Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 68

Search results for: Bilal Nasir

68 AGHAZ : An Expert System Based approach for the Translation of English to Urdu

Authors: Uzair Muhammad, Kashif Bilal, Atif Khan, M. Nasir Khan

Abstract:

Machine Translation (MT 3) of English text to its Urdu equivalent is a difficult challenge. Lot of attempts has been made, but a few limited solutions are provided till now. We present a direct approach, using an expert system to translate English text into its equivalent Urdu, using The Unicode Standard, Version 4.0 (ISBN 0-321-18578-1) Range: 0600–06FF. The expert system works with a knowledge base that contains grammatical patterns of English and Urdu, as well as a tense and gender-aware dictionary of Urdu words (with their English equivalents).

Keywords: Machine Translation, Multiword Expressions, Urdulanguage processing, POS12 Tagging for Urdu, Expert Systems.

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67 Extracting Multiword Expressions in Machine Translation from English to Urdu using Relational Data Approach

Authors: Kashif Bilal, Uzair Muhammad, Atif Khan, M. Nasir Khan

Abstract:

Machine Translation, (hereafter in this document referred to as the "MT") faces a lot of complex problems from its origination. Extracting multiword expressions is also one of the complex problems in MT. Finding multiword expressions during translating a sentence from English into Urdu, through existing solutions, takes a lot of time and occupies system resources. We have designed a simple relational data approach, in which we simply set a bit in dictionary (database) for multiword, to find and handle multiword expression. This approach handles multiword efficiently.

Keywords: Machine Translation, Multiword Expressions, Urdulanguage processing, POS (stands for Parts of Speech) Tagging forUrdu, Expert Systems.

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66 Efficacy of Biosimilar Pegylated Interferon Alpha 40 KD (Peg INF) in Chronic Hepatitis C Infection

Authors: Ghias ul Hassan, Bilal Nasir, Israr ul Haque, ShafiqAwan, Ghias Un NabiTayyab, S. Hassan Akhtar Bokhari, Khawar Saeed, Qazi Masroor

Abstract:

Introduction: Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin combination is standard of care in the management of chronic HCV infected patients. Efficacy of the therapy is judged by the ability to achieve biochemical and virological response as judged by RVR, EVR, ETR and SVR.Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of newly marketed biosimilar Pegylated Interferon Alpha 40KD (Peg INF) in chronic HCV patients. Materials and methods: This was observational, prospective multicentre study to evaluate the ability of biosimilar pegylated interferon alfa 2a (40KD) along with Ribavirin (weight based) to achieve SVR. The enrolled patients were separated into Naïve (A), Relapsers (B) and Non Responders(C) based on the previous history of interferon exposure and its response. The RGT was followed on ALT and RVR, EVR, ETR and SVR.Results:As per protocol analysis estimated SVR for three groups is 86.6% for naïve, 89.4% for relapsers and 52.4% for non-responders to standard interferon. Conclusion: It is concluded that Bio-similar pegylated interferon alfa-2a (40kD) along with Ribavirin has good anti-viral efficacy in Naïve, Relapsers and Non-responders to standard IFN of chronic HCV infected patients requiring treatment.

Keywords: SVR (Sustained virological response), NR (Nonresponders), Pegylated Interferon.

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65 Analytical and Numerical Approaches in Coagulation of Particles

Authors: Bilal Barakeh

Abstract:

In this paper we discuss the effect of unbounded particle interaction operator on particle growth and we study how this can address the choice of appropriate time steps of the numerical simulation. We provide also rigorous mathematical proofs showing that large particles become dominating with increasing time while small particles contribute negligibly. Second, we discuss the efficiency of the algorithm by performing numerical simulations tests and by comparing the simulated solutions with some known analytic solutions to the Smoluchowski equation.

Keywords: Stochastic processes, coagulation of particles, numerical scheme.

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64 Enthalpies of Dissociation of Pure Methane and Carbon Dioxide Gas Hydrate

Authors: Qazi Nasir, K. K. Lau, Bhajan Lal

Abstract:

In this study the enthalpies of dissociation for pure methane and pure carbon dioxide was calculated using a hydrate equilibrium data obtained in this study. The enthalpy of dissociation was determined using Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The results were compared with the values reported in literature obtained using various techniques.

Keywords: Enthalpies of dissociation, methane, carbon dioxide, gas hydrate, natural gas.

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63 Effect of a Magnetic Field on the Onset of Marangoni Convection in a Micropolar Fluid

Authors: Mohd Nasir Mahmud, Ruwaidiah Idris, Ishak Hashim

Abstract:

With the presence of a uniform vertical magnetic field and suspended particles, thermocapillary instability in a horizontal liquid layer is investigated. The resulting eigenvalue is solved by the Galerkin technique for various basic temperature gradients. It is found that the presence of magnetic field always has a stability effect of increasing the critical Marangoni number.

Keywords: Marangoni convection, Magnetic field, Micropolar fluid, Non-uniform thermal gradient, Thermocapillary.

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62 A Programmable FSK-Modulator in 350nm CMOS Technology

Authors: Nasir Mehmood, Saad Rahman, Vinodh Ravinath, Mahesh Balaji

Abstract:

This paper describes the design of a programmable FSK-modulator based on VCO and its implementation in 0.35m CMOS process. The circuit is used to transmit digital data at 100Kbps rate in the frequency range of 400-600MHz. The design and operation of the modulator is discussed briefly. Further the characteristics of PLL, frequency synthesizer, VCO and the whole design are elaborated. The variation among the proposed and tested specifications is presented. Finally, the layout of sub-modules, pin configurations, final chip and test results are presented.

Keywords: FSK Modulator, CMOS, VCO, Phase Locked Loop, Frequency Synthesizer.

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61 Volatile Organic Compounds Destruction by Catalytic Oxidation for Environmental Applications

Authors: Mohammed Nasir Kajama, Ngozi Claribelle Nwogu, Edward Gobina

Abstract:

Pt/γ-Al2O3 membrane catalysts were prepared via an evaporative-crystallization deposition method. The obtained Pt/γ- Al2O3 catalyst activity was tested after characterization (SEM-EDAX observation, BET measurement, permeability assessment) in the catalytic oxidation of selected volatile organic compound (VOC) i.e. propane, fed in mixture of oxygen. The VOC conversion (nearly 90%) obtained by varying the operating temperature showed that flow-through membrane reactor might do better in the abatement of VOCs.

Keywords: VOC combustion, flow-through membrane reactor, platinum supported alumina catalysts.

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60 Research Analysis in Eclectic Theory (Kaboudan and Sfandiar)

Authors: Farideh Alizadeh, Mohd Nasir Hashim

Abstract:

Present research investigates eclecticism in Iranian theatre on the basis of eclectic theory. Eclectic theatre is a new theory in postmodernism. The theory appeared during 60th – 70th century in some theatres such as “Conference of the Birds”. Special theatrical forms have been developed in many geographical- cultural areas of the world and are indigenous to that area. These forms, as compared with original forms, are considered to be traditional while being comprehensive, the form is considered to be national. Kaboudan and Sfandiar theatre has been influenced by elements of traditional form of Iran.

Keywords: Eclectic theatre, theatrical forms, tradition, play.

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59 Real-Time Digital Oscilloscope Implementation in 90nm CMOS Technology FPGA

Authors: Nasir Mehmood, Jens Ogniewski, Vinodh Ravinath

Abstract:

This paper describes the design of a real-time audiorange digital oscilloscope and its implementation in 90nm CMOS FPGA platform. The design consists of sample and hold circuits, A/D conversion, audio and video processing, on-chip RAM, clock generation and control logic. The design of internal blocks and modules in 90nm devices in an FPGA is elaborated. Also the key features and their implementation algorithms are presented. Finally, the timing waveforms and simulation results are put forward.

Keywords: CMOS, VLSI, Oscilloscope, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), VHDL, Video Graphics Array (VGA)

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58 Moving From Problem Space to Solution Space

Authors: Bilal Saeed Raja, M. Ali Iqbal, Imran Ihsan

Abstract:

Extracting and elaborating software requirements and transforming them into viable software architecture are still an intricate task. This paper defines a solution architecture which is based on the blurred amalgamation of problem space and solution space. The dependencies between domain constraints, requirements and architecture and their importance are described that are to be considered collectively while evolving from problem space to solution space. This paper proposes a revised version of Twin Peaks Model named Win Peaks Model that reconciles software requirements and architecture in more consistent and adaptable manner. Further the conflict between stakeholders- win-requirements is resolved by proposed Voting methodology that is simple adaptation of win-win requirements negotiation model and QARCC.

Keywords: Functional Requirements, Non Functional Requirements, Twin Peaks Model, QARCC.

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57 Optimized Approach for Secure Data Sharing in Distributed Database

Authors: Ahmed Mateen, Zhu Qingsheng, Ahmad Bilal

Abstract:

In the current age of technology, information is the most precious asset of a company. Today, companies have a large amount of data. As the data become larger, access to data for some particular information is becoming slower day by day. Faster data processing to shape it in the form of information is the biggest issue. The major problems in distributed databases are the efficiency of data distribution and response time of data distribution. The security of data distribution is also a big issue. For these problems, we proposed a strategy that can maximize the efficiency of data distribution and also increase its response time. This technique gives better results for secure data distribution from multiple heterogeneous sources. The newly proposed technique facilitates the companies for secure data sharing efficiently and quickly.

Keywords: ER-schema, electronic record, P2P framework, API, query formulation.

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56 Balanced Scorecard (BSC) Usage and Financial Performance of Branches in Jordanian Banking Industry

Authors: Hamzah Hussein Al-mawali, Yuserrie Zainuddin, Noor Nasir Kader Ali

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the body of knowledge in the area of management accounting, particularly performance measurement systems within the BSC framework, by investigating empirically the extent of multiple performance measures usage and their effects on the financial performance of Jordanian banks in the branches level. Nevertheless, the result of this study shows that the non-financial measures usages, particularly, customer oriented indicators and product/ service oriented indicators, appears to be important as it enhances firm performance. Remarkably, the findings reveal that there is positive relationship between the usages of multiple performance measures via overall BSC measures and financial performance in the branches level.

Keywords: Performance measurements systems, BalancedScorecard, Jordan.

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55 A NXM Version of 5X5 Playfair Cipher for any Natural Language (Urdu as Special Case)

Authors: Muhammad Salam, Nasir Rashid, Shah Khalid, Muhammad Raees Khan

Abstract:

In this paper a modified version NXM of traditional 5X5 playfair cipher is introduced which enable the user to encrypt message of any Natural language by taking appropriate size of the matrix depending upon the size of the natural language. 5X5 matrix has the capability of storing only 26 characters of English language and unable to store characters of any language having more than 26 characters. To overcome this limitation NXM matrix is introduced which solve this limitation. In this paper a special case of Urdu language is discussed. Where # is used for completing odd pair and * is used for repeating letters.

Keywords: cryptography, decryption, encryption, playfair cipher, traditional cipher.

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54 Dynamic Load Balancing in PVM Using Intelligent Application

Authors: Kashif Bilal, Tassawar Iqbal, Asad Ali Safi, Nadeem Daudpota

Abstract:

This paper deals with dynamic load balancing using PVM. In distributed environment Load Balancing and Heterogeneity are very critical issues and needed to drill down in order to achieve the optimal results and efficiency. Various techniques are being used in order to distribute the load dynamically among different nodes and to deal with heterogeneity. These techniques are using different approaches where Process Migration is basic concept with different optimal flavors. But Process Migration is not an easy job, it impose lot of burden and processing effort in order to track each process in nodes. We will propose a dynamic load balancing technique in which application will intelligently balance the load among different nodes, resulting in efficient use of system and have no overheads of process migration. It would also provide a simple solution to problem of load balancing in heterogeneous environment.

Keywords: PVM, load balancing, task allocation, intelligent application.

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53 Applications of High-Order Compact Finite Difference Scheme to Nonlinear Goursat Problems

Authors: Mohd Agos Salim Nasir, Ahmad Izani Md. Ismail

Abstract:

Several numerical schemes utilizing central difference approximations have been developed to solve the Goursat problem. However, in a recent years compact discretization methods which leads to high-order finite difference schemes have been used since it is capable of achieving better accuracy as well as preserving certain features of the equation e.g. linearity. The basic idea of the new scheme is to find the compact approximations to the derivative terms by differentiating centrally the governing equations. Our primary interest is to study the performance of the new scheme when applied to two Goursat partial differential equations against the traditional finite difference scheme.

Keywords: Goursat problem, partial differential equation, finite difference scheme, compact finite difference

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52 Effect of Hartmann Number on Free Convective Flow in a Square Cavity with Different Positions of Heated Square Block

Authors: Abdul Halim Bhuiyan, M. A. Alim, Md. Nasir Uddin

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the effect of Hartmann number on the free convective flow in a square cavity with different positions of heated square block. The two-dimensional Physical and mathematical model have been developed, and mathematical model includes the system of governing mass, momentum and energy equations are solved by the finite element method. The calculations have been computed for Prandtl number Pr = 0.71, the Rayleigh number Ra = 1000 and the different values of Hartmann number. The results are illustrated with the streamlines, isotherms, velocity and temperature fields as well as local Nusselt number.

Keywords: Finite element method, free convection, Hartmann number, square cavity.

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51 Assessment of Using Wastage Steel as Welded Reinforcement

Authors: Muhammad Murtaza Nasir, Safdar Abbas Zaidi, Kamran Khan

Abstract:

This work is carried out to evaluate the possibility of using to-be-wasted steel as reinforcement after welding together pieces of reinforcing steel bars, left over during construction activities. Tests were performed on a total of nine samples. These were made by welding pieces of reinforcing steel bars purchased from the local scrap steel market. The samples were tested in uniaxial tension using a universal testing machine (UTM). It was found that the failure of the welded bars is governed by the thickness of the weld. It is concluded that suitable design of the weld is essential for achieving the desired level of ductility/elongation of these bars, if they are to be used as conventional reinforcement in reinforced concrete members.

Keywords: Ductility/elongation, low cost housing, reinforced concrete, welding, welded reinforcement, wastage steel.

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50 Design, Development and Analysis of Automated Storage and Retrieval System with Single and Dual Command Dispatching using MATLAB

Authors: M. Aslam, Farrukh, A. R. Gardezi, Nasir Hayat

Abstract:

Automated material handling is given prime importance in the semi automated and automated facilities since it provides solution to the gigantic problems related to inventory and also support the latest philosophies like just in time production JIT and lean production. Automated storage and retrieval system is an antidote (if designed properly) to the facility sufferings like getting the right material , materials getting perished, long cycle times or many other similar kind of problems. A working model of automated storage and retrieval system (AS/RS) is designed and developed under the design parameters specified by Material Handling Industry of America (MHIA). Later on analysis was carried out to calculate the throughput and size of the machine. The possible implementation of this technology in local scenario is also discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Automated storage and retrieval system (AS/RS), Material handling, Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM), Lightdependent resistor (LDR)

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49 Mining of Interesting Prediction Rules with Uniform Two-Level Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Bilal Alatas, Ahmet Arslan

Abstract:

The main goal of data mining is to extract accurate, comprehensible and interesting knowledge from databases that may be considered as large search spaces. In this paper, a new, efficient type of Genetic Algorithm (GA) called uniform two-level GA is proposed as a search strategy to discover truly interesting, high-level prediction rules, a difficult problem and relatively little researched, rather than discovering classification knowledge as usual in the literatures. The proposed method uses the advantage of uniform population method and addresses the task of generalized rule induction that can be regarded as a generalization of the task of classification. Although the task of generalized rule induction requires a lot of computations, which is usually not satisfied with the normal algorithms, it was demonstrated that this method increased the performance of GAs and rapidly found interesting rules.

Keywords: Classification rule mining, data mining, genetic algorithms.

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48 Information Extraction from Unstructured and Ungrammatical Data Sources for Semantic Annotation

Authors: Quratulain N. Rajput, Sajjad Haider, Nasir Touheed

Abstract:

The internet has become an attractive avenue for global e-business, e-learning, knowledge sharing, etc. Due to continuous increase in the volume of web content, it is not practically possible for a user to extract information by browsing and integrating data from a huge amount of web sources retrieved by the existing search engines. The semantic web technology enables advancement in information extraction by providing a suite of tools to integrate data from different sources. To take full advantage of semantic web, it is necessary to annotate existing web pages into semantic web pages. This research develops a tool, named OWIE (Ontology-based Web Information Extraction), for semantic web annotation using domain specific ontologies. The tool automatically extracts information from html pages with the help of pre-defined ontologies and gives them semantic representation. Two case studies have been conducted to analyze the accuracy of OWIE.

Keywords: Ontology, Semantic Annotation, Wrapper, Information Extraction.

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47 The Control of a Highly Nonlinear Two-wheels Balancing Robot: A Comparative Assessment between LQR and PID-PID Control Schemes

Authors: A. N. K. Nasir, M. A. Ahmad, R. M. T. Raja Ismail

Abstract:

The research on two-wheels balancing robot has gained momentum due to their functionality and reliability when completing certain tasks. This paper presents investigations into the performance comparison of Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and PID-PID controllers for a highly nonlinear 2–wheels balancing robot. The mathematical model of 2-wheels balancing robot that is highly nonlinear is derived. The final model is then represented in statespace form and the system suffers from mismatched condition. Two system responses namely the robot position and robot angular position are obtained. The performances of the LQR and PID-PID controllers are examined in terms of input tracking and disturbances rejection capability. Simulation results of the responses of the nonlinear 2–wheels balancing robot are presented in time domain. A comparative assessment of both control schemes to the system performance is presented and discussed.

Keywords: PID, LQR, Two-wheels balancing robot.

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46 Effects of Coupling Agent on the Properties of Durian Skin Fibre Filled Polypropylene Composite

Authors: Hazleen Anuar, Nur Aimi Mohd Nasir, Yousuf El-Shekeil

Abstract:

Durian skin is a newly explores natural fibre potentially reinforced polyolefin for diverse applications. In this work, investigation on the effect of coupling agent, maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP) on the mechanical, morphological, and thermal properties of polypropylene (PP) reinforced with durian skin fibre (DSF) was conducted. The presence of 30 wt% DSF significantly reduced the tensile strength of PP-DSF composite. Interestingly, even though the same trend goes to PP-DSF with the presence of MAPP, the reduction is only about 4% relative to unreinforced PP and 18% higher than PP-DSF without MAPP (untreated composite or UTC). The used of MAPP in treated composite (TC) also increased the tensile modulus, flexural properties and degradation temperature. The enhanced mechanical properties are consistent with good interfacial interaction as evidenced under scanning electron microscopy.

Keywords: Durian skin fiber, coupling agent, mechanical properties, thermogravimetry analysis.

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45 Performance Comparison between Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and PD-PID Controllers for a Nonlinear Inverted Pendulum System

Authors: A. N. K. Nasir, R. M. T. Raja Ismail, M. A. Ahmad

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to compare the time specification performance between conventional controller PID and modern controller SMC for an inverted pendulum system. The goal is to determine which control strategy delivers better performance with respect to pendulum-s angle and cart-s position. The inverted pendulum represents a challenging control problem, which continually moves toward an uncontrolled state. Two controllers are presented such as Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and Proportional- Integral-Derivatives (PID) controllers for controlling the highly nonlinear system of inverted pendulum model. Simulation study has been done in Matlab Mfile and simulink environment shows that both controllers are capable to control multi output inverted pendulum system successfully. The result shows that Sliding Mode Control (SMC) produced better response compared to PID control strategies and the responses are presented in time domain with the details analysis.

Keywords: SMC, PID, Inverted Pendulum System.

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44 A Survey: Clustering Ensembles Techniques

Authors: Reza Ghaemi , Md. Nasir Sulaiman , Hamidah Ibrahim , Norwati Mustapha

Abstract:

The clustering ensembles combine multiple partitions generated by different clustering algorithms into a single clustering solution. Clustering ensembles have emerged as a prominent method for improving robustness, stability and accuracy of unsupervised classification solutions. So far, many contributions have been done to find consensus clustering. One of the major problems in clustering ensembles is the consensus function. In this paper, firstly, we introduce clustering ensembles, representation of multiple partitions, its challenges and present taxonomy of combination algorithms. Secondly, we describe consensus functions in clustering ensembles including Hypergraph partitioning, Voting approach, Mutual information, Co-association based functions and Finite mixture model, and next explain their advantages, disadvantages and computational complexity. Finally, we compare the characteristics of clustering ensembles algorithms such as computational complexity, robustness, simplicity and accuracy on different datasets in previous techniques.

Keywords: Clustering Ensembles, Combinational Algorithm, Consensus Function, Unsupervised Classification.

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43 Malaysia under the Purview of the United Nations and Agenda 21

Authors: Maisarah Makmor, Zulhabri Ismail, Rugayah Hashim, Nasyairi Mat Nasir

Abstract:

Developing a nation geared by the principle of sustainable development has been one of the piers in moulding a greater nation for Malaysia since its independence. This is seen by the act of joining the United Nations in 1957, just a month after gaining their independence. The United Nations is an international organization that aims to unite the nations worldwide based on justice, human dignity and human well-being. Malaysia has established a local body called the United Nations Malaysia which collaborates with the government to accomplish the aim of supporting sustainable development in Malaysia. Agenda 21 is an international document produced from the Earth Summit providing guidelines of implementing sustainable development globally, nationally and locally. Initiatives of applying Agenda 21 in Malaysia have been taken by the government and non-profit organizations to expose issues regarding sustainable development and providing environmental education to the community to increase awareness towards environmental protection.

Keywords: Agenda 21, Environmental Protection, Malaysia, Sustainable Development, United Nations.

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42 An Integrated Model of Urban Conservation and Revitalization from the Point of Immigration and Its Effects on Reyhan Urban Site in Turkey as a Case Study

Authors: Ozlem Koprulu Bagbanci, M.Bilal Bagbanci

Abstract:

This paper presents the effects of migration at the urban sites with an integrated model under the sustainable local development policies for the conservation and revitalization of the site areas as a case at Reyhan heritage site in Bursa. It is known as the “City of immigrants" because of its richness of cultural plurality. The city has always regarded the dynamic impact of immigration as a positive contribution. As a result of this situation, the city created the earliest urbanization practices: being the first capital city of the Ottoman Empire. Bursa created the first modern movement practices and set the first Organized Industrial Zone. The most important aim of the study is to be offer a model for the similar areas with the context of conservation and revitalization of the historical areas, subjected to the local integrated sustainable development policies of local goverments.

Keywords: integration, migration, local policies, sustainability.

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41 The Methodology of Flip Chip Using Astro Place and Route Tool

Authors: Rohaya Abdul Wahab, Raja Mohd Fuad Tengku Aziz, Nazaliza Othman, Sharifah Saleh, Nabihah Razali, Rozaimah Baharim, Md Hanif Md Nasir

Abstract:

This paper will discuss flip chip methodology, in which I/O pads, standard cells, macros and bump cells array are placed in the floorplan, then routed using Astro place and route tool. Final DRC and LVS checking is done using Calibre verification tool. The design vehicle to run this methodology is an OpenRISC design targeted to Silterra 0.18 micrometer technology with 6 metal layers for routing. Astro has extensive support for flip chip placement and routing. Astro tool commands for flip chip are straightforward approach like the conventional standard wire bond packaging. However since we do not have flip chip commands in our Astro tool, no LEF file for bump cell and no LEF file for flip chip I/O pad, we create our own methodology to prepare for future flip chip tapeout. 

Keywords: Astro, bump cell, Calibre, flip chip, LEF, methodology, SCHEME, TCL.

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40 Improving Cyber Resilience in Mobile Field Hospitals: Towards an Assessment Model

Authors: Nasir Baba Ahmed, Nicolas Daclin, Marc Olivaux, Gilles Dusserre

Abstract:

The Mobile field hospital is critical in terms of managing emergencies in crisis. It is a sub-section of the main hospitals and the health sector, tasked with delivering responsive, immediate, and efficient medical services during a crisis. With the aim to prevent further crisis, the assessment of the cyber assets follows different methods, to distinguish its strengths and weaknesses, and in turn achieve cyber resiliency. The work focuses on assessments of cyber resilience in field hospitals with trends growing in both the field hospital and the health sector in general. This creates opportunities for the adverse attackers and the response improvement objectives for attaining cyber resilience, as the assessments allow users and stakeholders to know the level of risks with regards to its cyber assets. Thus, the purpose is to show the possible threat vectors which open up opportunities, with contrast to current trends in the assessment of the mobile field hospitals’ cyber assets.

Keywords: Assessment framework, cyber resilience, cyber security, Mobile Field Hospital.

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39 Physical Verification Flow on Multiple Foundries

Authors: R. Abdul Wahab, R. Mohd Fuad Tengku Aziz, N. Othman, S. Saleh, N. Razali, M. Al Baqir Zinal Abidin, M. Hanif Md Nasir

Abstract:

This paper will discuss how we optimize our physical verification flow in our IC Design Department having various rule decks from multiple foundries. Our ultimate goal is to achieve faster time to tape-out and avoid schedule delay. Currently the physical verification runtimes and memory usage have drastically increased with the increasing number of design rules, design complexity, and the size of the chips to be verified. To manage design violations, we use a number of solutions to reduce the amount of violations needed to be checked by physical verification engineers. The most important functions in physical verifications are DRC (design rule check), LVS (layout vs. schematic), and XRC (extraction). Since we have a multiple number of foundries for our design tape-outs, we need a flow that improve the overall turnaround time and ease of use of the physical verification process. The demand for fast turnaround time is even more critical since the physical design is the last stage before sending the layout to the foundries.

Keywords: Physical verification, DRC, LVS, XRC, flow, foundry, runset.

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