Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 400

Search results for: Isolated bridges

400 A Case Study on Performance of Isolated Bridges under Near-Fault Ground Motion

Authors: Daniele Losanno, H. A. Hadad, Giorgio Serino

Abstract:

This paper presents a numerical investigation on the seismic performance of a benchmark bridge with different optimal isolation systems under near fault ground motion. Usually, very large displacements make seismic isolation an unfeasible solution due to boundary conditions, especially in case of existing bridges or high risk seismic regions. Hence, near-fault ground motions are most likely to affect either structures with long natural period range like isolated structures or structures sensitive to velocity content such as viscously damped structures. The work is aimed at analyzing the seismic performance of a three-span continuous bridge designed with different isolation systems having different levels of damping. The case study was analyzed in different configurations including: (a) simply supported, (b) isolated with lead rubber bearings (LRBs), (c) isolated with rubber isolators and 10% classical damping (HDLRBs), and (d) isolated with rubber isolators and 70% supplemental damping ratio. Case (d) represents an alternative control strategy that combines the effect of seismic isolation with additional supplemental damping trying to take advantages from both solutions. The bridge is modeled in SAP2000 and solved by time history direct-integration analyses under a set of six recorded near-fault ground motions. In addition to this, a set of analysis under Italian code provided seismic action is also conducted, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the suggested optimal control strategies under far field seismic action. Results of the analysis demonstrated that an isolated bridge equipped with HDLRBs and a total equivalent damping ratio of 70% represents a very effective design solution for both mitigation of displacement demand at the isolation level and base shear reduction in the piers also in case of near fault ground motion.

Keywords: Isolated bridges, optimal design, near-fault motion, supplemental damping.

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399 Green Bridges and Their Migration Potential

Authors: Jaroslav Žák, Aleš Florian

Abstract:

Green bridges enable wildlife to pass through linear structures, especially freeways. The term migration potential is used to quantify their functionality. The proposed methodology for determining migration potential eliminates the mathematical, systematic and ecological inaccuracies of previous methodologies and provides a reliable tool for designers and environmentalists. The methodology is suited especially to medium-sized and large mammals, is mathematically correct, and its correspondence with reality was tested by monitoring existing green bridges. 

Keywords: Green bridges, migration potential, partial probabilities, wildlife migration.

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398 The Importance of Bridge Health Monitoring

Authors: Punya Chupanit, Chayatan Phromsorn

Abstract:

In the past, there were many bridge-s collapses due to lack of bridge structural capacity information. Most of concrete bridge health was relied on information from visual inspection, which sometime was inadequate. This study was conducted in order to investigate relationship between bridge structural condition and bridge visual condition. This study was a part of a big project conducted at Department of Highways of Thailand. In this study, 31 bridges including slab-type bridges, plank-girder bridges, prestressed box-beam bridges, prestressed I-girder bridges and prestressed multibeam bridges were selected for visual inspection and load test. It was found a positive correlation between bridge appearance and bridge-s load carrying capacity. However, statistical characteristic revealed low correlation between them.

Keywords: Bridge, Visual Inspection, Load Test, Condition Rating, Rating Factor

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397 Dynamic Amplification Factors of Some City Bridges

Authors: I. Paeglite, A. Paeglitis

Abstract:

Paper presents a study about dynamic effects obtained from the dynamic load testing of the city highway bridges in Latvia carried out from 2005 to 2012. 9 prestressed concrete bridges and 4 composite bridges were considered. 11 of 13 bridges were designed according to the Eurocodes but two according to the previous structural codes used in Latvia (SNIP 2.05.03-84). The dynamic properties of the bridges were obtained by heavy vehicle passing the bridge roadway with different driving speeds and with or without even pavement. The obtained values of the Dynamic amplification factor (DAF) and the bridge natural frequency were analyzed and compared to the values of built-in traffic load models provided in Eurocode 1. The actual DAF values for even bridge pavement in the most cases are smaller than the value adopted in Eurocode 1. Vehicle speed for uneven pavements significantly influence Dynamic amplification factor values.

Keywords: Bridge, dynamic effects, load testing, dynamic amplification factor.

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396 Prestressed Concrete Girder Bridges Using Large 0.7 Inch Strands

Authors: Amin Akhnoukh

Abstract:

The National Bridge Inventory (NBI) includes more than 600,000 bridges within the United States of America. Prestressed concrete girder bridges represent one of the most widely used bridge systems. The majority of these girder bridges were constructed using 0.5 and 0.6 inch diameter strands. The main impediments to using larger strand diameters are: 1) lack of prestress bed capacities, 2) lack of structural knowledge regarding the transfer and development length of larger strands, and 3) the possibility of developing wider end zone cracks upon strand release. This paper presents a study about using 0.7 inch strands in girder fabrication. Transfer and development length were evaluated, and girders were fabricated using 0.7 inch strands at different spacings. Results showed that 0.7 inch strands can be used at 2.0 inch spacing without violating the AASHTO LRFD Specifications, while attaining superior performance in shear and flexure.

Keywords: 0.7 inch strands, prestress, I-girders, bridges

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395 Structural Behavior of Incomplete Box Girder Bridges Subjected to Unpredicted Loads

Authors: E. H. N. Gashti, J. Razzaghi, K. Kujala

Abstract:

In general, codes and regulations consider seismic loads only for completed structures of the bridges while, evaluation of incomplete structure of bridges, especially those constructed by free cantilever method, under these loads is also of great importance. Hence, this research tried to study the behavior of incomplete structure of common bridge type (box girder bridge), in construction phase under vertical seismic loads. Subsequently, the paper provided suitable guidelines and solutions to resist this destructive phenomenon. Research results proved that use of preventive methods can significantly reduce the stresses resulted from vertical seismic loads in box cross sections to an acceptable range recommended by design codes.

Keywords: Box girder bridges, Prestress loads, Free cantilever method, Seismic loads, Construction phase.

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394 Modelling of Soil Structure Interaction of Integral Abutment Bridges

Authors: Thevaneyan K. David, John P. Forth

Abstract:

Integral Abutment Bridges (IAB) are defined as simple or multiple span bridges in which the bridge deck is cast monolithically with the abutment walls. This kind of bridges are becoming very popular due to different aspects such as good response under seismic loading, low initial costs, elimination of bearings, and less maintenance. However the main issue related to the analysis of this type of structures is dealing with soil-structure interaction of the abutment walls and the supporting piles. Various soil constitutive models have been used in studies of soil-structure interaction in this kind of structures by researchers. This paper is an effort to review the implementation of various finite elements model which explicitly incorporates the nonlinear soil and linear structural response considering various soil constitutive models and finite element mesh.

Keywords: Constitutive Models, FEM, Integral AbutmentBridges, Soil-structure Interactions

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393 An Examination of Backing Effects on Ratings for Masonry Arch Bridges

Authors: Muhammad E. Rahman, Paul J. Fanning

Abstract:

Many single or multispan arch bridges are strengthened with the addition of some kind of structural support between adjacent arches of multispan or beside the arch barrel of a single span to increase the strength of the overall structure. It was traditionally formed by either placing loose rubble masonry blocks between the arches and beside the arches or using mortar or concrete to construct a more substantial structural bond between the spans. On the other hand backing materials are present in some existing bridges. Existing arch assessment procedures generally ignore the effects of backing materials. In this paper an investigation of the effects of backing on ratings for masonry arch bridges is carried out. It is observed that increasing the overall lateral stability of the arch system through the inclusion of structural backing results in an enhanced failure load by reducing the likelihood of any tension occurring at the top of the arch.

Keywords: Arch, Backing, Bridge, Masonry

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392 Methods for Better Assessment of Fatigue and Deterioration in Bridges and Other Steel or Concrete Constructions

Authors: J. Menčík, B. Culek, Jr., L. Beran, J. Mareš

Abstract:

Large metal and concrete structures suffer by various kinds of deterioration, and accurate prediction of the remaining life is important. This paper informs about two methods for its assessment. One method, suitable for steel bridges and other constructions exposed to fatigue, monitors the loads and damage accumulation using information systems for the operation and the finite element model of the construction. In addition to the operation load, the dead weight of the construction and thermal stresses can be included into the model. The second method is suitable for concrete bridges and other structures, which suffer by carbonatation and other degradation processes, driven by diffusion. The diffusion constant, important for the prediction of future development, can be determined from the depth-profile of pH, obtained by pH measurement at various depths. Comparison with measurements on real objects illustrates the suitability of both methods.

Keywords: Bridges, carbonatation, concrete, diagnostics, fatigue, life prediction, monitoring, railway, simulation, structures.

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391 Selection of Intensity Measure in Probabilistic Seismic Risk Assessment of a Turkish Railway Bridge

Authors: M. F. Yilmaz, B. Ö. Çağlayan

Abstract:

Fragility curve is an effective common used tool to determine the earthquake performance of structural and nonstructural components. Also, it is used to determine the nonlinear behavior of bridges. There are many historical bridges in the Turkish railway network; the earthquake performances of these bridges are needed to be investigated. To derive fragility curve Intensity measures (IMs) and Engineering demand parameters (EDP) are needed to be determined. And the relation between IMs and EDP are needed to be derived. In this study, a typical simply supported steel girder riveted railway bridge is studied. Fragility curves of this bridge are derived by two parameters lognormal distribution. Time history analyses are done for selected 60 real earthquake data to determine the relation between IMs and EDP. Moreover, efficiency, practicality, and sufficiency of three different IMs are discussed. PGA, Sa(0.2s) and Sa(1s), the most common used IMs parameters for fragility curve in the literature, are taken into consideration in terms of efficiency, practicality and sufficiency.

Keywords: Railway bridges, earthquake performance, fragility analyses, selection of intensity measures.

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390 Traditionally Sustainability Analyses of Hydraulic-Architectural Bridge Construction in Iran

Authors: Karim Shiraazi, Zargham OstadiAsl, Vahid Sheikhloie, Ahadollah Azami, Shahin Hassanimehr

Abstract:

Bridge is an architectural symbol in Iran as Badgir (wind catcher); fire temples and arch are vaults are such. Therefore, from the very old ages, construction of bridges in Iran has mixed with architecture, social customs, alms and charity and holiness. Since long ago, from Mad, Achaemenid, Parthian and Sassanid times which construction of bridges got an inseparable relation with social dependency and architecture, based on those dependency bridges and dams got holy names; as Dokhtar castle and Dokhtar bridges were constructed. This method continued even after Islam and whenever Iranians got free from political fights and the immunity of roads were established the bridge construction did also prospered. In ancient times bridge construction passes through it growing and completion process and in Sassanid time in some way it reached to the peak of art and glory; as after Islam especially during 4th. century (Arab calendar) it put behind a period of glory and in Safavid time it reached to an exceptional glory and magnificence by constructing glorious bridges on Zayandeh Roud River in Isfahan. Having a combined style and changeability into bridge barrier, some of these bridges develop into magnificent constructions. The sustainable structures, mentioned above, are constructed for various reasons as follows: connecting two sides of a river, storing water, controlling floods, using water energy to operate water windmills, making lanes of streams for farms- use, and building recreational places for people, etc. These studies carried in bridges reveals the fact that in construction and designing mentioned above, lots of technological factors have been taken into consideration such as exceeding floods in the rives, hydraulic and hydrology of the rivers and bridges, geology, foundation, structure, construction material, and adopting appropriate executing methods, all of which are being analyzed in this article.

Keywords: Hydraulic-Architectural Bridge, Sustainability, Construction

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389 State-Of-The Art Practices in Bridge Inspection

Authors: Salam R. Yaghi, Saleh Abu Dabous

Abstract:

Government reports and published research have flagged and brought to public attention the deteriorating condition of a large percentage of bridges in Canada and the United States. With the increasing number of deteriorated bridges in the US, Canada, and around the globe, condition assessment techniques of concrete bridges are evolving. Investigation for bridges’ defects such as cracks, spalls, and delamination and their level of severity are the main objectives of condition assessment. Inspection and rehabilitation programs are being implemented to monitor and maintain deteriorated bridge infrastructure. This paper highlights the state-of-the art of current practices being performed for concrete bridge inspection. The information is gathered from the literature and through a distributed questionnaire. The current practices in concrete bridge inspection rely on the use of hummer sounding and chain dragging tests. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) techniques are not being utilized fully in the process. Nonetheless, they are being partially utilized by the recommendation of the bridge inspector after conducting visual inspection. Lanes are usually closed during the performance of visual inspection and bridge inspection in general.

Keywords: Bridge Inspection, Condition Assessment, questionnaire, Non-Destructive Testing.

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388 Review and Classification of the Indicators and Trends Used in Bridge Performance Modeling

Authors: S. Rezaei, Z. Mirzaei, M. Khalighi, J. Bahrami

Abstract:

Bridges, as an essential part of road infrastructures, are affected by various deterioration mechanisms over time due to the changes in their performance. As changes in performance can have many negative impacts on society, it is essential to be able to evaluate and measure the performance of bridges throughout their life. This evaluation includes the development or the choice of the appropriate performance indicators, which, in turn, are measured based on the selection of appropriate models for the existing deterioration mechanism. The purpose of this article is a statistical study of indicators and deterioration mechanisms of bridges in order to discover further research capacities in bridges performance assessment. For this purpose, some of the most common indicators of bridge performance, including reliability, risk, vulnerability, robustness, and resilience, were selected. The researches performed on each index based on the desired deterioration mechanisms and hazards were comprehensively reviewed. In addition, the formulation of the indicators and their relationship with each other were studied. The research conducted on the mentioned indicators were classified from the point of view of deterministic or probabilistic method, the level of study (element level, object level, etc.), and the type of hazard and the deterioration mechanism of interest. For each of the indicators, a number of challenges and recommendations were presented according to the review of previous studies.

Keywords: Bridge, deterioration mechanism, lifecycle, performance indicator.

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387 Site Inspection and Evaluation Behavior of Qing Shang Concrete Bridge

Authors: Haleem K. Hussain, Liu Gui Wei, Zhang Lian Zhen, Yongxue Li

Abstract:

It is necessary to evaluate the bridges conditions and strengthen bridges or parts of them. The reinforcement necessary due to some reasons can be summarized as: First, a changing in use of bridge could produce internal forces in a part of structural which exceed the existing cross-sectional capacity. Second, bridges may also need reinforcement because damage due to external factors which reduced the cross-sectional resistance to external loads. One of other factors could listed here its misdesign in some details, like safety of bridge or part of its.This article identify the design demands of Qing Shan bridge located in is in Heilongjiang Province He gang - Nen Jiang Road 303 provincial highway, Wudalianchi area, China, is an important bridge in the urban areas. The investigation program was include the observation and evaluate the damage in T- section concrete beams , prestressed concrete box girder bridges section in additional evaluate the whole state of bridge includes the pier , abutments , bridge decks, wings , bearing and capping beam, joints, ........etc. The test results show that the bridges in general structural condition are good. T beam span No 10 were observed, crack extended upward along the ribbed T beam, and continue to the T beam flange. Crack width varying between 0.1mm to 0.4mm, the maximum about 0.4mm. The bridge needs to be improved flexural bending strength especially at for T beam section.

Keywords: Field investigation, prestressed concrete box girder, maintenance, Qing Shan Bridge

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386 Operation Planning of Concrete Box Girder Bridge by 4D CAD Visualization Techniques

Authors: Mohammad Rohani, Gholamali Shafabakhsh, Abdolhosein Haddad, Ehsan Asnaashari

Abstract:

Visual simulation has emerged as a key planning tool in built environment because it enables architects, engineers and project managers to visualize construction process evolution before the project actual commences. This provides an efficient technology for reducing time and cost through planning and controlling resources, machines and materials. With the development of infrastructure projects and the massive civil constructions such as bridges, urban tunnels and highways as well as sensitivity of their construction operations, it is very necessary to apply proper planning methods. Implementation of visual techniques into management of construction projects can provide a fundamental foundation for projects with massive activities and duplicate items. So, the purpose of this paper is to develop visual simulation management techniques for infrastructure projects such as highways bridges by the use of Four-Dimensional Computer-Aided design Models. This project simulates operational assembly-line for Box-Girder Concrete Bridges which it would be able to optimize the sequence and interaction of project activities and on the other hand, it would minimize any unintended conflicts prior to project start. In this paper, after introducing the various planning methods by building information model and concrete bridges in highways, an executive case study is demonstrated and then a visual technique (4D CAD) will be applied for the case. In the final step, the user feedback for interacting by this system evaluated according to six criteria.

Keywords: 4D application area, Box-Girder concrete bridges, CAD model, visual planning.

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385 Fatigue Life Prediction on Steel Beam Bridges under Variable Amplitude Loading

Authors: M. F. V. Montezuma, E. P. Deus, M. C. Carvalho

Abstract:

Steel bridges are normally subjected to random loads with different traffic frequencies. They are structures with dynamic behavior and are subject to fatigue failure process, where the nucleation of a crack, growth and failure can occur. After locating and determining the size of an existing fault, it is important to predict the crack propagation and the convenient time for repair. Therefore, fracture mechanics and fatigue concepts are essential to the right approach to the problem. To study the fatigue crack growth, a computational code was developed by using the root mean square (RMS) and the cycle-by-cycle models. One observes the variable amplitude loading influence on the life structural prediction. Different loads histories and initial crack length were considered as input variables. Thus, it was evaluated the dispersion of results of the expected structural life choosing different initial parameters.

Keywords: Fatigue crack propagation, life prediction, variable loadings, steel bridges.

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384 Experimental Investigation on Tsunami Acting on Bridges

Authors: Iman Mazinani, Zubaidah Ismail, Ahmad Mustafa Hashim, Amirreza Saba

Abstract:

Two tragic tsunamis that devastated the west coast of Sumatra Island, Indonesia in 2004 and North East Japan in 2011 had damaged bridges to various extents. Tsunamis have resulted in the catastrophic deterioration of infrastructures i.e. coastal structures, utilities and transportation facilities. A bridge structure performs vital roles to enable people to perform activities related to their daily needs and for development. A damaged bridge needs to be repaired expeditiously. In order to understand the effects of tsunami forces on bridges, experimental tests are carried out to measure the characteristics of hydrodynamic force at various wave heights. Coastal bridge models designed at a 1:40 scale are used in a 24.0 m long hydraulic flume with a cross section of 1.5 m by 2.0 m. The horizontal forces and uplift forces in all cases show that forces increase nonlinearly with increasing wave amplitude.

Keywords: Tsunami, bridge, horizontal force, uplift force.

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383 Antibacterial Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Table Olives against Skin Pathogens

Authors: M. Shafighi, Z. Emami, M. Shahsanaei, E. Khaliliyan

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of LAB isolated from Iranian native olives on the opportunistic skin pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Lactic Acid Bacteria were isolated from the brine of each sample in the prior of time. The samples were spread on MRS agar for isolation of lactobacillus and for lactococcus. 28 strains of labs were isolated. The labs were centrifuged, the supernatant was strewed and pellet was used to inoculation in wells or at blank disks. 20μl of each pellet was inoculated to blank disks and 40μl of each pellet was inoculated to each well. The result of disk and well diffusion agar against these pathogens were confirmed each other. The size of inhibition zone was different according to the type of bacteria, the method and the concentrations of labs.

Keywords: Olive, Probiotic, Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), P.aeroginosa and S.aureus

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382 Uniform Distribution of Ductility Demand in Irregular Bridges using Shape Memory Alloy

Authors: Seyed Mohyeddin Ghodratian, Mehdi Ghassemieh, Mohammad Khanmohammadi

Abstract:

Excessive ductility demand on shorter piers is a common problem for irregular bridges subjected to strong ground motion. Various techniques have been developed to reduce the likelihood of collapse of bridge due to failure of shorter piers. This paper presents the new approach to improve the seismic behavior of such bridges using Nitinol shape memory alloys (SMAs). Superelastic SMAs have the ability to remain elastic under very large deformation due to martensitic transformation. This unique property leads to enhanced performance of controlled bridge compared with the performance of the reference bridge. To evaluate the effectiveness of the devices, nonlinear time history analysis is performed on a RC single column bent highway bridge using a suite of representative ground motions. The results show that this method is very effective in limiting the ductility demand of shorter pier.

Keywords: bridge, ductility demand, irregularity, shape memory alloy

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381 Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Diseased Giant Freshwater Prawn in Shrimp Culture Ponds

Authors: Kusumawadee Thancharoen, Rungrat Nontawong, Thanawat Junsom

Abstract:

Pathogenic bacterial flora was isolated from giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Infected shrimp samples were collected from BuaBan Aquafarm in Kalasin Province, Thailand, between June and September 2018. Bacterial species were isolated by serial dilution and plated on Thiosulfate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose (TCBS) agar medium. A total 89 colonies were isolated and identified using the API 20E biochemical tests. Results showed the presence of genera Aeromonas, Citrobacter, Chromobacterium, Providencia, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Vibrio. Maximum number of species was recorded in Pseudomonas (50.57%) with minimum observed in Chromobacterium and Providencia (1.12%).

Keywords: Biochemical test, giant freshwater prawn, isolation, salt tolerance, shrimp diseases.

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380 Investigation of Scour Depth at Bridge Piers using Bri-Stars Model in Iran

Authors: Gh. Saeidifar, F. Raeiszadeh

Abstract:

BRI-STARS (BRIdge Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation) program was used to investigate the scour depth around bridge piers in some of the major river systems in Iran. Model calibration was performed by collecting different field data. Field data are cataloged on three categories, first group of bridges that their rivers bed are formed by fine material, second group of bridges that their rivers bed are formed by sand material, and finally bridges that their rivers bed are formed by gravel or cobble materials. Verification was performed with some field data in Fars Province. Results show that for wide piers, computed scour depth is more than measured one. In gravel bed streams, computed scour depth is greater than measured scour depth, the reason is due to formation of armor layer on bed of channel. Once this layer is eroded, the computed scour depth is close to the measured one.

Keywords: BRI-STARS, local scour, bridge, computer modeling

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379 A Parametric Study: Frame Analysis Method for Masonry Arch Bridges

Authors: M. E. Rahman, D. Sujan, V. Pakrashi, P. Fanning

Abstract:

The predictability of masonry arch bridges and their behaviour is widely considered doubtful due to the lack of knowledge about the conditions of a given masonry arch bridge. The assessment methods for masonry arch bridges are MEXE, ARCHIE, RING and Frame Analysis Method. The material properties of the masonry and fill material are extremely difficult to determine accurately. Consequently, it is necessary to examine the effect of load dispersal angle through the fill material, the effect of variations in the stiffness of the masonry, the tensile strength of the masonry mortar continuum and the compressive strength of the masonry mortar continuum. It is also important to understand the effect of fill material on load dispersal angle to determine their influence on ratings. In this paper a series of parametric studies, to examine the sensitivity of assessment ratings to the various sets of input data required by the frame analysis method, are carried out.

Keywords: Arch Bridge, Frame Analyses Method, Masonry

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378 Recognition of Isolated Speech Signals using Simplified Statistical Parameters

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, Bhargav Kumar Mitra, Biswajoy Chatterjee

Abstract:

We present a novel scheme to recognize isolated speech signals using certain statistical parameters derived from those signals. The determination of the statistical estimates is based on extracted signal information rather than the original signal information in order to reduce the computational complexity. Subtle details of these estimates, after extracting the speech signal from ambience noise, are first exploited to segregate the polysyllabic words from the monosyllabic ones. Precise recognition of each distinct word is then carried out by analyzing the histogram, obtained from these information.

Keywords: Isolated speech signals, Block overlapping technique, Positive peaks, Histogram analysis.

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377 Sloshing-Induced Overflow Assessment of the Seismically-Isolated Nuclear Tanks

Authors: Kihyon Kwon, Hyun T. Park, Gil Y. Chung, Sang-Hoon Lee

Abstract:

This paper focuses on assessing sloshing-induced overflow of the seismically-isolated nuclear tanks based on Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) analysis. Typically, fluid motion in the seismically-isolated nuclear tank systems may be rather amplified and even overflowed under earthquake. Sloshing-induced overflow in those structures has to be reliably assessed and predicted since it can often cause critical damages to humans and environments. FSI analysis is herein performed to compute the total cumulative overflowed water volume more accurately, by coupling ANSYS with CFX for structural and fluid analyses, respectively. The approach is illustrated on a nuclear liquid storage tank, Spent Fuel Pool (SFP), forgiven conditions under consideration: different liquid levels, Peak Ground Accelerations (PGAs), and post earthquakes. 

Keywords: FSI analysis, seismically-isolated nuclear tank system, sloshing-induced overflow.

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376 Budget Optimization for Maintenance of Bridges in Egypt

Authors: Hesham Abd Elkhalek, Sherif M. Hafez, Yasser M. El Fahham

Abstract:

Allocating limited budget to maintain bridge networks and selecting effective maintenance strategies for each bridge represent challenging tasks for maintenance managers and decision makers. In Egypt, bridges are continuously deteriorating. In many cases, maintenance works are performed due to user complaints. The objective of this paper is to develop a practical and reliable framework to manage the maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation (MR&R) activities of Bridges network considering performance and budget limits. The model solves an optimization problem that maximizes the average condition of the entire network given the limited available budget using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The framework contains bridge inventory, condition assessment, repair cost calculation, deterioration prediction, and maintenance optimization. The developed model takes into account multiple parameters including serviceability requirements, budget allocation, element importance on structural safety and serviceability, bridge impact on network, and traffic. A questionnaire is conducted to complete the research scope. The proposed model is implemented in software, which provides a friendly user interface. The framework provides a multi-year maintenance plan for the entire network for up to five years. A case study of ten bridges is presented to validate and test the proposed model with data collected from Transportation Authorities in Egypt. Different scenarios are presented. The results are reasonable, feasible and within acceptable domain.

Keywords: Bridge Management Systems (BMS), cost optimization condition assessment, fund allocation, Markov chain.

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375 Simulating the Interaction between Groundwater and Brittle Failure in Open Pit Slopes

Authors: Janisse Vivas, Doug Stead, Davide Elmo, Charles Hunt

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of a study on the influence of varying percentages of rock bridges along a basal surface defining a biplanar failure mode. A pseudo-coupled-hydromechanical brittle fracture analysis is adopted using the state-of-the-art code Slope Model. Model results show that rock bridge failure is strongly influenced by the incorporation of groundwater pressures. The models show that groundwater pressure can promote total failure of a 5% rock bridge along the basal surface. Once the percentage of the rock bridges increases to 10 and 15%, although, the rock bridges are broken, full interconnection of the surface defining the basal surface of the biplanar mode does not occur. Increased damage is caused when the rock bridge is located at the daylighting end of the basal surface in proximity to the blast damage zone. As expected, some cracking damage is experienced in the blast damage zone, where properties representing a good quality controlled damage blast technique were assumed. Model results indicate the potential increase of permeability towards the blast damage zone.

Keywords: Slope model, lattice spring, blasting damage zone.

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374 Seismic Time History Analysis for Cable-Stayed Bridge Considering Different Geometrical Configuration For Near Field Earthquakes

Authors: Atul K. Desai

Abstract:

To increase the maximum span of cable-stayed bridges, Uwe Starossek has developed a modified statical system. The basic idea of this new concept is the use of pairs of inclined pylon legs that spread out longitudinally from the foundation base or from the girder level. Spread-pylon cable-stayed bridge has distinct advantage like reduction of sag of cables and oscillation of cable during earthquake over traditional cable-stayed bridges. Spread-pylon also improves seismic performance of deck during strong ground motion.

Keywords: Different geometry of cable stayed bridge, seismic time history analysis, earthquake displacement ratio, response mode shape.

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373 Experimental Study of Local Scour Depth around Cylindrical Bridge Pier

Authors: Mohammed T. Shukri

Abstract:

The failure of bridges due to excessive local scour during floods poses a challenging problem to hydraulic engineers. The failure of bridges piers is due to many reasons such as localized scour combined with general riverbed degradation. In this paper, we try to estimate the temporal variation of scour depth at nonuniform cylindrical bridge pier, by experimental work conducted in hydraulic laboratories of Gaziantep University Civil Engineering Department on a flume having dimensions of 8.3 m length, 0.8 m width and 0.9 m depth. The experiments will be carried on 20 cm depth of sediment layer having d50=0.4 mm. Three bridge pier shapes having different scaled models will be constructed in a 1.5m of test section in the channel.

Keywords: Scour, local scour, bridge piers, scour depth.

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372 Reliability Levels of Reinforced Concrete Bridges Obtained by Mixing Approaches

Authors: Adrián D. García-Soto, Alejandro Hernández-Martínez, Jesús G. Valdés-Vázquez, Reyna A. Vizguerra-Alvarez

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete bridges designed by code are intended to achieve target reliability levels adequate for the geographical environment where the code is applicable. Several methods can be used to estimate such reliability levels. Many of them require the establishment of an explicit limit state function (LSF). When such LSF is not available as a close-form expression, the simulation techniques are often employed. The simulation methods are computing intensive and time consuming. Note that if the reliability of real bridges designed by code is of interest, numerical schemes, the finite element method (FEM) or computational mechanics could be required. In these cases, it can be quite difficult (or impossible) to establish a close-form of the LSF, and the simulation techniques may be necessary to compute reliability levels. To overcome the need for a large number of simulations when no explicit LSF is available, the point estimate method (PEM) could be considered as an alternative. It has the advantage that only the probabilistic moments of the random variables are required. However, in the PEM, fitting of the resulting moments of the LSF to a probability density function (PDF) is needed. In the present study, a very simple alternative which allows the assessment of the reliability levels when no explicit LSF is available and without the need of extensive simulations is employed. The alternative includes the use of the PEM, and its applicability is shown by assessing reliability levels of reinforced concrete bridges in Mexico when a numerical scheme is required. Comparisons with results by using the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) technique are included. To overcome the problem of approximating the probabilistic moments from the PEM to a PDF, a well-known distribution is employed. The approach mixes the PEM and other classic reliability method (first order reliability method, FORM). The results in the present study are in good agreement whit those computed with the MCS. Therefore, the alternative of mixing the reliability methods is a very valuable option to determine reliability levels when no close form of the LSF is available, or if numerical schemes, the FEM or computational mechanics are employed.

Keywords: Structural reliability, reinforced concrete bridges, mixing approaches, point estimate method, Monte Carlo simulation.

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371 Detection of Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains Pollution in Red Deer Meat in Latvia and Determination the Compatibility of VT1, VT2, eae A Genes in their Isolate

Authors: S. Liepina, A. Jemeljanovs

Abstract:

Tasks of the work were study the possible E.coli contamination in red deer meat, identify pathogenic strains from isolated E.coli, determine their incidence in red deer meat and determine the presence of VT1, VT2 and eaeA genes for the pathogenic E.coli. 8 (10%) samples were randomly selected from 80 analysed isolates of E.coli and PCR reaction was performed on them. PCR was done both on initial materials – samples of red deer meat - and for already isolated liqueurs. Two of analysed venison samples contain verotoxin-producing strains of E. coli. It means that this meat is not safe to consumer. It was proven by the sequestration reaction of E. coli and by comparison of the obtained results with the database of microorganism genome available on the internet that the isolated culture corresponds to region 16S rDNS of E. coli thus presenting correctness of the microbiological methods.

Keywords: Deer meat, pathogenic Escherichia coli

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