Search results for: Analog–digital Conversion
1361 An Application-Driven Procedure for Optimal Signal Digitization of Automotive-Grade Ultrasonic Sensors
Authors: Mohamed Shawki Elamir, Heinrich Gotzig, Raoul Zoellner, Patrick Maeder
In this work, a methodology is presented for identifying the optimal digitization parameters for the analog signal of ultrasonic sensors. These digitization parameters are the resolution of the analog to digital conversion and the sampling rate. This is accomplished though the derivation of characteristic curves based on Fano inequality and the calculation of the mutual information content over a given dataset. The mutual information is calculated between the examples in the dataset and the corresponding variation in the feature that needs to be estimated. The optimal parameters are identified in a manner that ensures optimal estimation performance while preventing inefficiency in using unnecessarily powerful analog to digital converters.
Keywords: Analog to digital conversion, digitization, sampling rate, ultrasonic sensors.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 181
1360 Sigma-Delta ADCs Converter a Study Case
Authors: Thiago Brito Bezerra, Mauro Lopes de Freitas, Waldir Sabino da Silva Júnior
The Sigma-Delta A/D converters have been proposed as a practical application for A/D conversion at high rates because of its simplicity and robustness to imperfections in the circuit, also because the traditional converters are more difficult to implement in VLSI technology. These difficulties with conventional conversion methods need precise analog components in their filters and conversion circuits, and are more vulnerable to noise and interference. This paper aims to analyze the architecture, function and application of Analog-Digital converters (A/D) Sigma-Delta to overcome these difficulties, showing some simulations using the Simulink software and Multisim.
Keywords: Analysis, Oversampling Modulator, A/D converters, Sigma-Delta.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2561
1359 Implemented 5-bit 125-MS/s Successive Approximation Register ADC on FPGA
Authors: S. Heydarzadeh, A. Kadivarian, P. Torkzadeh
Abstract:Implemented 5-bit 125-MS/s successive approximation register (SAR) analog to digital converter (ADC) on FPGA is presented in this paper.The design and modeling of a high performance SAR analog to digital converter are based on monotonic capacitor switching procedure algorithm .Spartan 3 FPGA is chosen for implementing SAR analog to digital converter algorithm. SAR VHDL program writes in Xilinx and modelsim uses for showing results.
Keywords: Analog to digital converter, Successive approximation, Capacitor switching algorithm, FPGAProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4234
1358 An Area-Efficient and Low-Power Digital Pulse-Width Modulation Controller for DC-DC Switching Power Converter
Authors: Jingjing Lan, Jun Zhou, Xin Liu
In this paper, a low-power digital controller for DC-DC power conversion was presented. The controller generates the pulse-width modulated (PWM) signal from digital inputs provided by analog-to-digital converter (ADC). An efficient and simple design scheme to develop the control unit was discussed. This method allows minimization of the consumed resources of the chip and it is based on direct digital design approach. In this application, with the proposed scheme, nearly half area and two-third of the power consumption was saved compared to the conventional schemes. This work illustrates the possibility of implementing low-power and area-efficient power management circuit using direct digital design based approach.
Keywords: Buck converter, DC-DC power conversion, digital control, proportional-integral (PI) controller.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2159
1357 A Novel Digital Calibration Technique for Gain and Offset Mismatch in TIΣΔ ADCs
Authors: Ali Beydoun, Van-Tam Nguyen, Patrick Loumeau
Abstract:Time interleaved sigma-delta (TIΣΔ) architecture is a potential candidate for high bandwidth analog to digital converters (ADC) which remains a bottleneck for software and cognitive radio receivers. However, the performance of the TIΣΔ architecture is limited by the unavoidable gain and offset mismatches resulting from the manufacturing process. This paper presents a novel digital calibration method to compensate the gain and offset mismatch effect. The proposed method takes advantage of the reconstruction digital signal processing on each channel and requires only few logic components for implementation. The run time calibration is estimated to 10 and 15 clock cycles for offset cancellation and gain mismatch calibration respectively.
Keywords: sigma-delta, calibration, gain and offset mismatches, analog-to-digital conversion, time-interleaving.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5300
1356 High Dynamic Range Resampling for Software Radio
Authors: Arthur David Snider, Laiq Azam
Abstract:The classic problem of recovering arbitrary values of a band-limited signal from its samples has an added complication in software radio applications; namely, the resampling calculations inevitably fold aliases of the analog signal back into the original bandwidth. The phenomenon is quantified by the spur-free dynamic range. We demonstrate how a novel application of the Remez (Parks- McClellan) algorithm permits optimal signal recovery and SFDR, far surpassing state-of-the-art resamplers.
Keywords: Sampling methods, Signal sampling, Digital radio, Digital-analog conversion.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1311
1355 Data-driven ASIC for Multichannel Sensors
Authors: Eduard Atkin, Alexander Klyuev, Vitaly Shumikhin
An approach and its implementation in 0.18 m CMOS process of the multichannel ASIC for capacitive (up to 30 pF) sensors are described in the paper. The main design aim was to study an analog data-driven architecture. The design was done for an analog derandomizing function of the 128 to 16 structure. That means that the ASIC structure should provide a parallel front-end readout of 128 input analog sensor signals and after the corresponding fast commutation with appropriate arbitration logic their processing by means of 16 output chains, including analog-to-digital conversion. The principal feature of the ASIC is a low power consumption within 2 mW/channel (including a 9-bit 20Ms/s ADC) at a maximum average channel hit rate not less than 150 kHz.
Keywords: Data-driven architecture, derandomizer, multichannel sensor readoutProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1315
1354 An 8-Bit, 100-MSPS Fully Dynamic SAR ADC for Ultra-High Speed Image Sensor
Authors: F. Rarbi, D. Dzahini, W. Uhring
In this paper, a dynamic and power efficient 8-bit and 100-MSPS Successive Approximation Register (SAR) Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) is presented. The circuit uses a non-differential capacitive Digital-to-Analog (DAC) architecture segmented by 2. The prototype is produced in a commercial 65-nm 1P7M CMOS technology with 1.2-V supply voltage. The size of the core ADC is 208.6 x 103.6 µm2. The post-layout noise simulation results feature a SNR of 46.9 dB at Nyquist frequency, which means an effective number of bit (ENOB) of 7.5-b. The total power consumption of this SAR ADC is only 1.55 mW at 100-MSPS. It achieves then a figure of merit of 85.6 fJ/step.
Keywords: CMOS analog to digital converter, dynamic comparator, image sensor application, successive approximation register.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1159
1353 Optimal Duty-Cycle Modulation Scheme for Analog-To-Digital Conversion Systems
Authors: G. Sonfack, J. Mbihi, B. Lonla Moffo
This paper presents an optimal duty-cycle modulation (ODCM) scheme for analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) systems. The overall ODCM-Based ADC problem is decoupled into optimal DCM and digital filtering sub-problems, while taking into account constraints of mutual design parameters between the two. Using a set of three lemmas and four morphological theorems, the ODCM sub-problem is modelled as a nonlinear cost function with nonlinear constraints. Then, a weighted least pth norm of the error between ideal and predicted frequency responses is used as a cost function for the digital filtering sub-problem. In addition, MATLAB fmincon and MATLAB iirlnorm tools are used as optimal DCM and least pth norm solvers respectively. Furthermore, the virtual simulation scheme of an overall prototyping ODCM-based ADC system is implemented and well tested with the help of Simulink tool according to relevant set of design data, i.e., 3 KHz of modulating bandwidth, 172 KHz of maximum modulation frequency and 25 MHZ of sampling frequency. Finally, the results obtained and presented show that the ODCM-based ADC achieves under 3 KHz of modulating bandwidth: 57 dBc of SINAD (signal-to-noise and distorsion), 58 dB of SFDR (Surpious free dynamic range) -80 dBc of THD (total harmonic distorsion), and 10 bits of minimum resolution. These performance levels appear to be a great challenge within the class of oversampling ADC topologies, with 2nd order IIR (infinite impulse response) decimation filter.
Keywords: Digital IIR filter, morphological lemmas and theorems, optimal DCM-based DAC, virtual simulation, weighted least pth norm.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 784
1352 14-Bit 1MS/s Cyclic-Pipelined ADC
Authors: S. Saisundar, Shan Jiang, Kevin T. C. Chai, David Nuttman, Minkyu Je
Keywords: Analog to digital converter, cyclic, gain-boosting, pipelined.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3159
1351 Calibration of Time-Skew Error in a M-Channel Time-Interleaved Analog-to-Digital Converter
Authors: Yu-Sheng Lee, Qi An
Offset mismatch, gain mismatch, and time-skew error between time-interleaved channels limit the performance of time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters (TIADC). This paper focused on the time-skew error. A new technique for calibrating time-skew error in M-channels TIADC is described, and simulation results are also presented.
Keywords: Calibration, time-skew error, time-interleavedanalog-to-digital converters.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1434
1350 Variable Input Range Continuous-time Switched Current Delta-sigma Analog Digital Converter for RFID CMOS Biosensor Applications
Authors: Boram Kim, Shigeyasu Uno, Kazuo Nakazato
Continuous-time delta-sigma analog digital converter (ADC) for radio frequency identification (RFID) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) biosensor has been reported. This delta-sigma ADC is suitable for digital conversion of biosensor signal because of small process variation, and variable input range. As the input range of continuous-time switched current delta-sigma ADC (Dynamic range : 50 dB) can be limited by using current reference, amplification of biosensor signal is unnecessary. The input range is switched to wide input range mode or narrow input range mode by command of current reference. When the narrow input range mode, the input range becomes ± 0.8 V. The measured power consumption is 5 mW and chip area is 0.31 mm^2 using 1.2 um standard CMOS process. Additionally, automatic input range detecting system is proposed because of RFID biosensor applications.
Keywords: continuous time, delta sigma, A/D converter, RFID, biosensor, CMOSProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1441
1349 High-Resolution 12-Bit Segmented Capacitor DAC in Successive Approximation ADC
Authors: Wee Leong Son, Hasmayadi Abdul Majid, Rohana Musa
Abstract:This paper study the segmented split capacitor Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) implemented in a differentialtype 12-bit Successive Approximation Analog-to-Digital Converter (SA-ADC). The series capacitance split array method employed as it reduced the total area of the capacitors required for high resolution DACs. A 12-bit regular binary array structure requires 2049 unit capacitors (Cs) while the split array needs 127 unit Cs. These results in the reduction of the total capacitance and power consumption of the series split array architectures as to regular binary-weighted structures. The paper will show the 12-bit DAC series split capacitor with 4-bit thermometer coded DAC architectures as well as the simulation and measured results.
Keywords: Successive Approximation Register Analog-to- Digital Converter, SAR ADC, Low voltage ADC.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 9394
1348 RRNS-Convolutional Concatenated Code for OFDM based Wireless Communication with Direct Analog-to-Residue Converter
Authors: Shahana T. K., Babita R. Jose, K. Poulose Jacob, Sreela Sasi
Abstract:The modern telecommunication industry demands higher capacity networks with high data rate. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a promising technique for high data rate wireless communications at reasonable complexity in wireless channels. OFDM has been adopted for many types of wireless systems like wireless local area networks such as IEEE 802.11a, and digital audio/video broadcasting (DAB/DVB). The proposed research focuses on a concatenated coding scheme that improve the performance of OFDM based wireless communications. It uses a Redundant Residue Number System (RRNS) code as the outer code and a convolutional code as the inner code. Here, a direct conversion of analog signal to residue domain is done to reduce the conversion complexity using sigma-delta based parallel analog-to-residue converter. The bit error rate (BER) performances of the proposed system under different channel conditions are investigated. These include the effect of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), multipath delay spread, peak power clipping and frame start synchronization error. The simulation results show that the proposed RRNS-Convolutional concatenated coding (RCCC) scheme provides significant improvement in the system performance by exploiting the inherent properties of RRNS.
Keywords: Analog-to-residue converter, Concatenated codes, OFDM, Redundant Residue Number System, Sigma-delta modulator, Wireless communicationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1816
1347 Concurrent Testing of ADC for Embedded System
Abstract:Compaction testing methods allow at-speed detecting of errors while possessing low cost of implementation. Owing to this distinctive feature, compaction methods have been widely used for built-in testing, as well as external testing. In the latter case, the bandwidth requirements to the automated test equipment employed are relaxed which reduces the overall cost of testing. Concurrent compaction testing methods use operational signals to detect misbehavior of the device under test and do not require input test stimuli. These methods have been employed for digital systems only. In the present work, we extend the use of compaction methods for concurrent testing of analog-to-digital converters. We estimate tolerance bounds for the result of compaction and evaluate the aliasing rate.
Keywords: Analog-to Digital Converter, Embedded system, Concurrent TestingProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1481
1346 A Case of Study for 3D Stereoscopic Conversion in Visual Effects Industry
Authors: Jin Zhi
This paper covered a series of key points in terms of 2D to 3D stereoscopic conversion. A successfully applied stereoscopic conversion approach in current visual effects industry was presented. The purpose of this paper is to cover a detailed workflow and concept, which has been successfully used in 3D stereoscopic conversion for feature films in visual effects industry, and therefore to clarify the process in stereoscopic conversion production and provide a clear idea for those entry-level artists to improve an overall understanding of 3D stereoscopic in digital compositing field as well as to the higher education factor of visual effects and hopefully inspire further collaboration and participants particularly between academia and industry.
Keywords: Clean plates, Mattes, Stereoscopic conversion, 3Dprojection, Z-depth.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2060
1345 Nuclear Medical Image Treatment System Based On FPGA in Real Time
Authors: B. Mahmoud, M.H. Bedoui, R. Raychev, H. Essabbah
We present in this paper an acquisition and treatment system designed for semi-analog Gamma-camera. It consists of a nuclear medical Image Acquisition, Treatment and Display chain(IATD) ensuring the acquisition, the treatment of the signals(resulting from the Gamma-camera detection head) and the scintigraphic image construction in real time. This chain is composed by an analog treatment board and a digital treatment board. We describe the designed systems and the digital treatment algorithms in which we have improved the performance and the flexibility. The digital treatment algorithms are implemented in a specific reprogrammable circuit FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array).interface for semi-analog cameras of Sopha Medical Vision(SMVi) by taking as example SOPHY DS7. The developed system consists of an Image Acquisition, Treatment and Display (IATD) ensuring the acquisition and the treatment of the signals resulting from the DH. The developed chain is formed by a treatment analog board and a digital treatment board designed around a DSP . In this paper we have presented the architecture of a new version of our chain IATD in which the integration of the treatment algorithms is executed on an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array)
Keywords: Nuclear medical image, scintigraphic image, digitaltreatment, linearity, spectrometry, FPGA.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1560
1344 Digital Power Management Hardware Realization Using FPGA
Authors: Kar Foo Chong, Andreas Lee Astuti, Pradeep K. Gopalakrishnan, T. Hui Teo
Abstract:This paper describes design of a digital feedback loop for a low switching frequency dc-dc switching converters. Low switching frequencies were selected in this design. A look up table for the digital PID (proportional integrator differentiator) compensator was implemented using Altera Stratix II with built-in ADC (analog-to-digital converter) to achieve this hardware realization. Design guidelines are given for the PID compensator, high frequency DPWM (digital pulse width modulator) and moving average filter.
Keywords: dc-dc converter, FPGA, PID, power management, .Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1880
1343 Low Power Digital System for Reconfigurable Neural Recording System
Authors: Peng Li, Jun Zhou, Xin Liu, Chee Keong Ho, Xiaodan Zou, Minkyu Je
Abstract:A digital system is proposed for low power 100- channel neural recording system in this paper, which consists of 100 amplifiers, 100 analog-to-digital converters (ADC), digital controller and baseband, transceiver for data link and RF command link. The proposed system is designed in a 0.18 μm CMOS process and 65 nm CMOS process.
Keywords: multiplex, neural recording, synchronization, transceiverProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1531
1342 Web Based Real Time Laboratory Applications of Analog and Digital Communication Courses with Lab VIEW Access
Authors: Ayse Yayla, Aynur Akar
Abstract:Developments in scientific and technical area cause to use new methods and techniques in education, as is the case in all fields. Especially, the internet contributes a variety of new methods to design virtual and real time laboratory applications in education. In this study, a real time virtual laboratory is designed and implemented for analog and digital communications laboratory experiments by using Lab VIEW program for Marmara University Electronics-Communication Department. In this application, students can access the virtual laboratory web site and perform their experiments without any limitation of time and location so as the students can observe the signals by changing the parameters of the experiment and evaluate the results.
Keywords: Virtual laboratory, LabVIEW, ModulationTechniquesProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2551
1341 Design and Implementation of a 10-bit SAR ADC
Authors: Hasmayadi Abdul Majid, Rohana Musa
This paper presents the development of a 38.5 kS/s 10-bit low power SAR ADC which is realized in MIMOS’s 0.35 µm CMOS process. The design uses a resistive DAC, a dynamic comparator with pre-amplifier and SAR digital logic to create 10 effective bits while consuming less than 7.8 mW with a 3.3 V power supply.
Keywords: Successive Approximation Register Analog-to- Digital Converter, SAR ADC, Resistive DAC.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5325
1340 A 24-Bit, 8.1-MS/s D/A Converter for Audio Baseband Channel Applications
Authors: N. Ben Ameur, M. Loulou
Abstract:This paper study the high-level modelling and design of delta-sigma (ΔΣ) noise shapers for audio Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) so as to eliminate the in-band Signal-to-Noise- Ratio (SNR) degradation that accompany one channel mismatch in audio signal. The converter combines a cascaded digital signal interpolation, a noise-shaping single loop delta-sigma modulator with a 5-bit quantizer resolution in the final stage. To reduce sensitivity of Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) nonlinearities of the last stage, a high pass second order Data Weighted Averaging (R2DWA) is introduced. This paper presents a MATLAB description modelling approach of the proposed DAC architecture with low distortion and swing suppression integrator designs. The ΔΣ Modulator design can be configured as a 3rd-order and allows 24-bit PCM at sampling rate of 64 kHz for Digital Video Disc (DVD) audio application. The modeling approach provides 139.38 dB of dynamic range for a 32 kHz signal band at -1.6 dBFS input signal level.
Keywords: DVD-audio, DAC, Interpolator and Interpolation Filter, Single-Loop ΔΣ Modulation, R2DWA, Clock JitterProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2513
1339 A Hyper-Domain Image Watermarking Method based on Macro Edge Block and Wavelet Transform for Digital Signal Processor
Authors: Yi-Pin Hsu, Shin-Yu Lin
In order to protect original data, watermarking is first consideration direction for digital information copyright. In addition, to achieve high quality image, the algorithm maybe can not run on embedded system because the computation is very complexity. However, almost nowadays algorithms need to build on consumer production because integrator circuit has a huge progress and cheap price. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm which efficient inserts watermarking on digital image and very easy to implement on digital signal processor. In further, we select a general and cheap digital signal processor which is made by analog device company to fit consumer application. The experimental results show that the image quality by watermarking insertion can achieve 46 dB can be accepted in human vision and can real-time execute on digital signal processor.
Keywords: watermarking, digital signal processor, embedded systemProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1138
1338 Current Mode Logic Circuits for 10-bit 5GHz High Speed Digital to Analog Converter
Authors: Zhenguo Vincent Chia, Sheung Yan Simon Ng, Minkyu Je
This paper presents CMOS Current Mode Logic (CML) circuits for a high speed Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) using standard CMOS 65nm process. The CML circuits have the propagation delay advantage over its conventional CMOS counterparts due to smaller output voltage swing and tunable bias current. The CML circuits proposed in this paper can achieve a maximum propagation delay of only 9.3ps, which can satisfy the stringent requirement for the 5 GHz high speed DAC application. Another advantage for CML circuits is its dynamic symmetry characteristic resulting in a reduction of an additional inverter. Simulation results show that the proposed CML circuits can operate from 1.08V to 1.3V with temperature ranging from -40 to +120°C.
Keywords: Conventional, Current Mode Logic, DAC, DecoderProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5700
1337 MOSFET Based ADC for Accurate Positioning of Control Valves in Industry
Authors: K. Diwakar, N. Vasudevan, C. Senthilpari
This paper presents MOSFET based analog to digital converter which is simple in design, has high resolution, and conversion rate better than dual slope ADC. It has no DAC which will limit the performance, no error in conversion, can operate for wide range of inputs and never become unstable. One of the industrial applications, where the proposed high resolution MOSFET ADC can be used is, for the positioning of control valves in a multi channel data acquisition and control system (DACS), using stepper motors as actuators of control valves. It is observed that in a DACS having ten control valves, 0.02% of positional accuracy of control valves can be achieved with the data update period of 250ms and with stepper motors of maximum pulse rate 20 Kpulses per sec. and minimum pulse width of 2.5 μsec. The reported accuracy so far by other authors is 0.2%, with update period of 255 ms and with 8 bit DAC. The accuracy in the proposed configuration is limited by the available precision stepper motor and not by the MOSFET based ADC.
Keywords: MOSFET based ADC, Actuators, Positional accuracy, Stepper Motors.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2490
1336 Analog Circuit Design using Genetic Algorithm: Modified
Authors: Amod P. Vaze
Genetic Algorithm has been used to solve wide range of optimization problems. Some researches conduct on applying Genetic Algorithm to analog circuit design automation. These researches show a better performance due to the nature of Genetic Algorithm. In this paper a modified Genetic Algorithm is applied for analog circuit design automation. The modifications are made to the topology of the circuit. These modifications will lead to a more computationally efficient algorithm.
Keywords: Genetic algorithm, analog circuits, design.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2128
1335 Frequency Transformation with Pascal Matrix Equations
Authors: Phuoc Si Nguyen
Abstract:Frequency transformation with Pascal matrix equations is a method for transforming an electronic filter (analogue or digital) into another filter. The technique is based on frequency transformation in the s-domain, bilinear z-transform with pre-warping frequency, inverse bilinear transformation and a very useful application of the Pascal’s triangle that simplifies computing and enables calculation by hand when transforming from one filter to another. This paper will introduce two methods to transform a filter into a digital filter: frequency transformation from the s-domain into the z-domain; and frequency transformation in the z-domain. Further, two Pascal matrix equations are derived: an analogue to digital filter Pascal matrix equation and a digital to digital filter Pascal matrix equation. These are used to design a desired digital filter from a given filter.
Keywords: Frequency transformation, Bilinear z-transformation, Pre-warping frequency, Digital filters, Analog filters, Pascal’s triangle.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1692
1334 Pulsed Multi-Layered Image Filtering: A VLSI Implementation
Authors: Christian Mayr, Holger Eisenreich, Stephan Henker, René Schüffny
Abstract:Image convolution similar to the receptive fields found in mammalian visual pathways has long been used in conventional image processing in the form of Gabor masks. However, no VLSI implementation of parallel, multi-layered pulsed processing has been brought forward which would emulate this property. We present a technical realization of such a pulsed image processing scheme. The discussed IC also serves as a general testbed for VLSI-based pulsed information processing, which is of interest especially with regard to the robustness of representing an analog signal in the phase or duration of a pulsed, quasi-digital signal, as well as the possibility of direct digital manipulation of such an analog signal. The network connectivity and processing properties are reconfigurable so as to allow adaptation to various processing tasks.
Keywords: Neural image processing, pulse computation application, pulsed Gabor convolution, VLSI pulse routing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1281
1333 Discrete-time Phase and Delay Locked Loops Analyses in Tracking Mode
Authors: Jiri Sebesta
Phase locked loops (PLL) and delay locked loops (DLL) play an important role in establishing coherent references (phase of carrier and symbol timing) in digital communication systems. Fully digital receiver including digital carrier synchronizer and symbol timing synchronizer fulfils the conditions for universal multi-mode communication receiver with option of symbol rate setting over several digit places and long-term stability of requirement parameters. Afterwards it is necessary to realize PLL and DLL in synchronizer in digital form and to approach to these subsystems as a discrete representation of analog template. Analysis of discrete phase locked loop (DPLL) or discrete delay locked loop (DDLL) and technique to determine their characteristics based on analog (continuous-time) template is performed in this posed paper. There are derived transmission response and error function for 1st order discrete locked loop and resulting equations and graphical representations for 2nd order one. It is shown that the spectrum translation due to sampling takes effect at frequency characteristics computing for specific values of loop parameters.
Keywords: Carrier synchronization, coherent demodulation, software defined receiver, symbol timing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2505
1332 Memristor-A Promising Candidate for Neural Circuits in Neuromorphic Computing Systems
Authors: Juhi Faridi, Mohd. Ajmal Kafeel
The advancements in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and technology has led to an evolution of an intelligent era. Neural networks, having the computational power and learning ability similar to the brain is one of the key AI technologies. Neuromorphic computing system (NCS) consists of the synaptic device, neuronal circuit, and neuromorphic architecture. Memristor are a promising candidate for neuromorphic computing systems, but when it comes to neuromorphic computing, the conductance behavior of the synaptic memristor or neuronal memristor needs to be studied thoroughly in order to fathom the neuroscience or computer science. Furthermore, there is a need of more simulation work for utilizing the existing device properties and providing guidance to the development of future devices for different performance requirements. Hence, development of NCS needs more simulation work to make use of existing device properties. This work aims to provide an insight to build neuronal circuits using memristors to achieve a Memristor based NCS. Here we throw a light on the research conducted in the field of memristors for building analog and digital circuits in order to motivate the research in the field of NCS by building memristor based neural circuits for advanced AI applications. This literature is a step in the direction where we describe the various Key findings about memristors and its analog and digital circuits implemented over the years which can be further utilized in implementing the neuronal circuits in the NCS. This work aims to help the electronic circuit designers to understand how the research progressed in memristors and how these findings can be used in implementing the neuronal circuits meant for the recent progress in the NCS.
Keywords: Analog circuits, digital circuits, memristors, neuromorphic computing systems.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1030