Search results for: Exclusive breast feeding
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 261

Search results for: Exclusive breast feeding

261 A Study on Exclusive Breastfeeding using Over-dispersed Statistical Models

Authors: Naushad Mamode Khan, Cheika Jahangeer, Maleika Heenaye-Mamode Khan

Abstract:

Breastfeeding is an important concept in the maternal life of a woman. In this paper, we focus on exclusive breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding is the feeding of a baby on no other milk apart from breast milk. This type of breastfeeding is very important during the first six months because it supports optimal growth and development during infancy and reduces the risk of obliterating diseases and problems. Moreover, in Mauritius, exclusive breastfeeding has decreased the incidence and/or severity of diarrhea, lower respiratory infection and urinary tract infection. In this paper, we give an overview of exclusive breastfeeding in Mauritius and the factors influencing it. We further analyze the local practices of exclusive breastfeeding using the Generalized Poisson regression model and the negative-binomial model since the data are over-dispersed.

Keywords: Exclusive breast feeding, regression model, generalized poisson, negative binomial.

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260 Analyzing the Factors Influencing Exclusive Breastfeeding Using the Generalized Poisson Regression Model

Authors: Cheika Jahangeer, Naushad Mamode Khan, Maleika Heenaye-Mamode Khan

Abstract:

Exclusive breastfeeding is the feeding of a baby on no other milk apart from breast milk. Exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life is of fundamental importance because it supports optimal growth and development during infancy and reduces the risk of obliterating diseases and problems. Moreover, in developed countries, exclusive breastfeeding has decreased the incidence and/or severity of diarrhea, lower respiratory infection and urinary tract infection. In this paper, we study the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding and use the Generalized Poisson regression model to analyze the practices of exclusive breastfeeding in Mauritius. We develop two sets of quasi-likelihood equations (QLE)to estimate the parameters.

Keywords: Exclusive breastfeeding, Regression model, Quasilikelihood.

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259 Analyzing Data on Breastfeeding Using Dispersed Statistical Models

Authors: Naushad Mamode Khan, Cheika Jahangeer, Maleika Heenaye-Mamode Khan

Abstract:

Exclusive breastfeeding is the feeding of a baby on no other milk apart from breast milk. Exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life is very important as it supports optimal growth and development during infancy and reduces the risk of obliterating diseases and problems. Moreover, it helps to reduce the incidence and/or severity of diarrhea, lower respiratory infection and urinary tract infection. In this paper, we make a survey of the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding and use two dispersed statistical models to analyze data. The models are the Generalized Poisson regression model and the Com-Poisson regression models.

Keywords: Exclusive breastfeeding, regression model, generalized poisson, com-poisson.

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258 Breast Motion and Discomfort of Chinese Women in Three Breast Support Conditions

Authors: X.N. Chen, J.P. Wang, D. Jiang, S.M. Shen, Y.K. Yang

Abstract:

Breast motion and discomfort has been studied in Australia, Britain and the United States, while little information was known about the breast motion conditions of Chinese women. The aim of this paper was to study the breast motion and discomfort of Chinese women in no bra condition, daily bra condition and sports bra condition. Breast motion and discomfort of 8 participants was assessed during walking at 5km h-1 and running at 10km h-1. Statistical methods were used to analyze the difference and relationship between breast displacement, perceived breast motion and breast discomfort. Three indexes were developed to evaluate the functions of bras on reducing objective breast motion, subjective breast motion and breast discomfort. The result showed that breast motion of Chinese women was smaller than previous research, which may be resulted from smaller breast size in Asian women.

Keywords: Breast discomfort, breast motion, breast support conditions, Chinese women.

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257 Can Nipple Be Used as a Good Indicator of Breast in Breast Motion Research?

Authors: X.N. Chen, J.P. Wang, D. Jiang

Abstract:

There were many studies on how to alleviate breast discomfort by reducing breast motion, in which nipple motion was used to represent breast motion. However, this assumption had not been experimentally validated. The aim of this paper was to experimentally validate if nipple can be used as a good indicator of breast. Seven participants (average of 24.4 years old) were recruited to walk and run on the treadmill at 5km h-1 and 10km h-1 respectively. Six markers were pasted on their bodies to collect motion data of different parts of breasts. The results of Friedman test combined with the relationship among the five markers on the same breast revealed that nipple could be used as a good indicator of breast. Wilcoxon test showed that there was no significant (P<0.05) between left and right nipple-s motion, so left nipple and right nipple could both be used to represent breast motion.

Keywords: Bra, breast motion, breast pain, nipple.

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256 Development of State Model Theory for External Exclusive NOR Type LFSR Structures

Authors: Afaq Ahmad

Abstract:

Using state space technique and GF(2) theory, a simulation model for external exclusive NOR type LFSR structures is developed. Through this tool a systematic procedure is devised for computing pseudo-random binary sequences from such structures.

Keywords: LFSR, external exclusive NOR type, recursivebinary sequence, initial state - next state, state transition matrix.

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255 Parametric and Nonparametric Analysis of Breast Cancer Treatments

Authors: Chunling Cong, Chris.P.Tsokos

Abstract:

The objective of the present research manuscript is to perform parametric, nonparametric, and decision tree analysis to evaluate two treatments that are being used for breast cancer patients. Our study is based on utilizing real data which was initially used in “Tamoxifen with or without breast irradiation in women of 50 years of age or older with early breast cancer" [1], and the data is supplied to us by N.A. Ibrahim “Decision tree for competing risks survival probability in breast cancer study" [2]. We agree upon certain aspects of our findings with the published results. However, in this manuscript, we focus on relapse time of breast cancer patients instead of survival time and parametric analysis instead of semi-parametric decision tree analysis is applied to provide more precise recommendations of effectiveness of the two treatments with respect to reoccurrence of breast cancer.

Keywords: decision tree, breast cancer treatments, parametricanalysis, non-parametric analysis

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254 Influence of Bra Band Tension and Underwire Angles on Breast Motion

Authors: Cheuk Wing Lee, Kit Lun Yick, Sun Pui Ng, Joanne Yip

Abstract:

Daily activities and exercise may result in large displacements of the breasts, which lead to breast pain and discomfort. Therefore, a proper bra design and fit can help to control excessive breast motion to prevent the over-stretching of the connective tissues. Nevertheless, bra fit problems, such as excessively high tension of the shoulder straps and a tight underband could have substantially negative effects on the wear comfort and health of the wearer. The purpose of this study is to, therefore, examine the effects of bra band tension on breast displacement. Usually, human wear trials are carried out, but there are inconsistencies during testing. Therefore, a soft manikin torso is used to examine breast displacement at walking speeds of 2.30 km/h and 4.08 km/h. The breast displacement itself is determined by using a VICON motion capture system. The 3D geometric changes of the underwire bra band tension and the corresponding control of breast movement are also analyzed by using a 3D handheld scanner along with Rapidform software. The results indicate that an appropriate bra band tension can help to reduce breast displacement and provide a comfortable angle for the underwire. The findings can be used by designers and bra engineers as a reference source to advance bra design and development.

Keywords: Bra band, bra features, breast displacement, underwire angle.

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253 Association of Overweight and Obesity with Breast Cancer

Authors: Amir Ghasemlouei, Alireza Khalaj

Abstract:

Breast cancer is in the top rate of cancer. We analyzed the prevalence of obesity and its association with breast cancer and finally we reviewed 25 article that 320 patient and 320 control which enrolled to our study. The distribution of breast cancer patients and controls with respect to their anthropometric indices in patients with higher weight, which was statistically significant (60.2 ± 10.2 kg) compared with control group (56.1 ± 11.3 kg). The body mass index of patients was (26.06+/-3.42) and significantly higher than the control group (24.1+/-1.7). Obesity leads to increased levels of adipose tissue in the body that can be stored toxins and carcinogens to produce a continuous supply. Due to the high level of fat and the role of estrogen in a woman which is endogenous estrogen of the tumor and regulates the activities of growth steroids, obesity has confirmed as a risk factor for breast cancer. Our study and other studies have shown that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer. And it can be prevented with a weight loss intervention for breast cancer in the future.

Keywords: Breast cancer, review study, obesity, overweight.

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252 Multi-Objective Optimization of an Aerodynamic Feeding System Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Jan Busch, Peter Nyhuis

Abstract:

Considering the challenges of short product life cycles and growing variant diversity, cost minimization and manufacturing flexibility increasingly gain importance to maintain a competitive edge in today’s global and dynamic markets. In this context, an aerodynamic part feeding system for high-speed industrial assembly applications has been developed at the Institute of Production Systems and Logistics (IFA), Leibniz Universitaet Hannover. The aerodynamic part feeding system outperforms conventional systems with respect to its process safety, reliability, and operating speed. In this paper, a multi-objective optimisation of the aerodynamic feeding system regarding the orientation rate, the feeding velocity, and the required nozzle pressure is presented.

Keywords: Aerodynamic feeding system, genetic algorithm, multi-objective optimization.

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251 Design the Bowtie Antenna for the Detection of the Tumor in Microwave Tomography

Authors: Muhammd Hassan Khalil, Xu Jiadong

Abstract:

Early breast cancer detection is an emerging field of research as it can save the women infected by malignant tumors. Microwave breast imaging is based on the electrical property contrast between healthy and malignant tumor. This contrast can be detected by use of microwave energy with an array of antennas that illuminate the breast through coupling medium and by measuring the scattered fields. In this paper, author has been presented the design and simulation results of the bowtie antenna. This bowtie antenna is designed for the detection of breast cancer detection.

Keywords: Breast cancer detection, Microwave Imaging, Tomography.

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250 The Cytotoxic Effect of PM 701 and its Fractions on Cell Proliferation of Breast Cancer Cells, McF7

Authors: Faten A. Khorshid

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in the world among women. Many therapies have been designed to treat this disease. Mamectomy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are still the main therapies of breast cancer. However, the results were unsatisfactory and still far from the ideal treatment. PM 701is a natural product, has anticancer activity. The bioactive fraction PMF and subfraction PMFK had been isolated from PM701. PM 701 and its fractions were proved to have a cytotoxic properties against different cancer cell lines. This article is directed for the further examination of lyophilized PM701 and its active fractions on the growth of breast cancer cells (MCF-7). PM 701, PMF or PMFK were adding to the cultural medium, where MCF-7 is incubated. PM 701, PMF or PMFK were able to inhibit significantly the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, Moreover these new agents were proved to induce apoptosis of the breast cancer cells; through its direct effect on the nuclei.

Keywords: Anticancer agent, breast carcinoma, MCF-7 cell line, PM 701

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249 Batch-Oriented Setting Time Optimisation in an Aerodynamic Feeding System

Authors: Jan Busch, Maurice Schmidt, Peter Nyhuis

Abstract:

The change of conditions for production companies in high-wage countries is characterized by the globalization of competition and the transition of a supplier´s to a buyer´s market. The companies need to face the challenges of reacting flexibly to these changes. Due to the significant and increasing degree of automation, assembly has become the most expensive production process. Regarding the reduction of production cost, assembly consequently offers a considerable rationalizing potential. Therefore, an aerodynamic feeding system has been developed at the Institute of Production Systems and Logistics (IFA), Leibniz Universitaet Hannover. This system has been enabled to adjust itself by using a genetic algorithm. The longer this genetic algorithm is executed the better is the feeding quality. In this paper, the relation between the system´s setting time and the feeding quality is observed and a function which enables the user to achieve the minimum of the total feeding time is presented.

Keywords: Aerodynamic feeding system, batch size, optimisation, setting time.

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248 An Overview of the Application of Fuzzy Inference System for the Automation of Breast Cancer Grading with Spectral Data

Authors: Shabbar Naqvi, Jonathan M. Garibaldi

Abstract:

Breast cancer is one of the most frequent occurring cancers in women throughout the world including U.K. The grading of this cancer plays a vital role in the prognosis of the disease. In this paper we present an overview of the use of advanced computational method of fuzzy inference system as a tool for the automation of breast cancer grading. A new spectral data set obtained from Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of cancer patients has been used for this study. The future work outlines the potential areas of fuzzy systems that can be used for the automation of breast cancer grading.

Keywords: Breast cancer, FTIR, fuzzy inference system, principal component analysis

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247 Breast Skin-Line Estimation and Breast Segmentation in Mammograms using Fast-Marching Method

Authors: Roshan Dharshana Yapa, Koichi Harada

Abstract:

Breast skin-line estimation and breast segmentation is an important pre-process in mammogram image processing and computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer. Limiting the area to be processed into a specific target region in an image would increase the accuracy and efficiency of processing algorithms. In this paper we are presenting a new algorithm for estimating skin-line and breast segmentation using fast marching algorithm. Fast marching is a partial-differential equation based numerical technique to track evolution of interfaces. We have introduced some modifications to the traditional fast marching method, specifically to improve the accuracy of skin-line estimation and breast tissue segmentation. Proposed modifications ensure that the evolving front stops near the desired boundary. We have evaluated the performance of the algorithm by using 100 mammogram images taken from mini-MIAS database. The results obtained from the experimental evaluation indicate that this algorithm explains 98.6% of the ground truth breast region and accuracy of the segmentation is 99.1%. Also this algorithm is capable of partially-extracting nipple when it is available in the profile.

Keywords: Mammogram, fast marching method, mathematical morphology.

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246 Influence of Overfeeding on Productive Performance Traits, Foie Gras Production, Blood Parameters, Internal Organs, Carcass Traits, and Mortality Rate in Two Breeds of Ducks

Authors: El-Sayed, Mona, Y., U. E. Mahrous

Abstract:

A total of 60 male mule ducks and 60 male Muscovy ducks were allotted into three groups (n = 20) to estimate the effects of overfeeding (two and four meals) versus ad libitum feeding on productive performance traits, foie gras production, internal organs, and blood parameters.

The results show that force-feeding four meals significantly increased (P < 0.01) body weight, weight gain, and gain percentage compared to force-feeding two meals. Both force-feeding regimes (two or four meals) induced significantly higher body weight, weight gain, gain percentage, and absolute carcass weight than ad libitum feeding; however, carcass percentage was significantly higher in ad libitum feeding. Mule ducks had significantly higher weight gain and weight gain percentages than Muscovy ducks.

Feed consumption per kilogram of foie gras and per kilogram weight gain was lower for the four-meal than for the two-meal forced feeding regime. Force-feeding four meals induced significantly higher liver weight and percentage (488.96 ± 25.78g, 7.82 ± 0.40%) than force-feeding two meals (381.98 ± 13.60g, 6.42 ± 0.21%). Moreover, feed conversion was significantly higher under forced feeding than under ad libitum feeding (77.65 ± 3.41g, 1.72 ± 0.05%; P < 0.01).

Forced feeding (two or four meals) increased all organ weights (intestine, proventriculus, heart, spleen, and pancreas) over ad libitum feeding weights, except for the gizzard; however intestinal and abdominal fat values were higher for four-meal forced feeding than for two-meal forced feeding.

Overfeeding did not change blood parameters significantly compared to ad libitum feeding; however, four-meal forced feeding improved the quality of foie gras since it significantly increased the percentage of grade A foie gras (62.5%) at the expense of grades B (33.33%) and C (4.17%) compared with the two-meal forced feeding.

The mortality percentage among Muscovy ducks during the forced feeding period was 22.5%, compared to 0% in mule ducks. Liver weight was highly significantly correlated with life weight after overfeeding and certain blood plasma traits.

Keywords: Foie gras, overfeeding, ducks, productive performance.

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245 Factors Associated with Mammography Screening Behaviors: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study of Egyptian Women

Authors: Salwa Hagag Abdelaziz, Naglaa Fathy Youssef, Nadia Abdel Latif Hassan, Rasha Wesam Abdel Rahman

Abstract:

Breast cancer is considered as a substantial health concern and practicing mammography screening [MS] is important in minimizing its related morbidity. So it is essential to have a better understanding of breast cancer screening behaviors of women and factors that influence utilization of them. The aim of this study is to identify the factors that are linked to MS behaviors among the Egyptian women. A cross-sectional descriptive design was carried out to provide a snapshot of the factors that are linked to MS behaviors. A convenience sample of 311 women was utilized and all eligible participants admitted to the Women Imaging Unit who are 40 years of age or above, coming for mammography assessment, not pregnant or breast feeding and who accepted to participate in the study were included. A structured questionnaire was developed by the researchers and contains three parts; Socio-demographic data; Motivating factors associated with MS; and association between MS and model of behavior change. The analyzed data indicated that most of the participated women (66.6%) belonged to the age group of 40- 49.A high proportion of participants (58.1%) of group having previous MS influenced by their neighbors to practice MS, whereas 32.7 % in group not having previous MS were influenced by family members which indicated significant differences (P <0.05). Doctors and media shown to be the least influence of others to practice MS. Women with intention to have a future mammogram had higher OR (1.404) for practicing MS compared with women with no intention. Further studies are needed to examine the relation between Transtheoretical Model [TTM] and practicing MS.

Keywords: Breast cancer, mammography, screening behaviors.

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244 Mathematical Description of Functional Motion and Application as a Feeding Mode for General Purpose Assistive Robots

Authors: Martin Leroux, Sylvain Brisebois

Abstract:

Eating a meal is among the Activities of Daily Living, but it takes a lot of time and effort for people with physical or functional limitations. Dedicated technologies are cumbersome and not portable, while general-purpose assistive robots such as wheelchair-based manipulators are too hard to control for elaborate continuous motion like eating. Eating with such devices has not previously been automated, since there existed no description of a feeding motion for uncontrolled environments. In this paper, we introduce a feeding mode for assistive manipulators, including a mathematical description of trajectories for motions that are difficult to perform manually such as gathering and scooping food at a defined/desired pace. We implement these trajectories in a sequence of movements for a semi-automated feeding mode which can be controlled with a very simple 3-button interface, allowing the user to have control over the feeding pace. Finally, we demonstrate the feeding mode with a JACO robotic arm and compare the eating speed, measured in bites per minute of three eating methods: a healthy person eating unaided, a person with upper limb limitations or disability using JACO with manual control, and a person with limitations using JACO with the feeding mode. We found that the feeding mode allows eating about 5 bites per minute, which should be sufficient to eat a meal under 30min.

Keywords: Assistive robotics, Automated feeding, Elderly care, Trajectory design, Human-Robot Interaction.

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243 A Data Warehouse System to Help Assist Breast Cancer Screening in Diagnosis, Education and Research

Authors: Souâd Demigha

Abstract:

Early detection of breast cancer is considered as a major public health issue. Breast cancer screening is not generalized to the entire population due to a lack of resources, staff and appropriate tools. Systematic screening can result in a volume of data which can not be managed by present computer architecture, either in terms of storage capabilities or in terms of exploitation tools. We propose in this paper to design and develop a data warehouse system in radiology-senology (DWRS). The aim of such a system is on one hand, to support this important volume of information providing from multiple sources of data and images and for the other hand, to help assist breast cancer screening in diagnosis, education and research.

Keywords: Breast cancer screening, data warehouse, diagnosis, education, research.

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242 Plate-Laminated Slotted-Waveguide Fed 2×3 Planar Inverted F Antenna Array

Authors: Badar Muneer, Waseem Shabir, Faisal Karim Shaikh

Abstract:

Substrate Integrated waveguide based 6-element array of Planar Inverted F antenna (PIFA) has been presented and analyzed parametrically in this paper. The antenna is fed with coupled transverse slots on a plate laminated waveguide cavity to ensure wide bandwidth and simplicity of feeding network. The two-layer structure has one layer dedicated for feeding network and the top layer dedicated for radiating elements. It has been demonstrated that the presented feeding technique for feeding such class of array antennas can be far simple in structure and miniaturized in size when it comes to designing large phased array antenna systems. A good return loss and standing wave ratio of 2:1 has been achieved while maintaining properties of typical PIFA.

Keywords: Feeding network, laminated waveguide, PIFA, transverse slots.

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241 Feature Selection for Breast Cancer Diagnosis: A Case-Based Wrapper Approach

Authors: Mohammad Darzi, Ali AsgharLiaei, Mahdi Hosseini, HabibollahAsghari

Abstract:

This article addresses feature selection for breast cancer diagnosis. The present process contains a wrapper approach based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) and case-based reasoning (CBR). GA is used for searching the problem space to find all of the possible subsets of features and CBR is employed to estimate the evaluation result of each subset. The results of experiment show that the proposed model is comparable to the other models on Wisconsin breast cancer (WDBC) dataset.

Keywords: Case-based reasoning; Breast cancer diagnosis; Genetic algorithm; Wrapper feature selection

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240 Comparison of Mamdani and Sugeno Fuzzy Interference Systems for the Breast Cancer Risk

Authors: Alshalaa A. Shleeg, Issmail M. Ellabib

Abstract:

Breast cancer is a major health burden worldwide being a major cause of death amongst women. In this paper, Fuzzy Inference Systems (FIS) are developed for the evaluation of breast cancer risk using Mamdani-type and Sugeno-type models. The paper outlines the basic difference between Mamdani-type FIS and Sugeno-type FIS. The results demonstrated the performance comparison of the two systems and the advantages of using Sugeno- type over Mamdani-type.

Keywords: Breast cancer diagnosis, Fuzzy Inference System (FIS), Fuzzy Logic, fuzzy intelligent technique.

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239 Breast Cancer Treatment Evaluation based on Mammographic and Echographic Distance Computing

Authors: M. Caramihai, Irina Severin, H. Balan, A. Blidaru, V. Balanica

Abstract:

Accurate assessment of the primary tumor response to treatment is important in the management of breast cancer. This paper introduces a new set of treatment evaluation indicators for breast cancer cases based on the computational process of three known metrics, the Euclidian, Hamming and Levenshtein distances. The distance principals are applied to pairs of mammograms and/or echograms, recorded before and after treatment, determining a reference point in judging the evolution amount of the studied carcinoma. The obtained numerical results are indeed very transparent and indicate not only the evolution or the involution of the tumor under treatment, but also a quantitative measurement of the benefit in using the selected method of treatment.

Keywords: Breast cancer, Distance metrics, Cancer treatment evaluation.

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238 Integrated Social Support through Social Networks to Enhance the Quality of Life of Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients

Authors: B. Thanasansomboon, S. Choemprayong, N. Parinyanitikul, U. Tanlamai

Abstract:

Being diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer, the patients as well as their caretakers are affected physically and mentally. Although the medical systems in Thailand have been attempting to improve the quality and effectiveness of the treatment of the disease in terms of physical illness, the success of the treatment also depends on the quality of mental health. Metastatic breast cancer patients have found that social support is a key factor that helps them through this difficult time. It is recognized that social support in different dimensions, including emotional support, social network support, informational support, instrumental support and appraisal support, are contributing factors that positively affect the quality of life of patients in general, and it is undeniable that social support in various forms is important in promoting the quality of life of metastatic breast patients. However, previous studies have not been dedicated to investigating their quality of life concerning affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes. Therefore, this study aims to develop integrated social support through social networks to improve the quality of life of metastatic breast cancer patients in Thailand.

Keywords: Social support, metastatic breast cancer, quality of life, social network.

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237 Thermalytix: An Advanced Artificial Intelligence Based Solution for Non-Contact Breast Screening

Authors: S. Sudhakar, Geetha Manjunath, Siva Teja Kakileti, Himanshu Madhu

Abstract:

Diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages has seen better clinical and survival outcomes. Survival rates in developing countries like India are very low due to accessibility and affordability issues of screening tests such as Mammography. In addition, Mammography is not much effective in younger women with dense breasts. This leaves a gap in current screening methods. Thermalytix is a new technique for detecting breast abnormality in a non-contact, non-invasive way. It is an AI-enabled computer-aided diagnosis solution that automates interpretation of high resolution thermal images and identifies potential malignant lesions. The solution is low cost, easy to use, portable and is effective in all age groups.  This paper presents the results of a retrospective comparative analysis of Thermalytix over Mammography and Clinical Breast Examination for breast cancer screening. Thermalytix was found to have better sensitivity than both the tests, with good specificity as well. In addition, Thermalytix identified all malignant patients without palpable lumps.

Keywords: Breast Cancer Screening, Radiology, Thermalytix, Artificial Intelligence, Thermography.

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236 Assessment of Predictive Confounders for the Prevalence of Breast Cancer among Iraqi Population: A Retrospective Study from Baghdad, Iraq

Authors: Nadia H. Mohammed, Anmar Al-Taie, Fadia H. Al-Sultany

Abstract:

Although breast cancer prevalence continues to increase, mortality has been decreasing as a result of early detection and improvement in adjuvant systemic therapy. Nevertheless, this disease required further efforts to understand and identify the associated potential risk factors that could play a role in the prevalence of this malignancy among Iraqi women. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of certain predictive risk factors on the prevalence of breast cancer types among a sample of Iraqi women diagnosed with breast cancer. This was a retrospective observational study carried out at National Cancer Research Center in College of Medicine, Baghdad University from November 2017 to January 2018. Data of 100 patients with breast cancer whose biopsies examined in the National Cancer Research Center were included in this study. Data were collected to structure a detailed assessment regarding the patients’ demographic, medical and cancer records. The majority of study participants (94%) suffered from ductal breast cancer with mean age 49.57 years. Among those women, 48.9% were obese with body mass index (BMI) 35 kg/m2. 68.1% of them had positive family history of breast cancer and 66% had low parity. 40.4% had stage II ductal breast cancer followed by 25.5% with stage III. It was found that 59.6% and 68.1% had positive oestrogen receptor sensitivity and positive human epidermal growth factor (HER2/neu) receptor sensitivity respectively. In regard to the impact of prediction of certain variables on the incidence of ductal breast cancer, positive family history of breast cancer (P < 0.0001), low parity (P< 0.0001), stage I and II breast cancer (P = 0.02) and positive HER2/neu status (P < 0.0001) were significant predictive factors among the study participants. The results from this study provide relevant evidence for a significant positive and potential association between certain risk factors and the prevalence of breast cancer among Iraqi women.

Keywords: Ductal breast cancer, hormone sensitivity, Iraq, risk factors.

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235 Evolving Digital Circuits for Early Stage Breast Cancer Detection Using Cartesian Genetic Programming

Authors: Zahra Khalid, Gul Muhammad Khan, Arbab Masood Ahmad

Abstract:

Cartesian Genetic Programming (CGP) is explored to design an optimal circuit capable of early stage breast cancer detection. CGP is used to evolve simple multiplexer circuits for detection of malignancy in the Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) samples of breast. The data set used is extracted from Wisconsins Breast Cancer Database (WBCD). A range of experiments were performed, each with different set of network parameters. The best evolved network detected malignancy with an accuracy of 99.14%, which is higher than that produced with most of the contemporary non-linear techniques that are computational expensive than the proposed system. The evolved network comprises of simple multiplexers and can be implemented easily in hardware without any further complications or inaccuracy, being the digital circuit.

Keywords: Breast cancer detection, cartesian genetic programming, evolvable hardware, fine needle aspiration (FNA).

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234 Automatic Detection of Mass Type Breast Cancer using Texture Analysis in Korean Digital Mammography

Authors: E. B. Jo, J. H. Lee, J. Y. Park, S. M. Kim

Abstract:

In this study, we present an advanced detection technique for mass type breast cancer based on texture information of organs. The proposed method detects the cancer areas in three stages. In the first stage, the midpoints of mass area are determined based on AHE (Adaptive Histogram Equalization). In the second stage, we set the threshold coefficient of homogeneity by using MLE (Maximum Likelihood Estimation) to compute the uniformity of texture. Finally, mass type cancer tissues are extracted from the original image. As a result, it was observed that the proposed method shows an improved detection performance on dense breast tissues of Korean women compared with the existing methods. It is expected that the proposed method may provide additional diagnostic information for detection of mass-type breast cancer.

Keywords: Mass Type Breast Cancer, Mammography, Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE), Ranklets, SVM

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233 eMedI: Web-Based E-Training for Multimodal Breast Imaging

Authors: Ioannis Pratikakis, Anna Karahaliou, Katerina Vassiou, Vassilis Virvilis, Dimitrios Kosmopoulos, Stavros Perantonis

Abstract:

In this paper, a Web-based e-Training platform that is dedicated to multimodal breast imaging is presented. The assets of this platform are summarised in (i) the efficient representation of the curriculum flow that will permit efficient training; (ii) efficient tagging of multimodal content appropriate for the completion of realistic cases and (iii) ubiquitous accessibility and platform independence via a web-based approach.

Keywords: Breast imaging, e-Training, web-based learning.

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232 Analysis of Sonographic Images of Breast

Authors: M. Bastanfard, S. Jafari, B.Jalaeian

Abstract:

Ultrasound images are very useful diagnostic tool to distinguish benignant from malignant masses of the breast. However, there is a considerable overlap between benignancy and malignancy in ultrasonic images which makes it difficult to interpret. In this paper, a new noise removal algorithm was used to improve the images and classification process. The masses are classified by wavelet transform's coefficients, morphological and textural features as a novel feature set for this goal. The Bayesian estimation theory is used to classify the tissues in three classes according to their features.

Keywords: Bayesian estimation theory, breast, ultrasound, wavelet.

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