Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7862

Search results for: Implicit Finite-difference method

7862 A Semi-Implicit Phase Field Model for Droplet Evolution

Authors: M. H. Kazemi, D. Salac

Abstract:

A semi-implicit phase field method for droplet evolution is proposed. Using the phase field Cahn-Hilliard equation, we are able to track the interface in multiphase flow. The idea of a semi-implicit finite difference scheme is reviewed and employed to solve two nonlinear equations, including the Navier-Stokes and the Cahn-Hilliard equations. The use of a semi-implicit method allows us to have larger time steps compared to explicit schemes. The governing equations are coupled and then solved by a GMRES solver (generalized minimal residual method) using modified Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization. To show the validity of the method, we apply the method to the simulation of a rising droplet, a leaky dielectric drop and the coalescence of drops. The numerical solutions to the phase field model match well with existing solutions over a defined range of variables.

Keywords: Coalescence, leaky dielectric, numerical method, phase field, rising droplet, semi-implicit method.

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7861 Alternating Implicit Block FDTD Method For Scalar Wave Equation

Authors: N. M. Nusi, M. Othman, M. Suleiman, F. Ismail, N. Alias

Abstract:

In this paper, an alternating implicit block method for solving two dimensional scalar wave equation is presented. The new method consist of two stages for each time step implemented in alternating directions which are very simple in computation. To increase the speed of computation, a group of adjacent points is computed simultaneously. It is shown that the presented method increase the maximum time step size and more accurate than the conventional finite difference time domain (FDTD) method and other existing method of natural ordering.

Keywords: FDTD, Scalar wave equation, alternating direction implicit (ADI), alternating group explicit (AGE), asymmetric approximation.

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7860 Solution of Density Dependent Nonlinear Reaction-Diffusion Equation Using Differential Quadrature Method

Authors: Gülnihal Meral

Abstract:

In this study, the density dependent nonlinear reactiondiffusion equation, which arises in the insect dispersal models, is solved using the combined application of differential quadrature method(DQM) and implicit Euler method. The polynomial based DQM is used to discretize the spatial derivatives of the problem. The resulting time-dependent nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations(ODE-s) is solved by using implicit Euler method. The computations are carried out for a Cauchy problem defined by a onedimensional density dependent nonlinear reaction-diffusion equation which has an exact solution. The DQM solution is found to be in a very good agreement with the exact solution in terms of maximum absolute error. The DQM solution exhibits superior accuracy at large time levels tending to steady-state. Furthermore, using an implicit method in the solution procedure leads to stable solutions and larger time steps could be used.

Keywords: Density Dependent Nonlinear Reaction-Diffusion Equation, Differential Quadrature Method, Implicit Euler Method.

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7859 Model Predictive Control with Unscented Kalman Filter for Nonlinear Implicit Systems

Authors: Takashi Shimizu, Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract:

A class of implicit systems is known as a more generalized class of systems than a class of explicit systems. To establish a control method for such a generalized class of systems, we adopt model predictive control method which is a kind of optimal feedback control with a performance index that has a moving initial time and terminal time. However, model predictive control method is inapplicable to systems whose all state variables are not exactly known. In other words, model predictive control method is inapplicable to systems with limited measurable states. In fact, it is usual that the state variables of systems are measured through outputs, hence, only limited parts of them can be used directly. It is also usual that output signals are disturbed by process and sensor noises. Hence, it is important to establish a state estimation method for nonlinear implicit systems with taking the process noise and sensor noise into consideration. To this purpose, we apply the model predictive control method and unscented Kalman filter for solving the optimization and estimation problems of nonlinear implicit systems, respectively. The objective of this study is to establish a model predictive control with unscented Kalman filter for nonlinear implicit systems.

Keywords: Model predictive control, unscented Kalman filter, nonlinear systems, implicit systems.

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7858 Dissipation of Higher Mode using Numerical Integration Algorithm in Dynamic Analysis

Authors: Jin Sup Kim, Woo Young Jung, Minho Kwon

Abstract:

In general dynamic analyses, lower mode response is of interest, however the higher modes of spatially discretized equations generally do not represent the real behavior and not affects to global response much. Some implicit algorithms, therefore, are introduced to filter out the high-frequency modes using intended numerical error. The objective of this study is to introduce the P-method and PC α-method to compare that with dissipation method and Newmark method through the stability analysis and numerical example. PC α-method gives more accuracy than other methods because it based on the α-method inherits the superior properties of the implicit α-method. In finite element analysis, the PC α-method is more useful than other methods because it is the explicit scheme and it achieves the second order accuracy and numerical damping simultaneously.

Keywords: Dynamic, α-Method, P-Method, PC α-Method, Newmark method.

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7857 The Measurement of Latvian and Russian Ethnic Attitudes, Using Evaluative Priming Task and Self-Report Methods

Authors: Maria Bambulyaka, Irina Plotka, Nina Blumenau, Dmitry Igonin, Elena Ozola, Laura Shimane

Abstract:

The purposes of researches - to estimate implicit ethnic attitudes by direct and indirect methods, to determine the accordance of two types measuring, to investigate influence of task type used in an experiment, on the results of measuring, as well as to determine a presence or communication between recent episodic events and chronologic correlations of ethnic attitudes. Method of the implicit measuring - an evaluative priming (EPT) carried out with the use of different SOA intervals, explicit methods of research are G.Soldatova-s types of ethnic identity, G.Soldatova-s index of tolerance, E.Bogardus scale of social distance. During five stages of researches received results open some aspects of implicit measuring, its correlation with the results of self-reports on different SOA intervals, connection of implicit measuring with emotional valence of episodic events of participants and other indexes, presenting a contribution to the decision of implicit measuring application problem for study of different social constructs

Keywords: Ethnic attitudes, explicit method, implicit method, priming.

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7856 Embedded Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta –Nystrom Method Order 5(4) for the Integration of Special Second Order ODEs

Authors: Fudziah Ismail

Abstract:

In this paper a new embedded Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta Nystrom fourth order in fifth order method for solving special second order initial value problems is derived. A standard set of test problems are tested upon and comparisons on the numerical results are made when the same set of test problems are reduced to first order systems and solved using the existing embedded diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta method. The results suggests the superiority of the new method.

Keywords: Runge-Kutta Nystrom, Special second orderproblems.

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7855 Implicit Lyapunov Control of Multi-Control Hamiltonians Systems Based On the State Error

Authors: Fangfang Meng, Shuang Cong

Abstract:

In the closed quantum system, if the control system is strongly regular and all other eigenstates are directly coupled to the target state, the control system can be asymptotically stabilized at the target eigenstate by the Lyapunov control based on the state error. However, if the control system is not strongly regular or as long as there is one eigenstate not directly coupled to the target state, the situations will become complicated. In this paper, we propose an implicit Lyapunov control method based on the state error to solve the convergence problems for these two degenerate cases. And at the same time, we expand the target state from the eigenstate to the arbitrary pure state. Especially, the proposed method is also applicable in the control system with multi-control Hamiltonians. On this basis, the convergence of the control systems is analyzed using the LaSalle invariance principle. Furthermore, the relation between the implicit Lyapunov functions of the state distance and the state error is investigated. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed implicit Lyapunov control method. The comparisons of the control effect using the implicit Lyapunov control method based on the state distance with that of the state error are given.

Keywords: Implicit Lyapunov control, state error, degenerate cases, convergence.

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7854 An Implicit Representation of Spherical Product for Increasing the Shape Variety of Super-quadrics in Implicit Surface Modeling

Authors: Pi-Chung Hsu

Abstract:

Super-quadrics can represent a set of implicit surfaces, which can be used furthermore as primitive surfaces to construct a complex object via Boolean set operations in implicit surface modeling. In fact, super-quadrics were developed to create a parametric surface by performing spherical product on two parametric curves and some of the resulting parametric surfaces were also represented as implicit surfaces. However, because not every parametric curve can be redefined implicitly, this causes only implicit super-elliptic and super-hyperbolic curves are applied to perform spherical product and so only implicit super-ellipsoids and hyperboloids are developed in super-quadrics. To create implicit surfaces with more diverse shapes than super-quadrics, this paper proposes an implicit representation of spherical product, which performs spherical product on two implicit curves like super-quadrics do. By means of the implicit representation, many new implicit curves such as polygonal, star-shaped and rose-shaped curves can be used to develop new implicit surfaces with a greater variety of shapes than super-quadrics, such as polyhedrons, hyper-ellipsoids, superhyperboloids and hyper-toroids containing star-shaped and roseshaped major and minor circles. Besides, the newly developed implicit surfaces can also be used to define new primitive implicit surfaces for constructing a more complex implicit surface in implicit surface modeling.

Keywords: Implicit surfaces, Soft objects, Super-quadrics.

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7853 A Fully Implicit Finite-Difference Solution to One Dimensional Coupled Nonlinear Burgers’ Equations

Authors: Vineet K. Srivastava, Mukesh K. Awasthi, Mohammad Tamsir

Abstract:

A fully implicit finite-difference method has been proposed for the numerical solutions of one dimensional coupled nonlinear Burgers’ equations on the uniform mesh points. The method forms a system of nonlinear difference equations which is to be solved at each iteration. Newton’s iterative method has been implemented to solve this nonlinear assembled system of equations. The linear system has been solved by Gauss elimination method with partial pivoting algorithm at each iteration of Newton’s method. Three test examples have been carried out to illustrate the accuracy of the method. Computed solutions obtained by proposed scheme have been compared with analytical solutions and those already available in the literature by finding L2 and L∞ errors.

Keywords: Burgers’ equation, Implicit Finite-difference method, Newton’s method, Gauss elimination with partial pivoting.

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7852 Framework for Improving Manufacturing "Implicit Competitiveness" by Enhancing Monozukuri Capability

Authors: Takahiro Togawa, Nguyen Huu Phuc, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Oke Oktavianty

Abstract:

Our research focuses on a framework which analyses the relationship between product/process architecture, manufacturing organizational capability and manufacturing "implicit competitiveness" in order to improve manufacturing implicit competitiveness. We found that 1) there is a relationship between architecture-based manufacturing organizational capability and manufacturing implicit competitiveness, and 2) analysis and measures conducted in manufacturing organizational capability proved effective to improve manufacturing implicit competitiveness.

Keywords: Implicit competitiveness, QCD, Monozukuri capability.

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7851 Implicit Eulerian Fluid-Structure Interaction Method for the Modeling of Highly Deformable Elastic Membranes

Authors: Aymen Laadhari, Gábor Székely

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the development of a fully implicit and purely Eulerian fluid-structure interaction method tailored for the modeling of the large deformations of elastic membranes in a surrounding Newtonian fluid. We consider a simplified model for the mechanical properties of the membrane, in which the surface strain energy depends on the membrane stretching. The fully Eulerian description is based on the advection of a modified surface tension tensor, and the deformations of the membrane are tracked using a level set strategy. The resulting nonlinear problem is solved by a Newton-Raphson method, featuring a quadratic convergence behavior. A monolithic solver is implemented, and we report several numerical experiments aimed at model validation and illustrating the accuracy of the presented method. We show that stability is maintained for significantly larger time steps.

Keywords: Fluid-membrane interaction, stretching, Eulerian, finite element method, Newton, implicit.

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7850 Rotor Flow Analysis using Animplicit Harmonic Balance Method

Authors: D. Im, S. Choi, H. Kwon, S. H. Park, J. H. Kwon

Abstract:

This paper is an extension of a previous work where a diagonally implicit harmonic balance method was developed and applied to simulate oscillatory motions of pitching airfoil and wing. A more detailed study on the accuracy, convergence, and the efficiency of the method is carried out in the current paperby varying the number of harmonics in the solution approximation. As the main advantage of the method is itsusage for the design optimization of the unsteady problems, its application to more practical case of rotor flow analysis during forward flight is carried out and compared with flight test data and time-accurate computation results.

Keywords: Design optimization, Implicit harmonic balancemethod, number of harmonics, rotor flows

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7849 An Implicit Methodology for the Numerical Modeling of Locally Inextensible Membranes

Authors: Aymen Laadhari

Abstract:

We present in this paper a fully implicit finite element method tailored for the numerical modeling of inextensible fluidic membranes in a surrounding Newtonian fluid. We consider a highly simplified version of the Canham-Helfrich model for phospholipid membranes, in which the bending force and spontaneous curvature are disregarded. The coupled problem is formulated in a fully Eulerian framework and the membrane motion is tracked using the level set method. The resulting nonlinear problem is solved by a Newton-Raphson strategy, featuring a quadratic convergence behavior. A monolithic solver is implemented, and we report several numerical experiments aimed at model validation and illustrating the accuracy of the proposed method. We show that stability is maintained for significantly larger time steps with respect to an explicit decoupling method.

Keywords: Finite element method, Newton method, level set, Navier-Stokes, inextensible membrane, liquid drop.

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7848 Unsteady Laminar Boundary Layer Forced Flow in the Region of the Stagnation Point on a Stretching Flat Sheet

Authors: A. T. Eswara

Abstract:

This paper analyses the unsteady, two-dimensional stagnation point flow of an incompressible viscous fluid over a flat sheet when the flow is started impulsively from rest and at the same time, the sheet is suddenly stretched in its own plane with a velocity proportional to the distance from the stagnation point. The partial differential equations governing the laminar boundary layer forced convection flow are non-dimensionalised using semi-similar transformations and then solved numerically using an implicit finitedifference scheme known as the Keller-box method. Results pertaining to the flow and heat transfer characteristics are computed for all dimensionless time, uniformly valid in the whole spatial region without any numerical difficulties. Analytical solutions are also obtained for both small and large times, respectively representing the initial unsteady and final steady state flow and heat transfer. Numerical results indicate that the velocity ratio parameter is found to have a significant effect on skin friction and heat transfer rate at the surface. Furthermore, it is exposed that there is a smooth transition from the initial unsteady state flow (small time solution) to the final steady state (large time solution).

Keywords: Forced flow, Keller-box method, Stagnation point, Stretching flat sheet, Unsteady laminar boundary layer, Velocity ratio parameter.

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7847 A Finite Element Solution of the Mathematical Model for Smoke Dispersion from Two Sources

Authors: Nopparat Pochai

Abstract:

Smoke discharging is a main reason of air pollution problem from industrial plants. The obstacle of a building has an affect with the air pollutant discharge. In this research, a mathematical model of the smoke dispersion from two sources and one source with a structural obstacle is considered. The governing equation of the model is an isothermal mass transfer model in a viscous fluid. The finite element method is used to approximate the solutions of the model. The triangular linear elements have been used for discretising the domain, and time integration has been carried out by semi-implicit finite difference method. The simulations of smoke dispersion in cases of one chimney and two chimneys are presented. The maximum calculated smoke concentration of both cases are compared. It is then used to make the decision for smoke discharging and air pollutant control problems on industrial area.

Keywords: Air pollution, Smoke dispersion, Finite element method, Stream function, Vorticity equation, Convection-diffusion equation, Semi-implicit method

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7846 Comparison of Finite Difference Schemes for Water Flow in Unsaturated Soils

Authors: H. Taheri Shahraiyni, B. Ataie Ashtiani

Abstract:

Flow movement in unsaturated soil can be expressed by a partial differential equation, named Richards equation. The objective of this study is the finding of an appropriate implicit numerical solution for head based Richards equation. Some of the well known finite difference schemes (fully implicit, Crank Nicolson and Runge-Kutta) have been utilized in this study. In addition, the effects of different approximations of moisture capacity function, convergence criteria and time stepping methods were evaluated. Two different infiltration problems were solved to investigate the performance of different schemes. These problems include of vertical water flow in a wet and very dry soils. The numerical solutions of two problems were compared using four evaluation criteria and the results of comparisons showed that fully implicit scheme is better than the other schemes. In addition, utilizing of standard chord slope method for approximation of moisture capacity function, automatic time stepping method and difference between two successive iterations as convergence criterion in the fully implicit scheme can lead to better and more reliable results for simulation of fluid movement in different unsaturated soils.

Keywords: Finite Difference methods, Richards equation, fullyimplicit, Crank-Nicolson, Runge-Kutta.

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7845 Implicit Authorization Mechanism of Object-Oriented Database

Authors: Haibo Hu, Hong Xiang

Abstract:

Due to its special data structure and manipulative principle, Object-Oriented Database (OODB) has a particular security protection and authorization methods. This paper first introduces the features of security mechanism about OODB, and then talked about authorization checking process of OODB. Implicit authorization mechanism is based on the subject hierarchies, object hierarchies and access hierarchies of the security authorization modes, and simplifies the authorization mode. In addition, to combine with other authorization mechanisms, implicit authorization can make protection on the authorization of OODB expediently and effectively.

Keywords: Object-oriented database(OODB), security protection, authorization mechanism, implicit authorization, authorization check.

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7844 FWM Wavelength Conversion Analysis in a 3-Integrated Portion SOA and DFB Laser using Coupled Wave Approach and FD-BPM Method

Authors: M. K. Moazzam, A. Salmanpour, M. Nirouei

Abstract:

In this paper we have numerically analyzed terahertzrange wavelength conversion using nondegenerate four wave mixing (NDFWM) in a SOA integrated DFB laser (experiments reported both in MIT electronics and Fujitsu research laboratories). For analyzing semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), we use finitedifference beam propagation method (FDBPM) based on modified nonlinear SchrÖdinger equation and for distributed feedback (DFB) laser we use coupled wave approach. We investigated wavelength conversion up to 4THz probe-pump detuning with conversion efficiency -5dB in 1THz probe-pump detuning for a SOA integrated quantum-well

Keywords: distributed feedback laser, nondegenerate fourwave mixing, semiconductor optical amplifier, wavelengthconversion

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7843 The Implicit Methods for the Study of Tolerance

Authors: M. Bambulyakа

Abstract:

Tolerance is a tool for achieving a social cohesion, particularly, among individuals and groups with different values. The aim is to study the characteristics of the ethnic tolerance, the inhabitants of Latvia. The ethnic tolerance is taught as a set of conscious and unconscious orientations of the individual in social interaction and inter-ethnic communication. It uses the tools of empirical studies of the ethnic tolerance which allows to identify the explicitly and implicitly levels of the emotional component of Latvia's residents. Explicit measurements were made using the techniques of self-report which revealed the index of the ethnic tolerance and the ethnic identity of the participants. The implicit component was studied using methods based on the effect of the emotional priming. During the processing of the results, there were calculated indicators of the positive and negative implicit attitudes towards members of their own and other ethnicity as well as the explicit parameters of the ethnic tolerance and the ethnic identity of Latvia-s residents. The implicit measurements of the ratio of neighboring ethnic groups against each other showed a mutual negative attitude whereas the explicit measurements indicate a neutral attitude. The data obtained contribute to a further study of the ethnic tolerance of Latvia's residents.

Keywords: ethnic tolerance, implicit measure, priming, ethnic attitudes

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7842 Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Base-Isolated Structures Using a Mixed Integration Method: Stability Aspects and Computational Efficiency

Authors: Nicolò Vaiana, Filip C. Filippou, Giorgio Serino

Abstract:

In order to reduce numerical computations in the nonlinear dynamic analysis of seismically base-isolated structures, a Mixed Explicit-Implicit time integration Method (MEIM) has been proposed. Adopting the explicit conditionally stable central difference method to compute the nonlinear response of the base isolation system, and the implicit unconditionally stable Newmark’s constant average acceleration method to determine the superstructure linear response, the proposed MEIM, which is conditionally stable due to the use of the central difference method, allows to avoid the iterative procedure generally required by conventional monolithic solution approaches within each time step of the analysis. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the stability and computational efficiency of the MEIM when employed to perform the nonlinear time history analysis of base-isolated structures with sliding bearings. Indeed, in this case, the critical time step could become smaller than the one used to define accurately the earthquake excitation due to the very high initial stiffness values of such devices. The numerical results obtained from nonlinear dynamic analyses of a base-isolated structure with a friction pendulum bearing system, performed by using the proposed MEIM, are compared to those obtained adopting a conventional monolithic solution approach, i.e. the implicit unconditionally stable Newmark’s constant acceleration method employed in conjunction with the iterative pseudo-force procedure. According to the numerical results, in the presented numerical application, the MEIM does not have stability problems being the critical time step larger than the ground acceleration one despite of the high initial stiffness of the friction pendulum bearings. In addition, compared to the conventional monolithic solution approach, the proposed algorithm preserves its computational efficiency even when it is adopted to perform the nonlinear dynamic analysis using a smaller time step.

Keywords: Base isolation, computational efficiency, mixed explicit-implicit method, partitioned solution approach, stability.

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7841 Numerical Simulation of Fluid-Structure Interaction on Wedge Slamming Impact Using Particle Method

Authors: Sung-Chul Hwang, Di Ren, Sang-Moon Yoon, Jong-Chun Park, Abbas Khayyer, Hitoshi Gotoh

Abstract:

This paper presents a fully Lagrangian coupled Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) solver for simulations of fluid-structure interactions, which is based on the Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method to solve the governing equations corresponding to incompressible flows as well as elastic structures. The developed solver is verified by reproducing the high velocity impact loads of deformable thin wedges with three different materials such as mild steel, aluminium and tin during water entry. The present simulation results for aluminium are compared with analytical solution derived from the hydrodynamic Wagner model and linear Wan’s theory. And also, the impact pressure and strain on the water entry wedge with three different materials, such as mild steel, aluminium and tin, are simulated and the effects of hydro-elasticity are discussed.

Keywords: Fluid-structure interaction (FSI), Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method, Elastic structure, Incompressible fluid Wedge slamming impact.

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7840 Appreciating, Interpreting and Understanding Posters via Levels of Visual Literacy

Authors: Mona Masood, Zakiah Zain

Abstract:

This study was conducted in Malaysia to discover how meaning and appreciation were construed among 35 Form Five students. Panofsky-s theory was employed to discover the levels of reasoning among students when various types of posters were displayed. The independent variables used were posters that carried explicit and implicit meanings; the moderating variable was students- visual literacy levels while the dependent variable was the implicit interpretation level. One-way ANOVA was applied for the data analysis. The data showed that before students were exposed to Panofsky-s theory, there were differences in thinking between boys, who did not think abstractly or implicit in comparison to girls. The study showed that students- visual literacy in posters depended on the use of visual texts and illustration. This paper discuss further on posters with text only have a tendency to be too abstract as opposed to posters with visuals plus text.

Keywords: explicit visual, implicit visual, visual interpretation, visual literacy

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7839 Characteristics of Hemodynamics in a Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve using an Implicit FSI Method

Authors: Tae-Hyub Hong, Choeng-Ryul Choi, Chang-Nyung Kim

Abstract:

Human heart valves diseased by congenital heart defects, rheumatic fever, bacterial infection, cancer may cause stenosis or insufficiency in the valves. Treatment may be with medication but often involves valve repair or replacement (insertion of an artificial heart valve). Bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) are widely implanted to replace the diseased heart valves, but still suffer from complications such as hemolysis, platelet activation, tissue overgrowth and device failure. These complications are closely related to both flow characteristics through the valves and leaflet dynamics. In this study, the physiological flow interacting with the moving leaflets in a bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV) is simulated with a strongly coupled implicit fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method which is newly organized based on the Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) approach and the dynamic mesh method (remeshing) of FLUENT. The simulated results are in good agreement with previous experimental studies. This study shows the applicability of the present FSI model to the complicated physics interacting between fluid flow and moving boundary.

Keywords: Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve, Fluid- Structure Interaction.

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7838 A Parallel Algorithm for 2-D Cylindrical Geometry Transport Equation with Interface Corrections

Authors: Wei Jun-xia, Yuan Guang-wei, Yang Shu-lin, Shen Wei-dong

Abstract:

In order to make conventional implicit algorithm to be applicable in large scale parallel computers , an interface prediction and correction of discontinuous finite element method is presented to solve time-dependent neutron transport equations under 2-D cylindrical geometry. Domain decomposition is adopted in the computational domain.The numerical experiments show that our parallel algorithm with explicit prediction and implicit correction has good precision, parallelism and simplicity. Especially, it can reach perfect speedup even on hundreds of processors for large-scale problems.

Keywords: Transport Equation, Discontinuous Finite Element, Domain Decomposition, Interface Prediction And Correction

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7837 Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Base-Isolated Structures Using a Partitioned Solution Approach and an Exponential Model

Authors: Nicolò Vaiana, Filip C. Filippou, Giorgio Serino

Abstract:

The solution of the nonlinear dynamic equilibrium equations of base-isolated structures adopting a conventional monolithic solution approach, i.e. an implicit single-step time integration method employed with an iteration procedure, and the use of existing nonlinear analytical models, such as differential equation models, to simulate the dynamic behavior of seismic isolators can require a significant computational effort. In order to reduce numerical computations, a partitioned solution method and a one dimensional nonlinear analytical model are presented in this paper. A partitioned solution approach can be easily applied to base-isolated structures in which the base isolation system is much more flexible than the superstructure. Thus, in this work, the explicit conditionally stable central difference method is used to evaluate the base isolation system nonlinear response and the implicit unconditionally stable Newmark’s constant average acceleration method is adopted to predict the superstructure linear response with the benefit in avoiding iterations in each time step of a nonlinear dynamic analysis. The proposed mathematical model is able to simulate the dynamic behavior of seismic isolators without requiring the solution of a nonlinear differential equation, as in the case of widely used differential equation model. The proposed mixed explicit-implicit time integration method and nonlinear exponential model are adopted to analyze a three dimensional seismically isolated structure with a lead rubber bearing system subjected to earthquake excitation. The numerical results show the good accuracy and the significant computational efficiency of the proposed solution approach and analytical model compared to the conventional solution method and mathematical model adopted in this work. Furthermore, the low stiffness value of the base isolation system with lead rubber bearings allows to have a critical time step considerably larger than the imposed ground acceleration time step, thus avoiding stability problems in the proposed mixed method.

Keywords: Base-isolated structures, earthquake engineering, mixed time integration, nonlinear exponential model.

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7836 Implicit Force Control of a Position Controlled Robot – A Comparison with Explicit Algorithms

Authors: Alexander Winkler, Jozef Suchý

Abstract:

This paper investigates simple implicit force control algorithms realizable with industrial robots. A lot of approaches already published are difficult to implement in commercial robot controllers, because the access to the robot joint torques is necessary or the complete dynamic model of the manipulator is used. In the past we already deal with explicit force control of a position controlled robot. Well known schemes of implicit force control are stiffness control, damping control and impedance control. Using such algorithms the contact force cannot be set directly. It is further the result of controller impedance, environment impedance and the commanded robot motion/position. The relationships of these properties are worked out in this paper in detail for the chosen implicit approaches. They have been adapted to be implementable on a position controlled robot. The behaviors of stiffness control and damping control are verified by practical experiments. For this purpose a suitable test bed was configured. Using the full mechanical impedance within the controller structure will not be practical in the case when the robot is in physical contact with the environment. This fact will be verified by simulation.

Keywords: Damping control, impedance control, robot force control, stability, stiffness control.

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7835 Application-Specific Instruction Sets Processor with Implicit Registers to Improve Register Bandwidth

Authors: Ginhsuan Li, Chiuyun Hung, Desheng Chen, Yiwen Wang

Abstract:

Application-Specific Instruction (ASI ) set Processors (ASIP) have become an important design choice for embedded systems due to runtime flexibility, which cannot be provided by custom ASIC solutions. One major bottleneck in maximizing ASIP performance is the limitation on the data bandwidth between the General Purpose Register File (GPRF) and ASIs. This paper presents the Implicit Registers (IRs) to provide the desirable data bandwidth. An ASI Input/Output model is proposed to formulate the overheads of the additional data transfer between the GPRF and IRs, therefore, an IRs allocation algorithm is used to achieve the better performance by minimizing the number of extra data transfer instructions. The experiment results show an up to 3.33x speedup compared to the results without using IRs.

Keywords: Application-Specific Instruction-set Processors, data bandwidth, configurable processor, implicit register.

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7834 Goal Based Episodic Processing in Implicit Learning

Authors: Peter A. Bibby

Abstract:

Research has suggested that implicit learning tasks may rely on episodic processing to generate above chance performance on the standard classification tasks. The current research examines the invariant features task (McGeorge and Burton, 1990) and argues that such episodic processing is indeed important. The results of the experiment suggest that both rejection and similarity strategies are used by participants in this task to simultaneously reject unfamiliar items and to accept (falsely) familiar items. Primarily these decisions are based on the presence of low or high frequency goal based features of the stimuli presented in the incidental learning phase. It is proposed that a goal based analysis of the incidental learning task provides a simple step in understanding which features of the episodic processing are most important for explaining the match between incidental, implicit learning and test performance.

Keywords: Episodic processing, incidental learning, implicitlearning, invariant learning.

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7833 Blood Cell Dynamics in a Simple Shear Flow using an Implicit Fluid-Structure Interaction Method Based on the ALE Approach

Authors: Choeng-Ryul Choi, Chang-Nyung Kim, Tae-Hyub Hong

Abstract:

A numerical method is developed for simulating the motion of particles with arbitrary shapes in an effectively infinite or bounded viscous flow. The particle translational and angular motions are numerically investigated using a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method based on the Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) approach and the dynamic mesh method (smoothing and remeshing) in FLUENT ( ANSYS Inc., USA). Also, the effects of arbitrary shapes on the dynamics are studied using the FSI method which could be applied to the motions and deformations of a single blood cell and multiple blood cells, and the primary thrombogenesis caused by platelet aggregation. It is expected that, combined with a sophisticated large-scale computational technique, the simulation method will be useful for understanding the overall properties of blood flow from blood cellular level (microscopic) to the resulting rheological properties of blood as a mass (macroscopic).

Keywords: Blood Flow, Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI), Micro-Channels, Arbitrary Shapes, Red Blood Cells (RBCs)

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