP as 75, 70 and 60%, respectively. FMK+PZQ treatment recorded the maximum reduction in worm burden (97.2% at 5 wk PI). VS treatment alone or combined with PZQ increases IgM, total IgG, IgG2 and IgG4 levels. In EM study, the completely implanted spines were reported in the degenerated tegument of adult worms in all groups treated with CPIs. VS+PZQ Treatment increased Igs levels but, its effect was different on worm reduction. So, it is not enough to eliminate the infection and FMK+PZQ considered the antischistosomicidal drug of choice.

Keywords: Praziquantel, fluromethylketone, vinyl sulfone, sodium nitro prussid.

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12 Mechanisms of Internet Security Attacks

Authors: J. Dubois, P. Jreije

Abstract:

Internet security attack could endanger the privacy of World Wide Web users and the integrity of their data. The attack can be carried out on today's most secure systems- browsers, including Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer. There are too many types, methods and mechanisms of attack where new attack techniques and exploits are constantly being developed and discovered. In this paper, various types of internet security attack mechanisms are explored and it is pointed out that when different types of attacks are combined together, network security can suffer disastrous consequences.

Keywords: DoS, internet attacks, router attack, security, trojan, virus, worm, XSS.

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11 Natural Discovery: Electricity Potential from Vermicompost (Waste to Energy)

Authors: R. A. Karim, N. M. A. Ghani, N. N. S. Nasari

Abstract:

Wastages such as grated coconut meat, spent tea and used sugarcane had contributed negative impacts to the environment. Vermicomposting method is fully utilized to manage the wastes towards a more sustainable approach. The worms that are used in the vermicomposting are Eisenia foetida and Eudrillus euginae. This research shows that the vermicompost of wastages has voltage of electrical energy and is able to light up the Light-Emitting Diode (LED) device. Based on the experiment, the use of replicated and double compartments of the component will produce double of voltage. Hence, for conclusion, this harmless and low cost technology of vermicompost can act as a dry cell in order to reduce the usage of hazardous chemicals that can contaminate the environment.

Keywords: Wastages, vermiconpose, worm, voltage, organic cell.

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10 Behavioral Signature Generation using Shadow Honeypot

Authors: Maros Barabas, Michal Drozd, Petr Hanacek

Abstract:

A novel behavioral detection framework is proposed to detect zero day buffer overflow vulnerabilities (based on network behavioral signatures) using zero-day exploits, instead of the signature-based or anomaly-based detection solutions currently available for IDPS techniques. At first we present the detection model that uses shadow honeypot. Our system is used for the online processing of network attacks and generating a behavior detection profile. The detection profile represents the dataset of 112 types of metrics describing the exact behavior of malware in the network. In this paper we present the examples of generating behavioral signatures for two attacks – a buffer overflow exploit on FTP server and well known Conficker worm. We demonstrated the visualization of important aspects by showing the differences between valid behavior and the attacks. Based on these metrics we can detect attacks with a very high probability of success, the process of detection is however very expensive.

Keywords: behavioral signatures, metrics, network, security design

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9 Vermicomposting of Waste Corn Pulp Blended with Cow Dung Manure using Eisenia Fetida

Authors: Musaida M. M. Manyuchi, Anthony Phiri, Ngoni Chirinda, Perkins Muredzi, Joseph Govhaand, Thamary Sengudzwa

Abstract:

Waste corn pulp was investigated as a potential feedstock during vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida. Corn pulp is the major staple food in Southern Africa and constitutes about 25% of the total organic waste. Wastecooked corn pulp was blended with cow dung in the ratio 6:1 respectively to optimize the vermicomposting process. The feedstock was allowed to vermicompost for 30 days. The vermicomposting took place in a 3- tray plastic worm bin. Moisture content, temperature, pH, and electrical conductivity were monitoreddaily. The NPK content was determined at day 30. During vermicomposting, moisture content increased from 27.68% to 52.41%, temperature ranged between 19- 25◦C, pH increased from 5.5 to 7.7, and electrical conductivity decreased from 80000μS/cm to 60000μS/cm. The ash content increased from 11.40% to 28.15%; additionally the volatile matter increased from 1.45% to 10.02%. An odorless, dark brown vermicompost was obtained. The vermicompost NPK content was 4.19%, 1.15%, and 6.18% respectively.

Keywords: Corn pulp, Eisenia fetida, vermicomposting, waste management.

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8 Intelligent Control and Modelling of a Micro Robot for In-pipe Application

Authors: Y. Sabzehmeidani, M. Mailah, M. Hussein, A. R. Tavakolpour

Abstract:

In this paper, a worm-like micro robot designed for inpipe application with intelligent active force control (AFC) capability is modelled and simulated. The motion of the micro robot is based on an impact drive mechanism (IDM) that is actuated using piezoelectric device. The trajectory tracking performance of the modelled micro robot is initially experimented via a conventional proportionalintegral- derivative (PID) controller in which the dynamic response of the robot system subjected to different input excitations is investigated. Subsequently, a robust intelligent method known as active force control with fuzzy logic (AFCFL) is later incorporated into the PID scheme to enhance the system performance by compensating the unwanted disturbances due to the interaction of the robot with its environment. Results show that the proposed AFCFL scheme is far superior than the PID control counterpart in terms of the system-s tracking capability in the wake of the disturbances.

Keywords: Active Force Control, Micro Robot, Fuzzy Logic, In-pipe Application.

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7 Monitoring of Belt-Drive Defects Using the Vibration Signals and Simulation Models

Authors: A. Nabhan, Mohamed R. El-Sharkawy, A. Rashed

Abstract:

The main aim of this paper is to dedicate the belt drive system faults like cogs missing, misalignment and belt worm using vibration analysis technique. Experimentally, the belt drive test-rig is equipped to measure vibrations signals under different operating conditions. Finite element 3D model of belt drive system is created and vibration response analyzed using commercial finite element software ABAQUS/CAE.  Root mean square (RMS) and Crest Factor will serve as indicators of average amplitude of envelope analysis signals. The vibration signals pattern obtained from the simulation model and experimental data have the same characteristics. It can be concluded that each case of the RMS is more effective in detecting the defect for acceleration response. While Crest Factor parameter has a response with the displacement and velocity of vibration signals. Also it can be noticed that the model has difficulty in completing the solution when the misalignment angle is higher than 1 degree.

Keywords: Simulation model, misalignment, cogs missing and vibration analysis.

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6 Detecting and Locating Wormhole Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Beacon Nodes

Authors: He Ronghui, Ma Guoqing, Wang Chunlei, Fang Lan

Abstract:

This paper focuses on wormhole attacks detection in wireless sensor networks. The wormhole attack is particularly challenging to deal with since the adversary does not need to compromise any nodes and can use laptops or other wireless devices to send the packets on a low latency channel. This paper introduces an easy and effective method to detect and locate the wormholes: Since beacon nodes are assumed to know their coordinates, the straight line distance between each pair of them can be calculated and then compared with the corresponding hop distance, which in this paper equals hop counts × node-s transmission range R. Dramatic difference may emerge because of an existing wormhole. Our detection mechanism is based on this. The approximate location of the wormhole can also be derived in further steps based on this information. To the best of our knowledge, our method is much easier than other wormhole detecting schemes which also use beacon nodes, and to those have special requirements on each nodes (e.g., GPS receivers or tightly synchronized clocks or directional antennas), ours is more economical. Simulation results show that the algorithm is successful in detecting and locating wormholes when the density of beacon nodes reaches 0.008 per m2.

Keywords: Beacon node, wireless sensor network, worm hole attack.

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5 Improvising Intrusion Detection for Malware Activities on Dual-Stack Network Environment

Authors: Zulkiflee M., Robiah Y., Nur Azman Abu, Shahrin S.

Abstract:

Malware is software which was invented and meant for doing harms on computers. Malware is becoming a significant threat in computer network nowadays. Malware attack is not just only involving financial lost but it can also cause fatal errors which may cost lives in some cases. As new Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) emerged, many people believe this protocol could solve most malware propagation issues due to its broader addressing scheme. As IPv6 is still new compares to native IPv4, some transition mechanisms have been introduced to promote smoother migration. Unfortunately, these transition mechanisms allow some malwares to propagate its attack from IPv4 to IPv6 network environment. In this paper, a proof of concept shall be presented in order to show that some existing IPv4 malware detection technique need to be improvised in order to detect malware attack in dual-stack network more efficiently. A testbed of dual-stack network environment has been deployed and some genuine malware have been released to observe their behaviors. The results between these different scenarios will be analyzed and discussed further in term of their behaviors and propagation methods. The results show that malware behave differently on IPv6 from the IPv4 network protocol on the dual-stack network environment. A new detection technique is called for in order to cater this problem in the near future.

Keywords: Dual-Stack, Malware, Worm, IPv6;IDS

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4 The Effects of Cow Manure Treated by Fruit Beetle Larvae, Waxworms and Tiger Worms on Plant Growth in Relation to Its Use as Potting Compost

Authors: Waleed S. Alwaneen

Abstract:

Dairy industry is flourishing in world to provide milk and milk products to local population. Besides milk products, dairy industries also generate a substantial amount of cow manure that significantly affects the environment. Moreover, heat produced during the decomposition of the cow manure adversely affects the crop germination. Different companies are producing vermicompost using different species of worms/larvae to overcome the harmful effects using fresh manure. Tiger worm treatment enhanced plant growth, especially in the compost-manure ratio (75% compost, 25% cow manure), followed by a ratio of 50% compost, 50% cow manure.  Results also indicated that plant growth in Waxworm treated manure was weak as compared to plant growth in compost treated with Fruit Beetle (FB), Waxworms (WW), and Control (C) especially in the compost (25% compost, 75% cow manure) and 100% cow manure where there was no growth at all. Freshplant weight, fresh leaf weight and fresh root weight were significantly higher in the compost treated with Tiger worms in (75% compost, 25% cow manure); no evidence was seen for any significant differences in the dry root weight measurement between FB, Tiger worms (TW), WW, Control (C) in all composts. TW produced the best product, especially at the compost ratio of 75% compost, 25% cow manure followed by 50% compost, 50% cow manure.

Keywords: Fruit beetle, tiger worms, waxworms, control.

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3 A Report on Occurrence and Parasite-Host of Ligula intestinalis in Sattarkhan Lake(East Azerbaijan-Iran)

Authors: Mahbobeh Hajirostamloo

Abstract:

Ligula intestinalis is a three-host life-cycle Pseudophyllidean Cestode which in its plerocercoid stage infests a range of fresh water species. The objective of the present study was the worm occurrence within planctonic copepods, fishes and piscivorous birds and examine of parasite-hosts samples in the Lake of Sattarkhan Dam (near the city of Ahar, East Azerbaijan, Iran). Fish sample were collected with fyke and gill nets and the abdominal cavity was examined for the presence of ligula. Zooplanktons were captured using a planktonic net and occurrence of parasitic larval form in the body cavity was determined. Piscivorous birds were selected by telescope, they hunted and dissected for presence of parasite eggs in their gut. Results indicated that prevalence of infection was 16% for cyclopid copepoda and majority of infected cyclopid were female Cyclops. Investigation of 310 fishes specimens were indicated to infection of five species of cyprinid fishes. In addition, results indicated to manipulation of six species of migratory aquatic and semi aquatic birds by ligula. Obtained results are in agreement by previous studies. Its definite in this study that all of fishes in Sattarkhan Lake capable to infection, its important for health because they capture by native people and it is documented that ligula can be introduce as a zoonose. It's seemed that to prevent from disperses of parasite and restricted of infection, biological elimination can be effective and it's necessary to inform native people about sanitation.

Keywords: Ligula intestinalis, parasite-host, Sattarkhan Lake, Iran.

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2 Effect of Taper Pin Ratio on Microstructure and Mechanical Property of Friction Stir Welded AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

Authors: N. H. Othman, N. Udin, M. Ishak, L. H. Shah

Abstract:

This study focuses on the effect of pin taper tool ratio on friction stir welding of magnesium alloy AZ31. Two pieces of AZ31 alloy with thickness of 6 mm were friction stir welded by using the conventional milling machine. The shoulder diameter used in this experiment is fixed at 18 mm. The taper pin ratio used are varied at 6:6, 6:5, 6:4, 6:3, 6:2 and 6:1. The rotational speeds that were used in this study were 500 rpm, 1000 rpm and 1500 rpm, respectively. The welding speeds used are 150 mm/min, 200 mm/min and 250 mm/min. Microstructure observation of welded area was studied by using optical microscope. Equiaxed grains were observed at the TMAZ and stir zone indicating fully plastic deformation. Tool pin diameter ratio 6/1 causes low heat input to the material because of small contact surface between tool surface and stirred materials compared to other tool pin diameter ratio. The grain size of stir zone increased with increasing of ratio of rotational speed to transverse speed due to higher heat input. It is observed that worm hole is produced when excessive heat input is applied. To evaluate the mechanical properties of this specimen, tensile test was used in this study. Welded specimens using taper pin ratio 6:1 shows higher tensile strength compared to other taper pin ratio up to 204 MPa. Moreover, specimens using taper pin ratio 6:1 showed better tensile strength with 500 rpm of rotational speed and 150mm/min welding speed.

Keywords: Friction stir welding, magnesium AZ31, cylindrical taper tool, taper pin ratio.

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1 The Micro Ecosystem Restoration Mechanism Applied for Feasible Research of Lakes Eutrophication Enhancement

Authors: Ching-Tsan Tsai, Sih-Rong Chen, Chi-Hung Hsieh

Abstract:

The technique of inducing micro ecosystem restoration is one of aquatic ecology engineering methods used to retrieve the polluted water. Batch scale study, pilot plant study, and field study were carried out to observe the eutrophication using the Inducing Ecology Restorative Symbiosis Agent (IERSA) consisting mainly degraded products by using lactobacillus, saccharomycete, and phycomycete. The results obtained from the experiments of the batch scale and pilot plant study allowed us to development the parameters for the field study. A pond, 5 m to the outlet of a lake, with an area of 500 m2 and depth of 0.6-1.2 m containing about 500 tons of water was selected as a model. After the treatment with 10 mg IERSA/L water twice a week for 70 days, the micro restoration mechanisms consisted of three stages (i.e., restoration, impact maintenance, and ecology recovery experiment after impact). The COD, TN, TKN, and chlorophyll a were reduced significantly in the first week. Although the unexpected heavy rain and contaminate from sewage system might slow the ecology restoration. However, the self-cleaning function continued and the chlorophyll a reduced for 50% in one month. In the 4th week, amoeba, paramecium, rotifer, and red wriggle worm reappeared, and the number of fish flies appeared up to1000 fish fries/m3. Those results proved that inducing restorative mechanism can be applied to improve the eutrophication and to control the growth of algae in the lakes by gaining the selfcleaning through inducing and competition of microbes. The situation for growth of fishes also can reach an excellent result due to the improvement of water quality.

Keywords: Ecosystem restoration, eutrophication, lake.

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