Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 8174

Search results for: Phylogenetic Analysis

8174 Phylogenetic Inference from 18S rRNA Gene Sequences of Horseshoe Crabs, Tachypleus gigas between Tanjung Dawai, Kedah and Cherating, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: Ismail, N., Sarijan, S

Abstract:

The phylogenetic analysis using the most conservative portions of 18S rRNA gene revealed the phylogenetic relationship among the two populations where DNA divergence showed that the nucleotides diversity value were -0.00838 for the Tanjung Dawai, Kedah and -0.00708 for the Cherating, Pahang populations respectively. The net nucleotide divergence among populations (Da) was -0.0073 indicating a low polymorphism among the populations studied. Total number of mutations in the Tanjung Dawai, Kedah samples was higher than Cherating, Pahang samples, which are 73 and 59 respectively while shared mutations across the populations were 8, and reveal the evolutionary in the genome of Malaysian T. gigas. The tree topology of both populations inferred using Neigbour-joining method by comparing 1791 bp of partial 18S rRNA sequence revealed that T. gigas haplotypes were clustered into seven clades, suggesting that they are genetically diverse among populations which derived from a common ancestor.

Keywords: Horseshoe crabs, Tachypleus gigas, 18S rRNA genesequences, phylogenetic analysis

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8173 Comparison of Phylogenetic Trees of Multiple Protein Sequence Alignment Methods

Authors: Khaddouja Boujenfa, Nadia Essoussi, Mohamed Limam

Abstract:

Multiple sequence alignment is a fundamental part in many bioinformatics applications such as phylogenetic analysis. Many alignment methods have been proposed. Each method gives a different result for the same data set, and consequently generates a different phylogenetic tree. Hence, the chosen alignment method affects the resulting tree. However in the literature, there is no evaluation of multiple alignment methods based on the comparison of their phylogenetic trees. This work evaluates the following eight aligners: ClustalX, T-Coffee, SAGA, MUSCLE, MAFFT, DIALIGN, ProbCons and Align-m, based on their phylogenetic trees (test trees) produced on a given data set. The Neighbor-Joining method is used to estimate trees. Three criteria, namely, the dNNI, the dRF and the Id_Tree are established to test the ability of different alignment methods to produce closer test tree compared to the reference one (true tree). Results show that the method which produces the most accurate alignment gives the nearest test tree to the reference tree. MUSCLE outperforms all aligners with respect to the three criteria and for all datasets, performing particularly better when sequence identities are within 10-20%. It is followed by T-Coffee at lower sequence identity (<10%), Align-m at 20-30% identity, and ClustalX and ProbCons at 30-50% identity. Also, it is noticed that when sequence identities are higher (>30%), trees scores of all methods become similar.

Keywords: Multiple alignment methods, phylogenetic trees, Neighbor-Joining method, Robinson-Foulds distance.

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8172 Structure Based Computational Analysis and Molecular Phylogeny of C- Phycocyanin Gene from the Selected Cyanobacteria

Authors: N. Reehana, A. Parveez Ahamed, D. Mubarak Ali, A. Suresh, R. Arvind Kumar, N. Thajuddin

Abstract:

Cyanobacteria play a vital role in the production of phycobiliproteins that includes phycocyanin and phycoerythrin pigments. Phycocyanin and related phycobiliproteins have wide variety of application that is used in the food, biotechnology and cosmetic industry because of their color, fluorescent and antioxidant properties. The present study is focused to understand the pigment at molecular level in the Cyanobacteria Oscillatoria terebriformis NTRI05 and Oscillatoria foreaui NTRI06. After extraction of genomic DNA, the amplification of C-Phycocyanin gene was done with the suitable primer PCβF and PCαR and the sequencing was performed. Structural and Phylogenetic analysis was attained using the sequence to develop a molecular model.

Keywords: Cyanobacteria, C-Phycocyanin gene, Phylogenetic analysis, Structural analysis.

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8171 Enhanced Character Based Algorithm for Small Parsimony

Authors: Parvinder Singh Sandhu, Sumeet Kaur Sehra, Karmjit Kaur

Abstract:

Phylogenetic tree is a graphical representation of the evolutionary relationship among three or more genes or organisms. These trees show relatedness of data sets, species or genes divergence time and nature of their common ancestors. Quality of a phylogenetic tree requires parsimony criterion. Various approaches have been proposed for constructing most parsimonious trees. This paper is concerned about calculating and optimizing the changes of state that are needed called Small Parsimony Algorithms. This paper has proposed enhanced small parsimony algorithm to give better score based on number of evolutionary changes needed to produce the observed sequence changes tree and also give the ancestor of the given input.

Keywords: Phylogenetic Analysis, Small Parsimony, EnhancedFitch Algorithm, Enhanced Sakoff Algorithm.

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8170 Predicting Protein-Protein Interactions from Protein Sequences Using Phylogenetic Profiles

Authors: Omer Nebil Yaveroglu, Tolga Can

Abstract:

In this study, a high accuracy protein-protein interaction prediction method is developed. The importance of the proposed method is that it only uses sequence information of proteins while predicting interaction. The method extracts phylogenetic profiles of proteins by using their sequence information. Combining the phylogenetic profiles of two proteins by checking existence of homologs in different species and fitting this combined profile into a statistical model, it is possible to make predictions about the interaction status of two proteins. For this purpose, we apply a collection of pattern recognition techniques on the dataset of combined phylogenetic profiles of protein pairs. Support Vector Machines, Feature Extraction using ReliefF, Naive Bayes Classification, K-Nearest Neighborhood Classification, Decision Trees, and Random Forest Classification are the methods we applied for finding the classification method that best predicts the interaction status of protein pairs. Random Forest Classification outperformed all other methods with a prediction accuracy of 76.93%

Keywords: Protein Interaction Prediction, Phylogenetic Profile, SVM , ReliefF, Decision Trees, Random Forest Classification

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8169 A Maximum Parsimony Model to Reconstruct Phylogenetic Network in Honey Bee Evolution

Authors: Usha Chouhan, K. R. Pardasani

Abstract:

Phylogenies ; The evolutionary histories of groups of species are one of the most widely used tools throughout the life sciences, as well as objects of research with in systematic, evolutionary biology. In every phylogenetic analysis reconstruction produces trees. These trees represent the evolutionary histories of many groups of organisms, bacteria due to horizontal gene transfer and plants due to process of hybridization. The process of gene transfer in bacteria and hybridization in plants lead to reticulate networks, therefore, the methods of constructing trees fail in constructing reticulate networks. In this paper a model has been employed to reconstruct phylogenetic network in honey bee. This network represents reticulate evolution in honey bee. The maximum parsimony approach has been used to obtain this reticulate network.

Keywords: Hybridization, HGT, Reticulate networks, Recombination, Species, Parsimony.

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8168 The Efficiency of Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit 1 Gene (cox1) in Reconstruction of Phylogenetic Relations among Some Crustacean Species

Authors: Yasser M. Saad, Heba El-Sebaie Abd El-Sadek

Abstract:

Some Metapenaeus monoceros cox1 gene fragments were isolated, purified, sequenced, and comparatively analyzed with some other Crustacean Cox1 gene sequences (obtained from National Center for Biotechnology Information). This work was designed for testing the efficiency of this system in reconstruction of phylogenetic relations among some Crustacean species belonging to four genera (Metapenaeus, Artemia, Daphnia and Calanus). The single nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype diversity were calculated for all estimated mt-DNA fragments. The genetic distance values were 0.292, 0.015, 0.151, and 0.09 within Metapenaeus species, Calanus species, Artemia species, and Daphnia species, respectively. The reconstructed phylogenetic tree is clustered into some unique clades. Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) was a powerful system in reconstruction of phylogenetic relations among evaluated crustacean species.

Keywords: Crustacean, Genetics, cox1, phylogeny.

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8167 Molecular Evolutionary Analysis of Yeast Protein Interaction Network

Authors: Soichi Ogishima, Takeshi Hase, So Nakagawa, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Hiroshi Tanaka

Abstract:

To understand life as biological system, evolutionary understanding is indispensable. Protein interactions data are rapidly accumulating and are suitable for system-level evolutionary analysis. We have analyzed yeast protein interaction network by both mathematical and biological approaches. In this poster presentation, we inferred the evolutionary birth periods of yeast proteins by reconstructing phylogenetic profile. It has been thought that hub proteins that have high connection degree are evolutionary old. But our analysis showed that hub proteins are entirely evolutionary new. We also examined evolutionary processes of protein complexes. It showed that member proteins of complexes were tend to have appeared in the same evolutionary period. Our results suggested that protein interaction network evolved by modules that form the functional unit. We also reconstructed standardized phylogenetic trees and calculated evolutionary rates of yeast proteins. It showed that there is no obvious correlation between evolutionary rates and connection degrees of yeast proteins.

Keywords: Protein interaction network, evolution, modularity, evolutionary rate, connection degrees.

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8166 DNA Polymorphism Studies of β-Lactoglobulin Gene in Saudi Goats

Authors: Amr A. El Hanafy, Muhammad Qureshi, Jamal Sabir, Mohamed Mutawakil, Mohamed M. Ahmed, Hassan El Ashmaoui, Hassan Ramadan, Mohamed Abou-Alsoud, Mahmoud Abdel Sadek

Abstract:

Domestic goats (Capra hircus) are extremely diverse species and principal animal genetic resource of the developing world. These facilitate a persistent supply of meat, milk, fibre, and skin and are considered as important revenue generators in small pastoral environments. This study aimed to fingerprint β-LG gene at PCR-RFLP level in native Saudi goat breeds (Ardi, Habsi and Harri) in an attempt to have a preliminary image of β-LG genotypic patterns in Saudi breeds as compared to other foreign breeds such as Indian and Egyptian. Also, the Phylogenetic analysis was done to investigate evolutionary trends and similarities among the caprine β-LG gene with that of the other domestic specie, viz. cow, buffalo and sheep. Blood samples were collected from 300 animals (100 for each breed) and genomic DNA was extracted. A fragment of the β-LG gene (427bp) was amplified using specific primers. Subsequent digestion with Sac II restriction endonuclease revealed two alleles (A and B) and three different banding patterns or genotypes i.e. AA, AB and BB. The statistical analysis showed a general trend that β-LG AA genotype had higher milk yield than β-LG AB and β-LG BB genotypes. Nucleotide sequencing of the selected β-LG fragments was done and submitted to GenBank NCBI (Accession No. KJ544248, KJ588275, KJ588276, KJ783455, KJ783456 and KJ874959). Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of nucleotide sequences of native Saudi goats indicated evolutional similarity with the GenBank reference sequences of goat, Bubalus bubalis and Bos taurus. However, the origin of sheep which is the most closely related from the evolutionary point of view, was located some distance away.

Keywords: β-Lactoglobulin, Saudi goats, PCR-RFLP, Phylogenetic analysis.

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8165 Unnoticeable Mumps Infection in India: Does MMR Vaccine Protect against Circulating Mumps Virus Genotype C?

Authors: Jeevan Malayan, Aparna Warrier, Padmasani Venkat Ramanan, Sanjeeva Reddy N, Elanchezhiyan Manickan

Abstract:

MMR vaccine failure had been reported globally and here we report that it occurs now in India. Samples were collected from clinically suspected mumps cases were subjected for anti mumps antibodies, virus isolation, RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic tree analysis. 56 samples collected from men and women belonging to various age groups. 30 had been vaccinated and the status of 26 patients was unknown. 28 out of 30 samples were found to be symptomatic and positive for Mumps IgM, indicating active mumps infection in 93.4% of the vaccinated population. A phylogenetic tree comparison of the clinical isolate is shown to be genotype C which is distinct from vaccine strain. Our study clearly sending warning signs that MMR vaccine is a failure and it needs to be revamped for the human use by increasing its efficacy and efficiency.

Keywords: Genotype C, Mumps virus, MMR vaccine, Sero types.

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8164 Molecular Epidemiology and Genotyping of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China

Authors: Yan Ren, Jun Qiao, Xianxia Liu, Pengyan Wang, Qiang Fu, Huijun Shi, Fei Guo, Yuanzhi Wang, Hui Zhang, Jinliang Sheng, Xinli Gu, Xiao-Jun Liu, Chuangfu Chen

Abstract:

As part of national epidemiological survey on bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a total of 274 dejecta samples were collected from 14 cattle farms in 8 areas of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in northwestern China. Total RNA was extracted from each sample, and 5--untranslated region (UTR) of BVDV genome was amplified by using two-step reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The PCR products were subsequently sequenced to study the genetic variations of BVDV in these areas. Among the 274 samples, 33 samples were found virus-positive. According to sequence analysis of the PCR products, the 33 samples could be arranged into 16 groups. All the sequences, however, were highly conserved with BVDV Osloss strains. The virus possessed theses sequences belonged to BVDV-1b subtype by phylogenetic analysis. Based on these data, we established a typing tree for BVDV in these areas. Our results suggested that BVDV-1b was a predominant subgenotype in northwestern China and no correlation between the genetic and geographical distances could be observed above the farm level.

Keywords: bovine viral diarrhea virus, molecular epidemiology, phylogenetic analysis.

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8163 Comparative Performance and Microbial Community of Single-phase and Two-phase Anaerobic Systems Co-Digesting Cassava Pulpand Pig Manure

Authors: P. Panichnumsin, B. K. Ahring, A. Nopharatana, P. Chaipresert

Abstract:

In this study, we illustrated the performance and microbial community of single- and two-phase systems anaerobically co-digesting cassava pulp and pig manure. The results showed that the volatile solid reduction and biogas productivity of two-phase CSTR were 66 ± 4% and 2000 ± 210 ml l-1 d-1, while those of singlephase CSTR were 59 ± 1% and 1670 ± 60 ml l-1 d-1, respectively. Codigestion in two-phase CSTR gave higher 12% solid degradation and 25% methane production than single-phase CSTR. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA clone library revealed that the Bacteroidetes were the most abundant group, followed by the Clostridia in singlephase CSTR. In hydrolysis/acidification reactor of two-phase system, the bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes, especially Clostridium, Eubacteriaceae and Lactobacillus were the dominant phylogenetic groups. Among the Archaea, Methanosaeta sp. was the exclusive predominant in both digesters while the relative abundance of Methanosaeta sp. and Methanospirillum hungatei differed between the two systems.

Keywords: Anaerobic co-digestion, Cassava pulp, Microbialdiversity, Pig manure.

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8162 On Reversal and Transposition Medians

Authors: Martin Bader

Abstract:

During the last years, the genomes of more and more species have been sequenced, providing data for phylogenetic recon- struction based on genome rearrangement measures. A main task in all phylogenetic reconstruction algorithms is to solve the median of three problem. Although this problem is NP-hard even for the sim- plest distance measures, there are exact algorithms for the breakpoint median and the reversal median that are fast enough for practical use. In this paper, this approach is extended to the transposition median as well as to the weighted reversal and transposition median. Although there is no exact polynomial algorithm known even for the pairwise distances, we will show that it is in most cases possible to solve these problems exactly within reasonable time by using a branch and bound algorithm.

Keywords: Comparative genomics, genome rearrangements, me-dian, reversals, transpositions.

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8161 Systematics of Water Lilies (Genus Nymphaea L.) Using 18S rDNA Sequences

Authors: M. Nakkuntod, S. Srinarang, K.W. Hilu

Abstract:

Water lily (Nymphaea L.) is the largest genus of Nymphaeaceae. This family is composed of six genera (Nuphar, Ondinea, Euryale, Victoria, Barclaya, Nymphaea). Its members are nearly worldwide in tropical and temperate regions. The classification of some species in Nymphaea is ambiguous due to high variation in leaf and flower parts such as leaf margin, stamen appendage. Therefore, the phylogenetic relationships based on 18S rDNA were constructed to delimit this genus. DNAs of 52 specimens belonging to water lily family were extracted using modified conventional method containing cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The results showed that the amplified fragment is about 1600 base pairs in size. After analysis, the aligned sequences presented 9.36% for variable characters comprising 2.66% of parsimonious informative sites and 6.70% of singleton sites. Moreover, there are 6 regions of 1-2 base(s) for insertion/deletion. The phylogenetic trees based on maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood with high bootstrap support indicated that genus Nymphaea was a paraphyletic group because of Ondinea, Victoria and Euryale disruption. Within genus Nymphaea, subgenus Nymphaea is a basal lineage group which cooperated with Euryale and Victoria. The other four subgenera, namely Lotos, Hydrocallis, Brachyceras and Anecphya were included the same large clade which Ondinea was placed within Anecphya clade due to geographical sharing.

Keywords: nrDNA, phylogeny, taxonomy, Waterlily.

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8160 Cloning, Expression and Protein Purification of AV1 Gene of Okra Leaf Curl Virus Egyptian Isolate and Genetic Diversity between Whitefly and Different Plant Hosts

Authors: Dalia. G. Aseel

Abstract:

Begomoviruses are economically important plant viruses that infect dicotyledonous plants and exclusively transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Here, replicative form was isolated from Okra, Cotton, Tomato plants and whitefly infected with Begomoviruses. Using coat protein specific primers (AV1), the viral infection was verified with amplicon at 450 bp. The sequence of OLCuV-AV1 gene was recorded and received an accession number (FJ441605) from Genebank. The phylogenetic tree of OLCuV was closely related to Okra leaf curl virus previously isolated from Cameroon and USA with nucleotide sequence identity of 92%. The protein purification was carried out using His-Tag methodology by using Affinity Chromatography. The purified protein was separated on SDS-PAGE analysis and an enriched expected size of band at 30 kDa was observed. Furthermore, RAPD and SDS-PAGE were used to detect genetic variability between different hosts of okra leaf curl virus (OLCuV), cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCuV) and the whitefly vector. Finally, the present study would help to understand the relationship between the whitefly and different economical crops in Egypt.

Keywords: Begomovirus, AV1 gene, sequence, cloning, whitefly, okra, cotton, tomato, RAPD, phylogenetic tree and SDS-PAGE.

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8159 Microbiological Analysis, Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects from Material Captured in PM2.5 and PM10 Filters Used in the Aburrá Valley Air Quality Monitoring Network (Colombia)

Authors: Carmen E. Zapata, Juan Bautista, Olga Montoya, Claudia Moreno, Marisol Suarez, Alejandra Betancur, Duvan Nanclares, Natalia A. Cano

Abstract:

This study aims to evaluate the diversity of microorganisms in filters PM2.5 and PM10; and determine the genotoxic and cytotoxic activity of the complex mixture present in PM2.5 filters used in the Aburrá Valley Air Quality Monitoring Network (Colombia). The research results indicate that particulate matter PM2.5 of different monitoring stations are bacteria; however, this study of detection of bacteria and their phylogenetic relationship is not complete evidence to connect the microorganisms with pathogenic or degrading activities of compounds present in the air. Additionally, it was demonstrated the damage induced by the particulate material in the cell membrane, lysosomal and endosomal membrane and in the mitochondrial metabolism; this damage was independent of the PM2.5 concentrations in almost all the cases.

Keywords: Cytotoxic, genotoxic, microbiological analysis, PM10, PM2.5.

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8158 BeamGA Median: A Hybrid Heuristic Search Approach

Authors: Ghada Badr, Manar Hosny, Nuha Bintayyash, Eman Albilali, Souad Larabi Marie-Sainte

Abstract:

The median problem is significantly applied to derive the most reasonable rearrangement phylogenetic tree for many species. More specifically, the problem is concerned with finding a permutation that minimizes the sum of distances between itself and a set of three signed permutations. Genomes with equal number of genes but different order can be represented as permutations. In this paper, an algorithm, namely BeamGA median, is proposed that combines a heuristic search approach (local beam) as an initialization step to generate a number of solutions, and then a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is applied in order to refine the solutions, aiming to achieve a better median with the smallest possible reversal distance from the three original permutations. In this approach, any genome rearrangement distance can be applied. In this paper, we use the reversal distance. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed approach was not applied before for solving the median problem. Our approach considers true biological evolution scenario by applying the concept of common intervals during the GA optimization process. This allows us to imitate a true biological behavior and enhance genetic approach time convergence. We were able to handle permutations with a large number of genes, within an acceptable time performance and with same or better accuracy as compared to existing algorithms.

Keywords: Median problem, phylogenetic tree, permutation, genetic algorithm, beam search, genome rearrangement distance.

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8157 Genome-Wide Analysis of BES1/BZR1 Gene Family in Five Plant Species

Authors: Jafar Ahmadi, Zhohreh Asiaban, Sedigheh Fabriki Ourang

Abstract:

Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate cell elongation, vascular differentiation, senescence, and stress responses. BRs signal through the BES1/BZR1 family of transcription factors, which regulate hundreds of target genes involved in this pathway. In this research a comprehensive genome-wide analysis was carried out in BES1/BZR1 gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana, Cucumis sativus, Vitis vinifera, Glycin max and Brachypodium distachyon. Specifications of the desired sequences, dot plot and hydropathy plot were analyzed in the protein and genome sequences of five plant species. The maximum amino acid length was attributed to protein sequence Brdic3g with 374aa and the minimum amino acid length was attributed to protein sequence Gm7g with 163aa. The maximum Instability index was attributed to protein sequence AT1G19350 equal with 79.99 and the minimum Instability index was attributed to protein sequence Gm5g equal with 33.22. Aliphatic index of these protein sequences ranged from 47.82 to 78.79 in Arabidopsis thaliana, 49.91 to 57.50 in Vitis vinifera, 55.09 to 82.43 in Glycin max, 54.09 to 54.28 in Brachypodium distachyon 55.36 to 56.83 in Cucumis sativus. Overall, data obtained from our investigation contributes a better understanding of the complexity of the BES1/BZR1 gene family and provides the first step towards directing future experimental designs to perform systematic analysis of the functions of the BES1/BZR1 gene family.

Keywords: BES1/BZR1, Brassinosteroids, Phylogenetic analysis, Transcription factor.

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8156 Phylogenetic Characterization of Atrazine-Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Agricultural Soil in Eastern Thailand

Authors: Sawangjit Sopid

Abstract:

In this study sugarcane field soils with a long history of atrazine application in Chachoengsao and Chonburi provinces have been explored for their potential of atrazine biodegradation. For the atrazine degrading bacteria isolation, the soils used in this study named ACS and ACB were inoculated in MS-medium containing atrazine. Six short rod and gram-negative bacterial isolates, which were able to use this herbicide as a sole source of nitrogen, were isolated and named as ACS1, ACB1, ACB3, ACB4, ACB5 and ACB6. From the 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analysis, the isolated bacteria ACS1 and ACB4 were identified as Rhizobium sp. with 89.1-98.7% nucleotide identity, ACB1 and ACB5 were identified as Stenotrophomonas sp. with 91.0-92.8% nucleotide identity, whereas ACB3 and ACB6 were Klebsiella sp. with 97.4-97.8% nucleotide identity.

Keywords: Atrazine-degrading bacteria, bioremediation, Thai isolate bacteria.

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8155 Utilization of 3-N-trimethylamino-1-propanol by Rhodococcus sp. strain A4 isolated from Natural Soil

Authors: Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed, Jiro Arima, Tsuyoshi Ichiyanagi, Emi Sakuno, Nobuhiro Mori

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to screen for microorganism that able to utilize 3-N-trimethylamino-1-propanol (homocholine) as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The aerobic degradation of homocholine has been found by a gram-positive Rhodococcus sp. bacterium isolated from soil. The isolate was identified as Rhodococcus sp. strain A4 based on the phenotypic features, physiologic and biochemical characteristics, and phylogenetic analysis. The cells of the isolated strain grown on both basal-TMAP and nutrient agar medium displayed elementary branching mycelia fragmented into irregular rod and coccoid elements. Comparative 16S rDNA sequencing studies indicated that the strain A4 falls into the Rhodococcus erythropolis subclade and forms a monophyletic group with the type-strains of R. opacus, and R. wratislaviensis. Metabolites analysis by capillary electrophoresis, fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry, showed trimethylamine (TMA) as the major metabolite beside β-alanine betaine and trimethylaminopropionaldehyde. Therefore, the possible degradation pathway of trimethylamino propanol in the isolated strain is through consequence oxidation of alcohol group (-OH) to aldehyde (-CHO) and acid (-COOH), and thereafter the cleavage of β-alanine betaine C-N bonds yielded trimethylamine and alkyl chain.

Keywords: Homocholine, 3-N-trimethylamino-1-propanol, Quaternary ammonium compounds, 16S rDNA gene sequence.

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8154 Sequence Relationships Similarity of Swine Influenza a (H1N1) Virus

Authors: Patsaraporn Somboonsak, Mud-Armeen Munlin

Abstract:

In April 2009, a new variant of Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 emerged in Mexico and spread all over the world. The influenza has three subtypes in human (H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2) Types B and C influenza tend to be associated with local or regional epidemics. Preliminary genetic characterization of the influenza viruses has identified them as swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the Haemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA) are similar to each other and the majority of their genes of swine influenza viruses, two genes coding for the neuraminidase (NA) and matrix (M) proteins are similar to corresponding genes of swine influenza. Sequence similarity between the 2009 A (H1N1) virus and its nearest relatives indicates that its gene segments have been circulating undetected for an extended period. Nucleic acid sequence Maximum Likelihood (MCL) and DNA Empirical base frequencies, Phylogenetic relationship amongst the HA genes of H1N1 virus isolated in Genbank having high nucleotide sequence homology. In this paper we used 16 HA nucleotide sequences from NCBI for computing sequence relationships similarity of swine influenza A virus using the following method MCL the result is 28%, 36.64% for Optimal tree with the sum of branch length, 35.62% for Interior branch phylogeny Neighber – Join Tree, 1.85% for the overall transition/transversion, and 8.28% for Overall mean distance.

Keywords: Sequence DNA, Relationship of swine, Swineinfluenza, Sequence Similarity

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8153 Biodegradation of Malathion by Acinetobacter baumannii Strain AFA Isolated from Domestic Sewage in Egypt

Authors: Ahmed F. Azmy , Amal E. Saafan, Tamer M. Essam, Magdy A. Amin, Shaban H. Ahmed

Abstract:

Bacterial strains capable of degradation of malathion from the domestic sewage were isolated by an enrichment culture technique. Three bacterial strains were screened and identified as Acinetobacter baumannii (AFA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PS1), and Pseudomonas mendocina (PS2) based on morphological, biochemical identification and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Acinetobacter baumannii AFA was the most efficient malathion degrading bacterium, so used for further biodegradation study. AFA was able to grow in mineral salt medium (MSM) supplemented with malathion (100 mg/l) as a sole carbon source, and within 14 days, 84% of the initial dose was degraded by the isolate measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Strain AFA could also degrade other organophosphorus compounds including diazinon, chlorpyrifos and fenitrothion. The effect of different culture conditions on the degradation of malathion like inoculum density, other carbon or nitrogen sources, temperature and shaking were examined. Degradation of malathion and bacterial cell growth were accelerated when culture media were supplemented with yeast extract, glucose and citrate. The optimum conditions for malathion degradation by strain AFA were; an inoculum density of 1.5x 10^12CFU/ml at 30°C with shaking. A specific polymerase chain reaction primers were designed manually using multiple sequence alignment of the corresponding carboxylesterase enzymes of Acinetobacter species. Sequencing result of amplified PCR product and phylogenetic analysis showed low degree of homology with the other carboxylesterase enzymes of Acinetobacter strains, so we suggested that this enzyme is a novel esterase enzyme. Isolated bacterial strains may have potential role for use in bioremediation of malathion contaminated.

Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii, biodegradation, Malathion, organophosphate pesticides.

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8152 Application of Subversion Analysis in the Search for the Causes of Cracking in a Marine Engine Injector Nozzle

Authors: Leszek Chybowski, Artur Bejger, Katarzyna Gawdzińska

Abstract:

Subversion analysis is a tool used in the TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) methodology. This article introduces the history and describes the process of subversion analysis, as well as function analysis and analysis of the resources, used at the design stage when generating possible undesirable situations. The article charts the course of subversion analysis when applied to a fuel injection nozzle of a marine engine. The work describes the fuel injector nozzle as a technological system and presents principles of analysis for the causes of a cracked tip of the nozzle body. The system is modelled with functional analysis. A search for potential causes of the damage is undertaken and a cause-and-effect analysis for various hypotheses concerning the damage is drawn up. The importance of particular hypotheses is evaluated and the most likely causes of damage identified.

Keywords: Complex technical system, fuel injector, function analysis, importance analysis, resource analysis, sabotage analysis, subversion analysis, TRIZ.

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8151 An Integrated Predictor for Cis-Regulatory Modules

Authors: Darby Tien-Hao Chang, Guan-Yu Shiu, You-Jie Sun

Abstract:

Various cis-regulatory module (CRM) predictors have been proposed in the last decade. Several well-established CRM predictors adopted different categories of prediction strategies, including window clustering, probabilistic modeling and phylogenetic footprinting. Appropriate integration of them has a potential to achieve high quality CRM prediction. This study analyzed four existing CRM predictors (ClusterBuster, MSCAN, CisModule and MultiModule) to seek a predictor combination that delivers a higher accuracy than individual CRM predictors. 465 CRMs across 140 Drosophila melanogaster genes from the RED fly database were used to evaluate the integrated CRM predictor proposed in this study. The results show that four predictor combinations achieved superior performance than the best individual CRM predictor.

Keywords: Cis-regulatory module, transcription factor binding site.

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8150 An Accurate Method for Phylogeny Tree Reconstruction Based on a Modified Wild Dog Algorithm

Authors: Essam Al Daoud

Abstract:

This study solves a phylogeny problem by using modified wild dog pack optimization. The least squares error is considered as a cost function that needs to be minimized. Therefore, in each iteration, new distance matrices based on the constructed trees are calculated and used to select the alpha dog. To test the suggested algorithm, ten homologous genes are selected and collected from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) databanks (i.e., 16S, 18S, 28S, Cox 1, ITS1, ITS2, ETS, ATPB, Hsp90, and STN). The data are divided into three categories: 50 taxa, 100 taxa and 500 taxa. The empirical results show that the proposed algorithm is more reliable and accurate than other implemented methods.

Keywords: Least squares, neighbor joining, phylogenetic tree, wild dogpack.

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8149 Identification of Microbial Community in an Anaerobic Reactor Treating Brewery Wastewater

Authors: Abimbola M. Enitan, John O. Odiyo, Feroz M. Swalaha

Abstract:

The study of microbial ecology and their function in anaerobic digestion processes are essential to control the biological processes. This is to know the symbiotic relationship between the microorganisms that are involved in the conversion of complex organic matter in the industrial wastewater to simple molecules. In this study, diversity and quantity of bacterial community in the granular sludge taken from the different compartments of a full-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating brewery wastewater was investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The phylogenetic analysis showed three major eubacteria phyla that belong to Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Chloroflexi in the full-scale UASB reactor, with different groups populating different compartment. The result of qPCR assay showed high amount of eubacteria with increase in concentration along the reactor’s compartment. This study extends our understanding on the diverse, topological distribution and shifts in concentration of microbial communities in the different compartments of a full-scale UASB reactor treating brewery wastewater. The colonization and the trophic interactions among these microbial populations in reducing and transforming complex organic matter within the UASB reactors were established.

Keywords: Bacteria, brewery wastewater, real-time quantitative PCR, UASB reactor.

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8148 Biomechanics Analysis When Delivering Baby

Authors: Kristyanto B.

Abstract:

Plenty of analyses based on Biomechanics were carried out on many jobs in manufactures or services. Now Biomechanics analysis is being applied on mothers who are giving birth. The analysis conducted in terms of normal condition of the birth process without Gyn Bed (Obstetric Bed). The aim of analysis is to study whether it is risky or not when choosing the position of mother’s postures when delivering the baby. This investigation was applied on two positions that generally appear in common birth process. Results will show the analysis of both positions to support the birth process based on the Biomechanics analysis (Ergonomic approaches). 

Keywords: Biomechanics analysis, Birth process, Position of postures analysis, Ergonomic approaches.

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8147 Joint Use of Factor Analysis (FA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) for Ranking of Data Envelopment Analysis

Authors: Reza Nadimi, Fariborz Jolai

Abstract:

This article combines two techniques: data envelopment analysis (DEA) and Factor analysis (FA) to data reduction in decision making units (DMU). Data envelopment analysis (DEA), a popular linear programming technique is useful to rate comparatively operational efficiency of decision making units (DMU) based on their deterministic (not necessarily stochastic) input–output data and factor analysis techniques, have been proposed as data reduction and classification technique, which can be applied in data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique for reduction input – output data. Numerical results reveal that the new approach shows a good consistency in ranking with DEA.

Keywords: Effectiveness, Decision Making, Data EnvelopmentAnalysis, Factor Analysis

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8146 Feasibility Analysis Studies on New National R&D Programs in Korea

Authors: Seongmin Yim, Hyun-Kyu Kang

Abstract:

As a part of evaluation system for R&D program, the Korean government has applied feasibility analysis since 2008. Various professionals put forth a great effort in order to catch up the high degree of freedom of R&D programs, and make contributions to evolving the feasibility analysis. We analyze diverse R&D programs from various viewpoints, such as technology, policy, and Economics, integrate the separate analysis, and finally arrive at a definite result; whether a program is feasible or unfeasible. This paper describes the concept and method of the feasibility analysis as a decision making tool. The analysis unit and content of each criterion, which are key elements in a comprehensive decision making structure, are examined

Keywords: Decision Making of New Government R&D Program, Feasibility Analysis Study

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8145 Recent Trends in Nonlinear Methods of HRV Analysis: A Review

Authors: Ramesh K. Sunkaria

Abstract:

The linear methods of heart rate variability analysis such as non-parametric (e.g. fast Fourier transform analysis) and parametric methods (e.g. autoregressive modeling) has become an established non-invasive tool for marking the cardiac health, but their sensitivity and specificity were found to be lower than expected with positive predictive value <30%. This may be due to considering the RR-interval series as stationary and re-sampling them prior to their use for analysis, whereas actually it is not. This paper reviews the non-linear methods of HRV analysis such as correlation dimension, largest Lyupnov exponent, power law slope, fractal analysis, detrended fluctuation analysis, complexity measure etc. which are currently becoming popular as these uses the actual RR-interval series. These methods are expected to highly accurate cardiac health prognosis.

Keywords: chaos, nonlinear dynamics, sample entropy, approximate entropy, detrended fluctuation analysis.

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