Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: KL divergence

29 A Note on Penalized Power-Divergence Test Statistics

Authors: Aylin Alin

Abstract:

In this paper, penalized power-divergence test statistics have been defined and their exact size properties to test a nested sequence of log-linear models have been compared with ordinary power-divergence test statistics for various penalization, λ and main effect values. Since the ordinary and penalized power-divergence test statistics have the same asymptotic distribution, comparisons have been only made for small and moderate samples. Three-way contingency tables distributed according to a multinomial distribution have been considered. Simulation results reveal that penalized power-divergence test statistics perform much better than their ordinary counterparts.

Keywords: Contingency table, Log-linear models, Penalization, Power-divergence measure, Penalized power-divergence measure.

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28 Accuracy of Divergence Measures for Detection of Abrupt Changes

Authors: P. Bergl

Abstract:

Numerous divergence measures (spectral distance, cepstral distance, difference of the cepstral coefficients, Kullback-Leibler divergence, distance given by the General Likelihood Ratio, distance defined by the Recursive Bayesian Changepoint Detector and the Mahalanobis measure) are compared in this study. The measures are used for detection of abrupt spectral changes in synthetic AR signals via the sliding window algorithm. Two experiments are performed; the first is focused on detection of single boundary while the second concentrates on detection of a couple of boundaries. Accuracy of detection is judged for each method; the measures are compared according to results of both experiments.

Keywords: Abrupt changes detection, autoregressive model, divergence measure.

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27 Convergence and Divergence in Telephone Conversations: A Case of Persian

Authors: Anna Mirzaiyan, Vahid Parvaresh, Mahmoud Hashemian, Masoud Saeedi

Abstract:

People usually have a telephone voice, which means they adjust their speech to fit particular situations and to blend in with other interlocutors. The question is: Do we speak differently to different people? This possibility has been suggested by social psychologists within Accommodation Theory [1]. Converging toward the speech of another person can be regarded as a polite speech strategy while choosing a language not used by the other interlocutor can be considered as the clearest example of speech divergence [2]. The present study sets out to investigate such processes in the course of everyday telephone conversations. Using Joos-s [3] model of formality in spoken English, the researchers try to explore convergence to or divergence from the addressee. The results propound the actuality that lexical choice, and subsequently, patterns of style vary intriguingly in concordance with the person being addressed.

Keywords: Convergence, divergence, lexical formality, speechaccommodation.

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26 Application of KL Divergence for Estimation of Each Metabolic Pathway Genes

Authors: Shohei Maruyama, Yasuo Matsuyama, Sachiyo Aburatani

Abstract:

Development of a method to estimate gene functions is an important task in bioinformatics. One of the approaches for the annotation is the identification of the metabolic pathway that genes are involved in. Since gene expression data reflect various intracellular phenomena, those data are considered to be related with genes’ functions. However, it has been difficult to estimate the gene function with high accuracy. It is considered that the low accuracy of the estimation is caused by the difficulty of accurately measuring a gene expression. Even though they are measured under the same condition, the gene expressions will vary usually. In this study, we proposed a feature extraction method focusing on the variability of gene expressions to estimate the genes' metabolic pathway accurately. First, we estimated the distribution of each gene expression from replicate data. Next, we calculated the similarity between all gene pairs by KL divergence, which is a method for calculating the similarity between distributions. Finally, we utilized the similarity vectors as feature vectors and trained the multiclass SVM for identifying the genes' metabolic pathway. To evaluate our developed method, we applied the method to budding yeast and trained the multiclass SVM for identifying the seven metabolic pathways. As a result, the accuracy that calculated by our developed method was higher than the one that calculated from the raw gene expression data. Thus, our developed method combined with KL divergence is useful for identifying the genes' metabolic pathway.

Keywords: Metabolic pathways, gene expression data, microarray, Kullback–Leibler divergence, KL divergence, support vector machines, SVM, machine learning.

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25 Powerful Laser Diode Matrixes for Active Vision Systems

Authors: Dzmitry M. Kabanau, Vladimir V. Kabanov, Yahor V. Lebiadok, Denis V. Shabrov, Pavel V. Shpak, Gevork T. Mikaelyan, Alexandr P. Bunichev

Abstract:

This article is deal with the experimental investigations of the laser diode matrixes (LDM) based on the AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures (lasing wavelength 790-880 nm) to find optimal LDM parameters for active vision systems. In particular, the dependence of LDM radiation pulse power on the pulse duration and LDA active layer heating as well as the LDM radiation divergence are discussed.

Keywords: Active vision systems, laser diode matrixes, thermal properties, radiation divergence.

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24 A Numerical Method for Diffusion and Cahn-Hilliard Equations on Evolving Spherical Surfaces

Authors: Jyh-Yang Wu, Sheng-Gwo Chen

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a simple effective numerical geometric method to estimate the divergence of a vector field over a curved surface. The conservation law is an important principle in physics and mathematics. However, many well-known numerical methods for solving diffusion equations do not obey conservation laws. Our presented method in this paper combines the divergence theorem with a generalized finite difference method and obeys the conservation law on discrete closed surfaces. We use the similar method to solve the Cahn-Hilliard equations on evolving spherical surfaces and observe stability results in our numerical simulations.

Keywords: Conservation laws, diffusion equations, Cahn-Hilliard Equations, evolving surfaces.

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23 Choosing Search Algorithms in Bayesian Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Hao Wu, Jonathan L. Shapiro

Abstract:

The Bayesian Optimization Algorithm (BOA) is an algorithm based on the estimation of distributions. It uses techniques from modeling data by Bayesian networks to estimating the joint distribution of promising solutions. To obtain the structure of Bayesian network, different search algorithms can be used. The key point that BOA addresses is whether the constructed Bayesian network could generate new and useful solutions (strings), which could lead the algorithm in the right direction to solve the problem. Undoubtedly, this ability is a crucial factor of the efficiency of BOA. Varied search algorithms can be used in BOA, but their performances are different. For choosing better ones, certain suitable method to present their ability difference is needed. In this paper, a greedy search algorithm and a stochastic search algorithm are used in BOA to solve certain optimization problem. A method using Kullback-Leibler (KL) Divergence to reflect their difference is described.

Keywords: Bayesian optimization algorithm, greedy search, KL divergence, stochastic search.

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22 Optimization of Transmitter Aperture by Genetic Algorithm in Optical Satellite

Authors: Karim Kemih, Yacine Yaiche, Malek Benslama

Abstract:

To establish optical communication between any two satellites, the transmitter satellite must track the beacon of the receiver satellite and point the information optical beam in its direction. Optical tracking and pointing systems for free space suffer during tracking from high-amplitude vibration because of background radiation from interstellar objects such as the Sun, Moon, Earth, and stars in the tracking field of view or the mechanical impact from satellite internal and external sources. The vibrations of beam pointing increase the bit error rate and jam communication between the two satellites. One way to overcome this problem is the use of very small transmitter beam divergence angles of too narrow divergence angle is that the transmitter beam may sometimes miss the receiver satellite, due to pointing vibrations. In this paper we propose the use of genetic algorithm to optimize the BER as function of transmitter optics aperture.

Keywords: Optical Satellite Communication, Genetic Algorithm, Transmitter Optics Aperture

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21 Phylogenetic Inference from 18S rRNA Gene Sequences of Horseshoe Crabs, Tachypleus gigas between Tanjung Dawai, Kedah and Cherating, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: Ismail, N., Sarijan, S

Abstract:

The phylogenetic analysis using the most conservative portions of 18S rRNA gene revealed the phylogenetic relationship among the two populations where DNA divergence showed that the nucleotides diversity value were -0.00838 for the Tanjung Dawai, Kedah and -0.00708 for the Cherating, Pahang populations respectively. The net nucleotide divergence among populations (Da) was -0.0073 indicating a low polymorphism among the populations studied. Total number of mutations in the Tanjung Dawai, Kedah samples was higher than Cherating, Pahang samples, which are 73 and 59 respectively while shared mutations across the populations were 8, and reveal the evolutionary in the genome of Malaysian T. gigas. The tree topology of both populations inferred using Neigbour-joining method by comparing 1791 bp of partial 18S rRNA sequence revealed that T. gigas haplotypes were clustered into seven clades, suggesting that they are genetically diverse among populations which derived from a common ancestor.

Keywords: Horseshoe crabs, Tachypleus gigas, 18S rRNA genesequences, phylogenetic analysis

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20 Automatic Musical Genre Classification Using Divergence and Average Information Measures

Authors: Hassan Ezzaidi, Jean Rouat

Abstract:

Recently many research has been conducted to retrieve pertinent parameters and adequate models for automatic music genre classification. In this paper, two measures based upon information theory concepts are investigated for mapping the features space to decision space. A Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is used as a baseline and reference system. Various strategies are proposed for training and testing sessions with matched or mismatched conditions, long training and long testing, long training and short testing. For all experiments, the file sections used for testing are never been used during training. With matched conditions all examined measures yield the best and similar scores (almost 100%). With mismatched conditions, the proposed measures yield better scores than the GMM baseline system, especially for the short testing case. It is also observed that the average discrimination information measure is most appropriate for music category classifications and on the other hand the divergence measure is more suitable for music subcategory classifications.

Keywords: Audio feature, information measures, music genre.

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19 A Recognition Method of Ancient Yi Script Based on Deep Learning

Authors: Shanxiong Chen, Xu Han, Xiaolong Wang, Hui Ma

Abstract:

Yi is an ethnic group mainly living in mainland China, with its own spoken and written language systems, after development of thousands of years. Ancient Yi is one of the six ancient languages in the world, which keeps a record of the history of the Yi people and offers documents valuable for research into human civilization. Recognition of the characters in ancient Yi helps to transform the documents into an electronic form, making their storage and spreading convenient. Due to historical and regional limitations, research on recognition of ancient characters is still inadequate. Thus, deep learning technology was applied to the recognition of such characters. Five models were developed on the basis of the four-layer convolutional neural network (CNN). Alpha-Beta divergence was taken as a penalty term to re-encode output neurons of the five models. Two fully connected layers fulfilled the compression of the features. Finally, at the softmax layer, the orthographic features of ancient Yi characters were re-evaluated, their probability distributions were obtained, and characters with features of the highest probability were recognized. Tests conducted show that the method has achieved higher precision compared with the traditional CNN model for handwriting recognition of the ancient Yi.

Keywords: Recognition, CNN, convolutional neural network, Yi character, divergence.

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18 Medical Image Registration by Minimizing Divergence Measure Based on Tsallis Entropy

Authors: Shaoyan Sun, Liwei Zhang, Chonghui Guo

Abstract:

As the use of registration packages spreads, the number of the aligned image pairs in image databases (either by manual or automatic methods) increases dramatically. These image pairs can serve as a set of training data. Correspondingly, the images that are to be registered serve as testing data. In this paper, a novel medical image registration method is proposed which is based on the a priori knowledge of the expected joint intensity distribution estimated from pre-aligned training images. The goal of the registration is to find the optimal transformation such that the distance between the observed joint intensity distribution obtained from the testing image pair and the expected joint intensity distribution obtained from the corresponding training image pair is minimized. The distance is measured using the divergence measure based on Tsallis entropy. Experimental results show that, compared with the widely-used Shannon mutual information as well as Tsallis mutual information, the proposed method is computationally more efficient without sacrificing registration accuracy.

Keywords: Multimodality images, image registration, Shannonentropy, Tsallis entropy, mutual information, Powell optimization.

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17 Stability Optimization of Functionally Graded Pipes Conveying Fluid

Authors: Karam Y. Maalawi, Hanan E.M EL-Sayed

Abstract:

This paper presents an exact analytical model for optimizing stability of thin-walled, composite, functionally graded pipes conveying fluid. The critical flow velocity at which divergence occurs is maximized for a specified total structural mass in order to ensure the economic feasibility of the attained optimum designs. The composition of the material of construction is optimized by defining the spatial distribution of volume fractions of the material constituents using piecewise variations along the pipe length. The major aim is to tailor the material distribution in the axial direction so as to avoid the occurrence of divergence instability without the penalty of increasing structural mass. Three types of boundary conditions have been examined; namely, Hinged-Hinged, Clamped- Hinged and Clamped-Clamped pipelines. The resulting optimization problem has been formulated as a nonlinear mathematical programming problem solved by invoking the MatLab optimization toolbox routines, which implement constrained function minimization routine named “fmincon" interacting with the associated eigenvalue problem routines. In fact, the proposed mathematical models have succeeded in maximizing the critical flow velocity without mass penalty and producing efficient and economic designs having enhanced stability characteristics as compared with the baseline designs.

Keywords: Functionally graded materials, pipe flow, optimumdesign, fluid- structure interaction

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16 Experimental Measurements of the Mean Flow Field in Wide-Angled Diffusers: A Data Bank Contribution

Authors: Karanja Kibicho, Anthony Sayers

Abstract:

Due to adverse pressure gradient along the diverging walls of wide-angled diffusers, the attached flow separates from one wall and remains attached permanently to the other wall in a process called stalling. Stalled diffusers render the whole fluid flow system, in which they are part of, very inefficient. There is then an engineering need to try to understand the whole process of diffuser stall if any meaningful attempts to improve on diffuser efficiency are to be made. In this regard, this paper provides a data bank contribution for the mean flow-field in wide-angled diffusers where the complete velocity and static pressure fields, and pressure recovery data for diffusers in the fully stalled flow regime are experimentally measured. The measurements were carried out at Reynolds numbers between 1.07×105 and 2.14×105 based on inlet hydraulic diameter and centreline velocity for diffusers whose divergence angles were between 30Ôùª and 50Ôùª. Variation of Reynolds number did not significantly affect the velocity and static pressure profiles. The wall static pressure recovery was found to be more sensitive to changes in the Reynolds number. By increasing the velocity from 10 m/s to 20 m/s, the wall static pressure recovery increased by 8.31%. However, as the divergence angle was increased, a similar increase in the Reynolds number resulted in a higher percentage increase in pressure recovery. Experimental results showed that regardless of the wall to which the flow was attached, both the velocity and pressure fields were replicated with discrepancies below 2%.

Keywords: Two-dimensional, wide-angled, diffuser, stall, separated flows, subsonic flows, diffuser flow regimes

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15 Evidence Theory Enabled Quickest Change Detection Using Big Time-Series Data from Internet of Things

Authors: Hossein Jafari, Xiangfang Li, Lijun Qian, Alexander Aved, Timothy Kroecker

Abstract:

Traditionally in sensor networks and recently in the Internet of Things, numerous heterogeneous sensors are deployed in distributed manner to monitor a phenomenon that often can be model by an underlying stochastic process. The big time-series data collected by the sensors must be analyzed to detect change in the stochastic process as quickly as possible with tolerable false alarm rate. However, sensors may have different accuracy and sensitivity range, and they decay along time. As a result, the big time-series data collected by the sensors will contain uncertainties and sometimes they are conflicting. In this study, we present a framework to take advantage of Evidence Theory (a.k.a. Dempster-Shafer and Dezert-Smarandache Theories) capabilities of representing and managing uncertainty and conflict to fast change detection and effectively deal with complementary hypotheses. Specifically, Kullback-Leibler divergence is used as the similarity metric to calculate the distances between the estimated current distribution with the pre- and post-change distributions. Then mass functions are calculated and related combination rules are applied to combine the mass values among all sensors. Furthermore, we applied the method to estimate the minimum number of sensors needed to combine, so computational efficiency could be improved. Cumulative sum test is then applied on the ratio of pignistic probability to detect and declare the change for decision making purpose. Simulation results using both synthetic data and real data from experimental setup demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented schemes.

Keywords: CUSUM, evidence theory, KL divergence, quickest change detection, time series data.

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14 Normalization and Constrained Optimization of Measures of Fuzzy Entropy

Authors: K.C. Deshmukh, P.G. Khot, Nikhil

Abstract:

In the literature of information theory, there is necessity for comparing the different measures of fuzzy entropy and this consequently, gives rise to the need for normalizing measures of fuzzy entropy. In this paper, we have discussed this need and hence developed some normalized measures of fuzzy entropy. It is also desirable to maximize entropy and to minimize directed divergence or distance. Keeping in mind this idea, we have explained the method of optimizing different measures of fuzzy entropy.

Keywords: Fuzzy set, Uncertainty, Fuzzy entropy, Normalization, Membership function

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13 Octonionic Reformulation of Vector Analysis

Authors: Bhupendra C. S. Chauhan, P. S. Bisht, O. P. S. Negi

Abstract:

According to celebrated Hurwitz theorem, there exists four division algebras consisting of R (real numbers), C (complex numbers), H (quaternions) and O (octonions). Keeping in view the utility of octonion variable we have tried to extend the three dimensional vector analysis to seven dimensional one. Starting with the scalar and vector product in seven dimensions, we have redefined the gradient, divergence and curl in seven dimension. It is shown that the identity n(n - 1)(n - 3)(n - 7) = 0 is satisfied only for 0, 1, 3 and 7 dimensional vectors. We have tried to write all the vector inequalities and formulas in terms of seven dimensions and it is shown that same formulas loose their meaning in seven dimensions due to non-associativity of octonions. The vector formulas are retained only if we put certain restrictions on octonions and split octonions.

Keywords: Octonions, Vector Space and seven dimensions

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12 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Air Ejector with Diffuser with Boundary Layer Suction

Authors: Vaclav Dvorak

Abstract:

The article deals with experimental and numerical investigation of axi-symmetric subsonic air to air ejector with diffuser adapted for boundary layer suction. The diffuser, which is placed behind the mixing chamber of the ejector, has high divergence angle and therefore low efficiency. To increase the efficiency, the diffuser is equipped with slot enabling boundary layer suction. The effect of boundary layer suction on flow in ejector, static pressure distribution on the mixing chamber wall and characteristic were measured and studied numerically. Both diffuser and ejector efficiency were evaluated. The diffuser efficiency was increased, however, the efficiency of ejector itself remained low.

Keywords: Air ejector, boundary layer suction, CFD, diffuser.

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11 Enhanced Character Based Algorithm for Small Parsimony

Authors: Parvinder Singh Sandhu, Sumeet Kaur Sehra, Karmjit Kaur

Abstract:

Phylogenetic tree is a graphical representation of the evolutionary relationship among three or more genes or organisms. These trees show relatedness of data sets, species or genes divergence time and nature of their common ancestors. Quality of a phylogenetic tree requires parsimony criterion. Various approaches have been proposed for constructing most parsimonious trees. This paper is concerned about calculating and optimizing the changes of state that are needed called Small Parsimony Algorithms. This paper has proposed enhanced small parsimony algorithm to give better score based on number of evolutionary changes needed to produce the observed sequence changes tree and also give the ancestor of the given input.

Keywords: Phylogenetic Analysis, Small Parsimony, EnhancedFitch Algorithm, Enhanced Sakoff Algorithm.

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10 Playing Games with Genetic Algorithms: Application on Price-QoS Competition in Telecommunications Market

Authors: M’hamed Outanoute, Mohamed Baslam, Belaid Bouikhalene

Abstract:

The customers use the best compromise criterion between price and quality of service (QoS) to select or change their Service Provider (SP). The SPs share the same market and are competing to attract more customers to gain more profit. Due to the divergence of SPs interests, we believe that this situation is a non-cooperative game of price and QoS. The game converges to an equilibrium position known Nash Equilibrium (NE). In this work, we formulate a game theoretic framework for the dynamical behaviors of SPs. We use Genetic Algorithms (GAs) to find the price and QoS strategies that maximize the profit for each SP and illustrate the corresponding strategy in NE. In order to quantify how this NE point is performant, we perform a detailed analysis of the price of anarchy induced by the NE solution. Finally, we provide an extensive numerical study to point out the importance of considering price and QoS as a joint decision parameter.

Keywords: Pricing, QoS, Market share game, Genetic algorithms, Nash equilibrium, Learning, Price of anarchy.

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9 A Robust Image Steganography Method Using PMM in Bit Plane Domain

Authors: Souvik Bhattacharyya, Aparajita Khan, Indradip Banerjee, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

Steganography is the art and science that hides the information in an appropriate cover carrier like image, text, audio and video media. In this work the authors propose a new image based steganographic method for hiding information within the complex bit planes of the image. After slicing into bit planes the cover image is analyzed to extract the most complex planes in decreasing order based on their bit plane complexity. The complexity function next determines the complex noisy blocks of the chosen bit plane and finally pixel mapping method (PMM) has been used to embed secret bits into those regions of the bit plane. The novel approach of using pixel mapping method (PMM) in bit plane domain adaptively embeds data on most complex regions of image, provides high embedding capacity, better imperceptibility and resistance to steganalysis attack.

Keywords: PMM (Pixel Mapping Method), Bit Plane, Steganography, SSIM, KL-Divergence.

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8 An Earth Mover’s Distance Algorithm Based DDoS Detection Mechanism in SDN

Authors: Yang Zhou, Kangfeng Zheng, Wei Ni, Ren Ping Liu

Abstract:

Software-defined networking (SDN) provides a solution for scalable network framework with decoupled control and data plane. However, this architecture also induces a particular distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack that can affect or even overwhelm the SDN network. DDoS attack detection problem has to date been mostly researched as entropy comparison problem. However, this problem lacks the utilization of SDN, and the results are not accurate. In this paper, we propose a DDoS attack detection method, which interprets DDoS detection as a signature matching problem and is formulated as Earth Mover’s Distance (EMD) model. Considering the feasibility and accuracy, we further propose to define the cost function of EMD to be a generalized Kullback-Leibler divergence. Simulation results show that our proposed method can detect DDoS attacks by comparing EMD values with the ones computed in the case without attacks. Moreover, our method can significantly increase the true positive rate of detection.

Keywords: DDoS detection, EMD, relative entropy, SDN.

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7 Radiation Heat Transfer in Planar SOFC Components: Application of the Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Imen Mejri, Ahmed Mahmoudi, Mohamed A. Abbassi, Ahmed Omri

Abstract:

Thermal radiation plays a very important role in the heat transfer combination through the various components of the SOFC fuel cell operating at high temperatures. Lattice Boltzmann method is used for treating conduction-radiation heat transfer in the electrolyte. The thermal radiation heat transfer is coupled to the overall energy conservation equations through the divergence of the local radiative flux. The equation of energy in one dimension is numerically resolved by using the Lattice Boltzmann method. A computing program (FORTRAN) is developed locally for this purpose in order to obtain fields of temperature in every element of the cell. The parameters investigated are: functioning temperature, cell voltages and electrolyte thickness. The results show that the radiation effect increases with increasing the electrolyte thickness, also increases with increasing the functioning temperature and decreases with the increase of the voltage of the cell.

Keywords: SOFC, lattice Boltzmann method, conduction, radiation, planar medium.

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6 RF Power Consumption Emulation Optimized with Interval Valued Homotopies

Authors: Deogratius Musiige, François Anton, Vital Yatskevich, Laulagnet Vincent, Darka Mioc, Nguyen Pierre

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology towards the emulation of the electrical power consumption of the RF device during the cellular phone/handset transmission mode using the LTE technology. The emulation methodology takes the physical environmental variables and the logical interface between the baseband and the RF system as inputs to compute the emulated power dissipation of the RF device. The emulated power, in between the measured points corresponding to the discrete values of the logical interface parameters is computed as a polynomial interpolation using polynomial basis functions. The evaluation of polynomial and spline curve fitting models showed a respective divergence (test error) of 8% and 0.02% from the physically measured power consumption. The precisions of the instruments used for the physical measurements have been modeled as intervals. We have been able to model the power consumption of the RF device operating at 5MHz using homotopy between 2 continuous power consumptions of the RF device operating at the bandwidths 3MHz and 10MHz.

Keywords: Radio frequency, high power amplifier, baseband, LTE, power, emulation, homotopy, interval analysis, Tx power, register-transfer level.

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5 The Effect of Board Composition and Ownership Concentration on Earnings Management: Evidence from IRAN

Authors: F. Rahnamay Roodposhti, S. A. Nabavi Chashmi

Abstract:

The role of corporate governance is to reduce the divergence of interests between shareholders and managers. The role of corporate governance is more useful when managers have an incentive to deviate from shareholders- interests. One example of management-s deviation from shareholders- interests is the management of earnings through the use of accounting accruals. This paper examines the association between corporate governance internal mechanisms ownership concentration, board independence, the existence of CEO-Chairman duality and earnings management. Firm size and leverage are control variables. The population used in this study comprises firms listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) between 2004 and 2008, the sample comprises 196 firms. Panel Data method is employed as technique to estimate the model. We find that there is negative significant association between ownership concentration and board independence manage earnings with earnings management, there is negative significant association between the existence of CEO-Chairman duality and earnings management. This study also found a positive significant association between control variable (firm size and leverage) and earnings management.

Keywords: Earnings management, board independence, ownership concentration, corporate governance.

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4 Numerical Studies on Thrust Vectoring Using Shock Induced Supersonic Secondary Jet

Authors: Jerin John, Subanesh Shyam R., Aravind Kumar T. R., Naveen N., Vignesh R., Krishna Ganesh B, Sanal Kumar V. R.

Abstract:

Numerical studies have been carried out using a validated two-dimensional RNG k-epsilon turbulence model for the design optimization of a thrust vector control system using shock induced supersonic secondary jet. Parametric analytical studies have been carried out with various secondary jets at different divergent locations, jet interaction angles, jet pressures. The results from the parametric studies of the case on hand reveal that the primary nozzle with a small divergence angle, downstream injections with a distance of 2.5 times the primary nozzle throat diameter from the primary nozzle throat location warrant higher efficiency over a certain range of jet pressures and jet angles. We observed that the supersonic secondary jet opposing the core flow with jets interaction angle of 40o to the axis far downstream of the nozzle throat facilitates better thrust vectoring than the secondary jet with same direction as that of core flow with various interaction angles. We concluded that fixing of the supersonic secondary jet nozzle pointing towards the throat direction with suitable angle at a distance 2 to 4 times of the primary nozzle throat diameter, as the case may be, from the primary nozzle throat location could facilitate better thrust vectoring for the supersonic aerospace vehicles.

Keywords: Fluidic thrust vectoring, rocket steering, supersonic secondary jet location, TVC in spacecraft.

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3 Influence of Inhomogeneous Wind Fields on the Aerostatic Stability of a Cable-Stayed Pedestrian Bridge without Backstays: Experiments and Numerical Simulations

Authors: Yanru Wu, Qing Sun

Abstract:

Sightseeing glass bridges located in steep valley area are being built on a large scale owing to the development of tourism. Consequently, their aerostatic stability is seriously affected by the wind field characteristics created by strong wind and special terrain, such as wind speed and wind attack angle. For instance, a cable-stayed pedestrian bridge without backstays comprised of a 60-m cantilever girder and the glass bridge deck is located in an abrupt valley, acting as a viewing platform. The bridge’s nonlinear aerostatic stability was analyzed by the segmental model test and numerical simulation in this paper. Based on aerostatic coefficients of the main girder measured in wind tunnel tests, nonlinear influences caused by the structure and aerostatic load, inhomogeneous distribution of torsion angle along the bridge axis, and the influence of initial attack angle were analyzed by using the incremental double iteration method. The results show that the aerostatic response varying with speed shows an obvious nonlinearity, and the aerostatic instability mode is of the characteristic of space deformation of bending-twisting coupling mode. The vertical and torsional deformation of the main girder is larger than its lateral deformation, with the wind speed approaching the critical wind speed. The flow of negative attack angle will reduce the bridges’ critical stability wind speed, but the influence of the negative attack angle on the aerostatic stability is more significant than that of the positive attack angle. The critical wind speeds of torsional divergence and lateral buckling are both larger than 200 m/s; namely, the bridge will not occur aerostatic instability under the action of various wind attack angles.

Keywords: Aerostatic nonlinearity, cable-stayed pedestrian bridge, numerical simulation, nonlinear aerostatic stability.

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2 Model Reference Adaptive Approach for Power System Stabilizer for Damping of Power Oscillations

Authors: Jožef Ritonja, Bojan Grčar, Boštjan Polajžer

Abstract:

In recent years, electricity trade between neighboring countries has become increasingly intense. Increasing power transmission over long distances has resulted in an increase in the oscillations of the transmitted power. The damping of the oscillations can be carried out with the reconfiguration of the network or the replacement of generators, but such solution is not economically reasonable. The only cost-effective solution to improve the damping of power oscillations is to use power system stabilizers. Power system stabilizer represents a part of synchronous generator control system. It utilizes semiconductor’s excitation system connected to the rotor field excitation winding to increase the damping of the power system. The majority of the synchronous generators are equipped with the conventional power system stabilizers with fixed parameters. The control structure of the conventional power system stabilizers and the tuning procedure are based on the linear control theory. Conventional power system stabilizers are simple to realize, but they show non-sufficient damping improvement in the entire operating conditions. This is the reason that advanced control theories are used for development of better power system stabilizers. In this paper, the adaptive control theory for power system stabilizers design and synthesis is studied. The presented work is focused on the use of model reference adaptive control approach. Control signal, which assures that the controlled plant output will follow the reference model output, is generated by the adaptive algorithm. Adaptive gains are obtained as a combination of the "proportional" term and with the σ-term extended "integral" term. The σ-term is introduced to avoid divergence of the integral gains. The necessary condition for asymptotic tracking is derived by means of hyperstability theory. The benefits of the proposed model reference adaptive power system stabilizer were evaluated as objectively as possible by means of a theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and laboratory realizations. Damping of the synchronous generator oscillations in the entire operating range was investigated. Obtained results show the improved damping in the entire operating area and the increase of the power system stability. The results of the presented work will help by the development of the model reference power system stabilizer which should be able to replace the conventional stabilizers in power systems.

Keywords: Power system, stability, oscillations, power system stabilizer, model reference adaptive control.

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1 An Improved Adaptive Dot-Shape Beamforming Algorithm Research on Frequency Diverse Array

Authors: Yanping Liao, Zenan Wu, Ruigang Zhao

Abstract:

Frequency diverse array (FDA) beamforming is a technology developed in recent years, and its antenna pattern has a unique angle-distance-dependent characteristic. However, the beam is always required to have strong concentration, high resolution and low sidelobe level to form the point-to-point interference in the concentrated set. In order to eliminate the angle-distance coupling of the traditional FDA and to make the beam energy more concentrated, this paper adopts a multi-carrier FDA structure based on proposed power exponential frequency offset to improve the array structure and frequency offset of the traditional FDA. The simulation results show that the beam pattern of the array can form a dot-shape beam with more concentrated energy, and its resolution and sidelobe level performance are improved. However, the covariance matrix of the signal in the traditional adaptive beamforming algorithm is estimated by the finite-time snapshot data. When the number of snapshots is limited, the algorithm has an underestimation problem, which leads to the estimation error of the covariance matrix to cause beam distortion, so that the output pattern cannot form a dot-shape beam. And it also has main lobe deviation and high sidelobe level problems in the case of limited snapshot. Aiming at these problems, an adaptive beamforming technique based on exponential correction for multi-carrier FDA is proposed to improve beamforming robustness. The steps are as follows: first, the beamforming of the multi-carrier FDA is formed under linear constrained minimum variance (LCMV) criteria. Then the eigenvalue decomposition of the covariance matrix is ​​performed to obtain the diagonal matrix composed of the interference subspace, the noise subspace and the corresponding eigenvalues. Finally, the correction index is introduced to exponentially correct the small eigenvalues ​​of the noise subspace, improve the divergence of small eigenvalues ​​in the noise subspace, and improve the performance of beamforming. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can make the multi-carrier FDA form a dot-shape beam at limited snapshots, reduce the sidelobe level, improve the robustness of beamforming, and have better performance.

Keywords: Multi-carrier frequency diverse array, adaptive beamforming, correction index, limited snapshot, robust.

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