Search results for: Soft objects
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 744

Search results for: Soft objects

744 Soft Connected Spaces and Soft Paracompact Spaces

Authors: Fucai Lin

Abstract:

Soft topological spaces are considered as mathematical tools for dealing with uncertainties, and a fuzzy topological space is a special case of the soft topological space. The purpose of this paper is to study soft topological spaces. We introduce some new concepts in soft topological spaces such as soft closed mapping, soft open mappings, soft connected spaces and soft paracompact spaces. We also redefine the concept of soft points such that it is reasonable in soft topological spaces. Moreover, some basic properties of these concepts are explored.

Keywords: soft sets, soft open mappings, soft closed mappings, soft connected spaces, soft paracompact spaces.

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743 The Countabilities of Soft Topological Spaces

Authors: Weijian Rong

Abstract:

Soft topological spaces are considered as mathematical tools for dealing with uncertainties, and a fuzzy topological space is a special case of the soft topological space. The purpose of this paper is to study soft topological spaces. We introduce some new concepts in soft topological spaces such as soft first-countable spaces, soft second-countable spaces and soft separable spaces, and some basic properties of these concepts are explored.

Keywords: soft sets, soft first-countable spaces, soft second countable spaces, soft separable spaces, soft Lindelöf.

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742 Application of a Systemic Soft Domain-Driven Design Framework

Authors: Mohammed Salahat, Steve Wade, Izhar Ul-Haq

Abstract:

This paper proposes a “soft systems" approach to domain-driven design of computer-based information systems. We propose a systemic framework combining techniques from Soft Systems Methodology (SSM), the Unified Modelling Language (UML), and an implementation pattern known as “Naked Objects". We have used this framework in action research projects that have involved the investigation and modelling of business processes using object-oriented domain models and the implementation of software systems based on those domain models. Within the proposed framework, Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) is used as a guiding methodology to explore the problem situation and to generate a ubiquitous language (soft language) which can be used as the basis for developing an object-oriented domain model. The domain model is further developed using techniques based on the UML and is implemented in software following the “Naked Objects" implementation pattern. We argue that there are advantages from combining and using techniques from different methodologies in this way. The proposed systemic framework is overviewed and justified as multimethodologyusing Mingers multimethodology ideas. This multimethodology approach is being evaluated through a series of action research projects based on real-world case studies. A Peer-Tutoring case study is presented here as a sample of the framework evaluation process

Keywords: SSM, UML, Domain-Driven Design, Soft Domain-Driven Design, Naked Objects, Soft Languag e.

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741 Domain Driven Design vs Soft Domain Driven Design Frameworks

Authors: Mohammed Salahat, Steve Wade

Abstract:

This paper presents and compares the SSDDD “Systematic Soft Domain Driven Design Framework” to DDD “Domain Driven Design Framework” as a soft system approach of information systems development. The framework use SSM as a guiding methodology within which we have embedded a sequence of design tasks based on the UML leading to the implementation of a software system using the Naked Objects framework. This framework has been used in action research projects that have involved the investigation and modelling of business processes using object-oriented domain models and the implementation of software systems based on those domain models. Within this framework, Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) is used as a guiding methodology to explore the problem situation and to develop the domain model using UML for the given business domain. The framework is proposed and evaluated in our previous works, a comparison between SSDDD and DDD is presented in this paper, to show how SSDDD improved DDD as an approach to modelling and implementing business domain perspectives for Information Systems Development. The comparison process, the results, and the improvements are presented in the following sections of this paper.

Keywords: SSM, UML, domain-driven design, soft domain-driven design, naked objects, soft language, information retrieval, multimethodology.

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740 Business Domain Modelling Using an Integrated Framework

Authors: Mohammed Salahat, Steve Wade

Abstract:

This paper presents an application of a “Systematic Soft Domain Driven Design Framework” as a soft systems approach to domain-driven design of information systems development. The framework use SSM as a guiding methodology within which we have embedded a sequence of design tasks based on the UML leading to the implementation of a software system using the Naked Objects framework. This framework have been used in action research projects that have involved the investigation and modelling of business processes using object-oriented domain models and the implementation of software systems based on those domain models. Within this framework, Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) is used as a guiding methodology to explore the problem situation and to develop the domain model using UML for the given business domain. The framework is proposed and evaluated in our previous works, and a real case study “Information Retrieval System for academic research” is used, in this paper, to show further practice and evaluation of the framework in different business domain. We argue that there are advantages from combining and using techniques from different methodologies in this way for business domain modelling. The framework is overviewed and justified as multimethodology using Mingers multimethodology ideas.

Keywords: SSM, UML, domain-driven design, soft domaindriven design, naked objects, soft language, information retrieval, multimethodology.

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739 An Application of Generalized Fuzzy Soft Sets in a Social Decision Making Problem

Authors: Nisha Singhal, Usha Chouhan

Abstract:

At present, application of the extension of soft set theory in decision making problems in day to day life is progressing rapidly. The concepts of fuzzy soft set and its properties have been evolved as an area of interest for the researchers. The generalization of the concepts recently got importance and a rapid growth in the research in this area witnessed its vital-ness. In this paper, an application of the concept of generalized fuzzy soft set to make decision in a social problem is presented. Further, this paper also highlights some of the key issues of the related areas.

Keywords: Soft set, Fuzzy Soft set, Generalized Fuzzy Soft set, Membership and Non-Membership Score.

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738 Investigations on Some Operations of Soft Sets

Authors: Xun Ge, Songlin Yang

Abstract:

Soft set theory was initiated by Molodtsov in 1999. In the past years, this theory had been applied to many branches of mathematics, information science and computer science. In 2003, Maji et al. introduced some operations of soft sets and gave some operational rules. Recently, some of these operational rules are pointed out to be not true. Furthermore, Ali et al., in their paper, introduced and discussed some new operations of soft sets. In this paper, we further investigate these operational rules given by Maji et al. and Ali et al.. We obtain some sufficient-necessary conditions such that corresponding operational rules hold and give correct forms for some operational rules. These results will be help for us to use rightly operational rules of soft sets in research and application of soft set theory.

Keywords: Soft sets, union, intersection, complement.

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737 Some Equalities Connected with Fuzzy Soft Matrices

Authors: D. R. Jain

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to use matrix representation of Fuzzy soft sets for proving some equalities connected with Fuzzy soft sets based on set-operations.

Keywords: Equality, Fuzzy soft matrix, Fuzzy soft sets, operations.

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736 Filteristic Soft Lattice Implication Algebras

Authors: Yi Liu, Yang Xu

Abstract:

Applying the idea of soft set theory to lattice implication algebras, the novel concept of (implicative) filteristic soft lattice implication algebras which related to (implicative) filter(for short, (IF-)F-soft lattice implication algebras) are introduced. Basic properties of (IF-)F-soft lattice implication algebras are derived. Two kinds of fuzzy filters (i.e.(2, 2 _qk)((2, 2 _ qk))-fuzzy (implicative) filter) of L are introduced, which are generalizations of fuzzy (implicative) filters. Some characterizations for a soft set to be a (IF-)F-soft lattice implication algebra are provided. Analogously, this idea can be used in other types of filteristic lattice implication algebras (such as fantastic (positive implicative) filteristic soft lattice implication algebras).

Keywords: Soft set, (implicative) filteristic lattice implication algebras, fuzzy (implicative) filters, ((2, 2 _qk)) (2, 2 _ qk)-fuzzy(implicative) filters.

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735 A Soft Set based Group Decision Making Method with Criteria Weight

Authors: Samsiah Abdul Razak, Daud Mohamad

Abstract:

Molodstov-s soft sets theory was originally proposed as general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty problems. The matrix form has been introduced in soft set and some of its properties have been discussed. However, the formulation of soft matrix in group decision making problem only with equal importance weights of criteria, which does not show the true opinion of decision maker on each criteria. The aim of this paper is to propose a method for solving group decision making problem incorporating the importance of criteria by using soft matrices in a more objective manner. The weight of each criterion is calculated by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. An example of house selection process is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Soft set, Soft Matrix, Soft max-min decision making (SMmDM), Analytic hierarchy process (AHP)

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734 3D Objects Indexing Using Spherical Harmonic for Optimum Measurement Similarity

Authors: S. Hellam, Y. Oulahrir, F. El Mounchid, A. Sadiq, S. Mbarki

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a method for three-dimensional (3-D)-model indexing based on defining a new descriptor, which we call new descriptor using spherical harmonics. The purpose of the method is to minimize, the processing time on the database of objects models and the searching time of similar objects to request object. Firstly we start by defining the new descriptor using a new division of 3-D object in a sphere. Then we define a new distance which will be used in the search for similar objects in the database.

Keywords: 3D indexation, spherical harmonic, similarity of 3D objects.

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733 Movies and Dynamic Mathematical Objects on Trigonometry for Mobile Phones

Authors: Kazuhisa Takagi

Abstract:

This paper is about movies and dynamic objects for mobile phones. Dynamic objects are the software programmed by JavaScript. They consist of geometric figures and work on HTML5-compliant browsers. Mobile phones are very popular among teenagers. They like watching movies and playing games on them. So, mathematics movies and dynamic objects would enhance teaching and learning processes. In the movies, manga characters speak with artificially synchronized voices. They teach trigonometry together with dynamic mathematical objects. Many movies are created. They are Windows Media files or MP4 movies. These movies and dynamic objects are not only used in the classroom but also distributed to students. By watching movies, students can study trigonometry before or after class.

Keywords: Dynamic mathematical object, JavaScript, Google drive, transfer jet.

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732 Creating or Destroying Objects Plan in the Graphplan Framework

Authors: Wen-xiang Gu, Zeng-yu Cai, Xin-mei Zhang, Gui-dong Jiang

Abstract:

At present, intelligent planning in the Graphplan framework is a focus of artificial intelligence. While the Creating or Destroying Objects Planning (CDOP) is one unsolved problem of this field, one of the difficulties, too. In this paper, we study this planning problem and bring forward the idea of transforming objects to propositions, based on which we offer an algorithm, Creating or Destroying Objects in the Graphplan framework (CDOGP). Compared to Graphplan, the new algorithm can solve not only the entire problems that Graphplan do, but also a part of CDOP. It is for the first time that we introduce the idea of object-proposition, and we emphasize the discussion on the representations of creating or destroying objects operator and an algorithm in the Graphplan framework. In addition, we analyze the complexity of this algorithm.

Keywords: Graphplan, object_proposition, Creating or destroying objects, CDOGP.

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731 Antenna for Energy Harvesting in Wireless Connected Objects

Authors: Nizar Sakli, Chayma Bahar, Chokri Baccouch, Hedi Sakli

Abstract:

If connected objects multiply, they are becoming a challenge in more than one way. In particular by their consumption and their supply of electricity. A large part of the new generations of connected objects will only be able to develop if it is possible to make them entirely autonomous in terms of energy. Some manufacturers are therefore developing products capable of recovering energy from their environment. Vital solutions in certain contexts, such as the medical industry. Energy recovery from the environment is a reliable solution to solve the problem of powering wireless connected objects. This paper presents and study a optically transparent solar patch antenna in frequency band of 2.4 GHz for connected objects in the future standard 5G for energy harvesting and RF transmission.

Keywords: 5G, IoT, wireless communications, antenna, solar cell.

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730 Implementation of a Serializer to Represent PHP Objects in the Extensible Markup Language

Authors: Lidia N. Hernández-Piña, Carlos R. Jaimez-González

Abstract:

Interoperability in distributed systems is an important feature that refers to the communication of two applications written in different programming languages. This paper presents a serializer and a de-serializer of PHP objects to and from XML, which is an independent library written in the PHP programming language. The XML generated by this serializer is independent of the programming language, and can be used by other existing Web Objects in XML (WOX) serializers and de-serializers, which allow interoperability with other object-oriented programming languages.

Keywords: Interoperability, PHP object serialization, PHP to XML, web objects in XML, WOX.

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729 A Study on RFID Privacy Mechanism using Mobile Phone

Authors: Haedong Lee, Dooho Choi, Sokjoon Lee, Howon Kim

Abstract:

This paper is about hiding RFID tag identifier (ID) using handheld device like a cellular phone. By modifying the tag ID of objects periodically or manually using cellular phone built-in a RFID reader chip or with a external RFID reader device, we can prevent other people from gathering the information related with objects querying information server (like an EPC IS) with a tag ID or deriving the information from tag ID-s code structure or tracking the location of the objects and the owner of the objects. In this paper, we use a cryptographic algorithm for modification and restoring of RFID tag ID, and for one original tag ID, there are several different temporary tag ID, periodically.

Keywords: EPC, RFID, Mobile RFID.

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728 Entropy Measures on Neutrosophic Soft Sets and Its Application in Multi Attribute Decision Making

Authors: I. Arockiarani

Abstract:

The focus of the paper is to furnish the entropy measure for a neutrosophic set and neutrosophic soft set which is a measure of uncertainty and it permeates discourse and system. Various characterization of entropy measures are derived. Further we exemplify this concept by applying entropy in various real time decision making problems.

Keywords: Entropy measure, Hausdorff distance, neutrosophic set, soft set.

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727 3D Objects Indexing with a Direct and Analytical Method for Calculating the Spherical Harmonics Coefficients

Authors: S. Hellam, Y. Oulahrir, F. El Mounchid, A. Sadiq, S. Mbarki

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new method for threedimensional object indexing based on D.A.M.C-S.H.C descriptor (Direct and Analytical Method for Calculating the Spherical Harmonics Coefficients). For this end, we propose a direct calculation of the coefficients of spherical harmonics with perfect precision. The aims of the method are to minimize, the processing time on the 3D objects database and the searching time of similar objects to a request object. Firstly we start by defining the new descriptor using a new division of 3-D object in a sphere. Then we define a new distance which will be tested and prove his efficiency in the search for similar objects in the database in which we have objects with very various and important size.

Keywords: 3D Object indexing, 3D shape descriptor, spherical harmonic, 3D Object similarity.

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726 When Scientific Laws and Findings Encounter Life: A Traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective

Authors: Eric Y. Zhang, L. Acu

Abstract:

This paper is to point out the limitations of modern medical research and why the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) can help address the limitations. Many of the modern medical research results are based on the findings in fundamental research disciplines, such as physics, and chemistry. However, this foundation is not as solid as it seems. The theory proposed in this paper, the Law of Chasm, or the Chasm Theory, states that there are two categories of objects to be studied. One is non-life objects, or lifeless objects; the other is living beings, or the objects that are alive. The laws and findings obtained by studying non-life objects may not all be extended to living beings, and vice versa. TCM is the study of medicine based on living beings. Therefore, TCM findings may not exist in the body of the knowledge obtained from studying non-life objects.

Keywords: TCM, Traditional Chinese Medicine, Law of Chasm, Chasm Theory, living-beings, non-life.

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725 Tracking Objects in Color Image Sequences: Application to Football Images

Authors: Mourad Moussa, Ali Douik, Hassani Messaoud

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a comparative study between two computer vision systems for objects recognition and tracking, these algorithms describe two different approach based on regions constituted by a set of pixels which parameterized objects in shot sequences. For the image segmentation and objects detection, the FCM technique is used, the overlapping between cluster's distribution is minimized by the use of suitable color space (other that the RGB one). The first technique takes into account a priori probabilities governing the computation of various clusters to track objects. A Parzen kernel method is described and allows identifying the players in each frame, we also show the importance of standard deviation value research of the Gaussian probability density function. Region matching is carried out by an algorithm that operates on the Mahalanobis distance between region descriptors in two subsequent frames and uses singular value decomposition to compute a set of correspondences satisfying both the principle of proximity and the principle of exclusion.

Keywords: Image segmentation, objects tracking, Parzen window, singular value decomposition, target recognition.

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724 Numerical Investigation of Embankment Settlement Improved by Method of Preloading by Vertical Drains

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Saeideh Mohammadi

Abstract:

Time dependent settlement due to loading on soft saturated soils produces many problems such as high consolidation settlements and low consolidation rates. Also, long term consolidation settlement of soft soil underlying the embankment leads to unpredicted settlements and cracks on soil surface. Preloading method is an effective improvement method to solve this problem. Using vertical drains in preloading method is an effective method for improving soft soils. Applying deep soil mixing method on soft soils is another effective method for improving soft soils. There are little studies on using two methods of preloading and deep soil mixing simultaneously. In this paper, the concurrent effect of preloading with deep soil mixing by vertical drains is investigated through a finite element code, Plaxis2D. The influence of parameters such as deep soil mixing columns spacing, existence of vertical drains and distance between them, on settlement and stability factor of safety of embankment embedded on soft soil is investigated in this research.

Keywords: Preloading, soft soil, vertical drains, deep soil mixing, consolidation settlement.

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723 A 2D-3D Hybrid Vision System for Robotic Manipulation of Randomly Oriented Objects

Authors: Moulay A. Akhloufi

Abstract:

This paper presents an new vision technique for robotic manipulation of randomly oriented objects in industrial applications. The proposed approach uses 2D and 3D vision for efficiently extracting the 3D pose of an object in the presence of multiple randomly positioned objects. 2D vision permits to quickly select the objects of interest for 3D processing with a new modified ICP algorithm (FaR-ICP), thus reducing significantly the processing time. The extracted 3D pose is then sent to the robot manipulator for picking. The tests show that the proposed system achieves high performances

Keywords: 3D vision, Hand-Eye calibration, robot visual servoing, random bin picking.

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722 Best Timing for Capturing Satellite Thermal Images, Asphalt, and Concrete Objects

Authors: Toufic Abd El-Latif Sadek

Abstract:

The asphalt object represents the asphalted areas like roads, and the concrete object represents the concrete areas like concrete buildings. The efficient extraction of asphalt and concrete objects from one satellite thermal image occurred at a specific time, by preventing the gaps in times which give the close and same brightness values between asphalt and concrete, and among other objects. So that to achieve efficient extraction and then better analysis. Seven sample objects were used un this study, asphalt, concrete, metal, rock, dry soil, vegetation, and water. It has been found that, the best timing for capturing satellite thermal images to extract the two objects asphalt and concrete from one satellite thermal image, saving time and money, occurred at a specific time in different months. A table is deduced shows the optimal timing for capturing satellite thermal images to extract effectively these two objects.

Keywords: Asphalt, concrete, satellite thermal images, timing.

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721 Experimental Investigation on Excess Pore Water Pressure in Soft Soil-Foundations under Minor Shocks

Authors: Zhiying Zhang, Chongdu Cho, Qiang Pan, Xilin Lu

Abstract:

In this study, shaking table tests are performed to investigate the behavior of excess pore water pressure in different soft soil-foundations of soil-structure interaction (SSI) system. The variation of the behaviors under cycled minor shock is observed. Moreover, The generation and variation mechanism of excess pore water pressure under earthquake excitation in different soft soilfoundations are analyzed and discussed.

Keywords: Excess pore water pressure, shaking table tests, soft soil foundation, SSI system.

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720 Disparity Estimation for Objects of Interest

Authors: Yen San Yong, Hock Woon Hon

Abstract:

An algorithm for estimating the disparity of objects of interest is proposed. This algorithm uses image shifting and overlapping area to estimate the disparity value; thereby depth of the objects of interest can be obtained. The algorithm is able to perform at different levels of accuracy. However, as the accuracy increases the processing speed decreases. The algorithm is tested with static stereo images and sequence of stereo images. The experimental results are presented in this paper.

Keywords: stereo vision, binocular parallax

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719 Single Event Transient Tolerance Analysis in 8051 Microprocessor Using Scan Chain

Authors: Jun Sung Go, Jong Kang Park, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

As semi-conductor manufacturing technology evolves; the single event transient problem becomes more significant issue. Single event transient has a critical impact on both combinational and sequential logic circuits, so it is important to evaluate the soft error tolerance of the circuits at the design stage. In this paper, we present a soft error detecting simulation using scan chain. The simulation model generates a single event transient randomly in the circuit, and detects the soft error during the execution of the test patterns. We verified this model by inserting a scan chain in an 8051 microprocessor using 65 nm CMOS technology. While the test patterns generated by ATPG program are passing through the scan chain, we insert a single event transient and detect the number of soft errors per sub-module. The experiments show that the soft error rates per cell area of the SFR module is 277% larger than other modules.

Keywords: Scan chain, single event transient, soft error, 8051 processor.

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718 Main Elements of Soft Cost in Green Buildings

Authors: Nurul Zahirah M.A., N. Zainul Abidin

Abstract:

Green buildings have been commonly cited to be more expensive than conventional buildings. However, limited research has been conducted to clearly identify elements that contribute to this cost differential. The construction cost of buildings can be typically divided into “hard" costs and “soft" cost elements. Using a review analysis of existing literature, the study identified six main elements in green buildings that contribute to the general cost elements that are “soft" in nature. The six elements found are insurance, developer-s experience, design cost, certification, commissioning and energy modeling. Out of the six elements, most literatures have highlighted the increase in design cost for green design as compared to conventional design due to additional architectural and engineering costs, eco-charettes, extra design time, and the further need for a green consultant. The study concluded that these elements of soft cost contribute to the green premium or cost differential of green buildings.

Keywords: Green building, cost differential, soft cost, intangible cost.

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717 A Soft Systems Methodology Perspective on Data Warehousing Education Improvement

Authors: R. Goede, E. Taylor

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates how the soft systems methodology can be used to improve the delivery of a module in data warehousing for fourth year information technology students. Graduates in information technology needs to have academic skills but also needs to have good practical skills to meet the skills requirements of the information technology industry. In developing and improving current data warehousing education modules one has to find a balance in meeting the expectations of various role players such as the students themselves, industry and academia. The soft systems methodology, developed by Peter Checkland, provides a methodology for facilitating problem understanding from different world views. In this paper it is demonstrated how the soft systems methodology can be used to plan the improvement of data warehousing education for fourth year information technology students.

Keywords: Data warehousing, education, soft systems methodology, stakeholders, systems thinking.

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716 An Optical Flow Based Segmentation Method for Objects Extraction

Authors: C. Lodato, S. Lopes

Abstract:

This paper describes a segmentation algorithm based on the cooperation of an optical flow estimation method with edge detection and region growing procedures. The proposed method has been developed as a pre-processing stage to be used in methodologies and tools for video/image indexing and retrieval by content. The addressed problem consists in extracting whole objects from background for producing images of single complete objects from videos or photos. The extracted images are used for calculating the object visual features necessary for both indexing and retrieval processes. The first task of the algorithm exploits the cues from motion analysis for moving area detection. Objects and background are then refined using respectively edge detection and region growing procedures. These tasks are iteratively performed until objects and background are completely resolved. The developed method has been applied to a variety of indoor and outdoor scenes where objects of different type and shape are represented on variously textured background.

Keywords: Motion Detection, Object Extraction, Optical Flow, Segmentation.

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715 Analysis and Research of Two-Level Scheduling Profile for Open Real-Time System

Authors: Yongxian Jin, Jingzhou Huang

Abstract:

In an open real-time system environment, the coexistence of different kinds of real-time and non real-time applications makes the system scheduling mechanism face new requirements and challenges. One two-level scheduling scheme of the open real-time systems is introduced, and points out that hard and soft real-time applications are scheduled non-distinctively as the same type real-time applications, the Quality of Service (QoS) cannot be guaranteed. It has two flaws: The first, it can not differentiate scheduling priorities of hard and soft real-time applications, that is to say, it neglects characteristic differences between hard real-time applications and soft ones, so it does not suit a more complex real-time environment. The second, the worst case execution time of soft real-time applications cannot be predicted exactly, so it is not worth while to cost much spending in order to assure all soft real-time applications not to miss their deadlines, and doing that may cause resource wasting. In order to solve this problem, a novel two-level real-time scheduling mechanism (including scheduling profile and scheduling algorithm) which adds the process of dealing with soft real-time applications is proposed. Finally, we verify real-time scheduling mechanism from two aspects of theory and experiment. The results indicate that our scheduling mechanism can achieve the following objectives. (1) It can reflect the difference of priority when scheduling hard and soft real-time applications. (2) It can ensure schedulability of hard real-time applications, that is, their rate of missing deadline is 0. (3) The overall rate of missing deadline of soft real-time applications can be less than 1. (4) The deadline of a non-real-time application is not set, whereas the scheduling algorithm that server 0 S uses can avoid the “starvation" of jobs and increase QOS. By doing that, our scheduling mechanism is more compatible with different types of applications and it will be applied more widely.

Keywords: Hard real-time, two-level scheduling profile, open real-time system, non-distinctive schedule, soft real-time

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