Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4347

Search results for: Expert Systems.

4347 The Role of Medical Expert Systems in Pakistan

Authors: Fahad Shahbaz Khan, Fahad Maqbool, Saad Razzaq, Kashif Irfan, Tehseen Zia

Abstract:

Expert systems are used extensively in many domains. This paper discusses the use of medical expert systems in Pakistan. Countries all over the world pay special attention on health facilities. A country like Pakistan faces a lot of trouble in health sector. Several attempts have been made in Pakistan to improve the health conditions of the people but the situation is still not encouraging. There is a shortage of doctors and other trained personnel in Pakistan. Expert systems can play a vital role in such cases where the medical expert is not readily available. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role that such systems can play in improving the health conditions of the people in Pakistan.

Keywords: Medical Diagnostics, Expert Systems, Pakistan.

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4346 VISUAL JESS: AN Expandable Visual Generator of Oriented Object Expert systems

Authors: Amel Grissa-Touzi, Habib Ounally, Aissa Boulila

Abstract:

The utility of expert system generators has been widely recognized in many applications. Several generators based on concept of the paradigm object, have been recently proposed. The generator of oriented object expert system (GSEOO) offers languages that are often complex and difficult to use. We propose in this paper an extension of the expert system generator, JESS, which permits a friendly use of this expert system. The new tool, called VISUAL JESS, bring two main improvements to JESS. The first improvement concerns the easiness of its utilization while giving back transparency to the syntax and semantic aspects of the JESS programming language. The second improvement permits an easy access and modification of the JESS knowledge basis. The implementation of VISUAL JESS is made so that it is extensible and portable.

Keywords: Generator of Systems Expert, Programming oriented object classifies, object, inheritance, polymorphism.

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4345 Design of Expert System for Search Allergy and Selection of the Skin Tests using CLIPS

Authors: St. Karagiannis, A. I. Dounis, T. Chalastras, P. Tiropanis, D. Papachristos

Abstract:

This work presents the design of an expert system that aims in the procurement of patient medial background and in the search for suitable skin test selections. Skin testing is the tool used most widely to diagnose allergies. The language of expert systems CLIPS is used as a tool of designing. Finally, we present the evaluation of the proposed expert system which was achieved with the import of certain medical cases and the system produced with suitable successful skin tests.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, expert system - CLIPS, allergy and skin test.

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4344 To Design Holistic Health Service Systems on the Internet

Authors: Åsa Smedberg

Abstract:

There are different kinds of online systems on the Internet for people who need support and develop new knowledge. Online communities and Ask the Expert systems are two such systems. In the health care area, the number of users of these systems has increased at a rapid pace. Interactions with medical trained experts take place online, and people with concerns about similar health problems come together to share experiences and advice. The systems are also used as storages and browsed for health information. Over the years, studies have been conducted of the usage of the different systems. However, in what ways the systems can be used together to enhance learning has not been explored. This paper presents results from a study of online health-communities and an Ask the Expert system for people who suffer from overweight. Differences and similarities in regards to posted issues and replies are discussed, and suggestions for a new holistic design of the two systems are presented.

Keywords: Learning, Ask the Expert, online community, healthcare, holistic, overweight.

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4343 Rule-Based Expert System for Headache Diagnosis and Medication Recommendation

Authors: Noura Al-Ajmi, Mohammed A. Almulla

Abstract:

With the increased utilization of technology devices around the world, healthcare and medical diagnosis are critical issues that people worry about these days. Doctors are doing their best to avoid any medical errors while diagnosing diseases and prescribing the wrong medication. Subsequently, artificial intelligence applications that can be installed on mobile devices such as rule-based expert systems facilitate the task of assisting doctors in several ways. Due to their many advantages, the usage of expert systems has increased recently in health sciences. This work presents a backward rule-based expert system that can be used for a headache diagnosis and medication recommendation system. The structure of the system consists of three main modules, namely the input unit, the processing unit, and the output unit.

Keywords: Headache diagnosis system, treatment recommender system, rule-based expert system.

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4342 Fuzzy Expert System Design for Determining Wearing Properties of Nitrided and Non Nitrided Steel

Authors: Serafettin Ekinci, Kursat Zuhtuogullari

Abstract:

This paper proposes a Fuzzy Expert System design to determine the wearing properties of nitrided and non nitrided steel. The proposed Fuzzy Expert System approach helps the user and the manufacturer to forecast the wearing properties of nitrided and non nitrided steel under specified laboratory conditions. Surfaces of the engineering components are often nitrided for improving wear, corosion, fatigue specifications. A major property of nitriding process is reducing distortion and wearing of the metalic alloys. A Fuzzy Expert System was developed for determining the wearing and durability properties of nitrided and non nitrided steels that were tested under different loads and different sliding speeds in the laboratory conditions.

Keywords: Fuzzy Expert System Design, Rule Based Systems, Fatigue, Corrosion

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4341 Web Application for Evaluating Tests in Distance Learning Systems

Authors: Bogdan Walek, Vladimir Bradac, Radim Farana

Abstract:

Distance learning systems offer useful methods of learning and usually contain a final course test or another form of test. The paper proposes a web application for evaluating tests using an expert system in distance learning systems. The proposed web application is appropriate for didactic tests or tests with results for subsequent studying follow-up courses. The web application works with test questions and uses an expert system and LFLC tool for test evaluation. After test evaluation, the results are visualized and shown to the student.

Keywords: Distance learning, test, uncertainty, fuzzy, expert system, student.

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4340 Development of Online Islamic Medication Expert System (OIMES)

Authors: Hanita Daud, Noorhana Yahya, Low Tan Jung, Azizuddin Abd Aziz, Rabibah Ahmad Samawe

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the design and implementation of an online rule-based Expert Systems for Islamic medication. T his Online Islamic Medication Expert System (OIMES) focuses on physical illnesses only. Knowledge base of this Expert System contains exhaustively the types of illness together with their related cures or treatments/therapies, obtained exclusively from the Quran and Hadith. Extensive research and study are conducted to ensure that the Expert System is able to provide the most suitable treatment with reference to the relevant verses cited in Quran or Hadith. These verses come together with their related 'actions' (bodily actions/gestures or some acts) to be performed by the patient to treat a particular illness/sickness. These verses and the instructions for the 'actions' are to be displayed unambiguously on the computer screen. The online platform provides the advantage for patient getting treatment practically anytime and anywhere as long as the computer and Internet facility exist. Patient does not need to make appointment to see an expert for a therapy.

Keywords: Expert System, Quran and Hadith, Islamic Medication, Rule-Based.

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4339 A Methodology for Data Migration between Different Database Management Systems

Authors: Bogdan Walek, Cyril Klimes

Abstract:

In present days the area of data migration is very topical. Current tools for data migration in the area of relational database have several disadvantages that are presented in this paper. We propose a methodology for data migration of the database tables and their data between various types of relational database systems (RDBMS). The proposed methodology contains an expert system. The expert system contains a knowledge base that is composed of IFTHEN rules and based on the input data suggests appropriate data types of columns of database tables. The proposed tool, which contains an expert system, also includes the possibility of optimizing the data types in the target RDBMS database tables based on processed data of the source RDBMS database tables. The proposed expert system is shown on data migration of selected database of the source RDBMS to the target RDBMS.

Keywords: Expert system, fuzzy, data migration, database, relational database, data type, relational database management system.

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4338 An Expert System for Car Failure Diagnosis

Authors: Ahmad T. Al-Taani

Abstract:

Car failure detection is a complicated process and requires high level of expertise. Any attempt of developing an expert system dealing with car failure detection has to overcome various difficulties. This paper describes a proposed knowledge-based system for car failure detection. The paper explains the need for an expert system and the some issues on developing knowledge-based systems, the car failure detection process and the difficulties involved in developing the system. The system structure and its components and their functions are described. The system has about 150 rules for different types of failures and causes. It can detect over 100 types of failures. The system has been tested and gave promising results.

Keywords: Expert system, car failure diagnosis, knowledgebasedsystem, CLIPS.

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4337 AGHAZ : An Expert System Based approach for the Translation of English to Urdu

Authors: Uzair Muhammad, Kashif Bilal, Atif Khan, M. Nasir Khan

Abstract:

Machine Translation (MT 3) of English text to its Urdu equivalent is a difficult challenge. Lot of attempts has been made, but a few limited solutions are provided till now. We present a direct approach, using an expert system to translate English text into its equivalent Urdu, using The Unicode Standard, Version 4.0 (ISBN 0-321-18578-1) Range: 0600–06FF. The expert system works with a knowledge base that contains grammatical patterns of English and Urdu, as well as a tense and gender-aware dictionary of Urdu words (with their English equivalents).

Keywords: Machine Translation, Multiword Expressions, Urdulanguage processing, POS12 Tagging for Urdu, Expert Systems.

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4336 Heritage Tree Expert Assessment and Classification: Malaysian Perspective

Authors: B.-Y.-S. Lau, Y.-C.-T. Jonathan, M.-S. Alias

Abstract:

Heritage trees are natural large, individual trees with exceptionally value due to association with age or event or distinguished people. In Malaysia, there is an abundance of tropical heritage trees throughout the country. It is essential to set up a repository of heritage trees to prevent valuable trees from being cut down. In this cross domain study, a web-based online expert system namely the Heritage Tree Expert Assessment and Classification (HTEAC) is developed and deployed for public to nominate potential heritage trees. Based on the nomination, tree care experts or arborists would evaluate and verify the nominated trees as heritage trees. The expert system automatically rates the approved heritage trees according to pre-defined grades via Delphi technique. Features and usability test of the expert system are presented. Preliminary result is promising for the system to be used as a full scale public system.

Keywords: Arboriculture, Delphi, expert system, heritage tree, urban forestry.

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4335 The Strategy of Creating a Virtual Interactive Platform for the Low-Carbon Open Innovations Relay

Authors: Mykola S. Shestavin

Abstract:

A strategy for the creation of a Virtual Interactive Platform (or Networking Platform) to combine the four web-baseness of expert systems on the transfer and diffusion of low-carbon technologies. It used the concept of “Open Innovation” and “Triple Helix” with regard to theories of “Green Growth” and “Carbon Footprint”. Interpreters expert systems operate on the basis of models of the “Predator-Prey” for the process of transfer and diffusion of technologies, taking into account the features caused by the need to mitigate the effects of climate change.

Keywords: Climate Change, Expert Systems, Low-Carbon Technology, Open Innovation, Virtual Interactive Platform.

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4334 Design and Simulation of a New Self-Learning Expert System for Mobile Robot

Authors: Rabi W. Yousif, Mohd Asri Hj Mansor

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a novel technique called Self-Learning Expert System (SLES). Unlike Expert System, where there is a need for an expert to impart experiences and knowledge to create the knowledge base, this technique tries to acquire the experience and knowledge automatically. To display this technique at work, a simulation of a mobile robot navigating through an environment with obstacles is employed using visual basic. The mobile robot will move through this area without colliding with any obstacle and save the path that it took. If the mobile robot has to go through a similar environment again, then it will apply this experience to help it move through quicker without having to check for collision.

Keywords: Expert system, knowledge base, mobile robot, visual basic.

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4333 A Two-Stage Expert System for Diagnosis of Leukemia Based on Type-2 Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Ali Akbar Sadat Asl

Abstract:

Diagnosis and deciding about diseases in medical fields is facing innate uncertainty which can affect the whole process of treatment. This decision is made based on expert knowledge and the way in which an expert interprets the patient's condition, and the interpretation of the various experts from the patient's condition may be different. Fuzzy logic can provide mathematical modeling for many concepts, variables, and systems that are unclear and ambiguous and also it can provide a framework for reasoning, inference, control, and decision making in conditions of uncertainty. In systems with high uncertainty and high complexity, fuzzy logic is a suitable method for modeling. In this paper, we use type-2 fuzzy logic for uncertainty modeling that is in diagnosis of leukemia. The proposed system uses an indirect-direct approach and consists of two stages: In the first stage, the inference of blood test state is determined. In this step, we use an indirect approach where the rules are extracted automatically by implementing a clustering approach. In the second stage, signs of leukemia, duration of disease until its progress and the output of the first stage are combined and the final diagnosis of the system is obtained. In this stage, the system uses a direct approach and final diagnosis is determined by the expert. The obtained results show that the type-2 fuzzy expert system can diagnose leukemia with the average accuracy about 97%.

Keywords: Expert system, leukemia, medical diagnosis, type-2 fuzzy logic.

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4332 RASPE – Risk Advisory Smart System for Pipeline Projects in Egypt

Authors: Nael Y. Zabel, Maged E. Georgy, Moheeb E. Ibrahim

Abstract:

A knowledge-based expert system with the acronym RASPE is developed as an application tool to help decision makers in construction companies make informed decisions about managing risks in pipeline construction projects. Choosing to use expert systems from all available artificial intelligence techniques is due to the fact that an expert system is more suited to representing a domain’s knowledge and the reasoning behind domain-specific decisions. The knowledge-based expert system can capture the knowledge in the form of conditional rules which represent various project scenarios and potential risk mitigation/response actions. The built knowledge in RASPE is utilized through the underlying inference engine that allows the firing of rules relevant to a project scenario into consideration. Paper provides an overview of the knowledge acquisition process and goes about describing the knowledge structure which is divided up into four major modules. The paper shows one module in full detail for illustration purposes and concludes with insightful remarks.

Keywords: Expert System, Knowledge Management, Pipeline Projects, Risk Mismanagement.

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4331 Performance Analysis of Expert Systems Incorporating Neural Network for Fault Detection of an Electric Motor

Authors: M. Khatami Rad, N. Jamali, M. Torabizadeh, A. Noshadi

Abstract:

In this paper, an artificial neural network simulator is employed to carry out diagnosis and prognosis on electric motor as rotating machinery based on predictive maintenance. Vibration data of the primary failed motor including unbalance, misalignment and bearing fault were collected for training the neural network. Neural network training was performed for a variety of inputs and the motor condition was used as the expert training information. The main purpose of applying the neural network as an expert system was to detect the type of failure and applying preventive maintenance. The advantage of this study is for machinery Industries by providing appropriate maintenance that has an essential activity to keep the production process going at all processes in the machinery industry. Proper maintenance is pivotal in order to prevent the possible failures in operating system and increase the availability and effectiveness of a system by analyzing vibration monitoring and developing expert system.

Keywords: Condition based monitoring, expert system, neural network, fault detection, vibration monitoring.

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4330 Demand and Supply Chain Simulation in Telecommunication Industry by Multi-Rate Expert Systems

Authors: Andrus Pedai, Igor Astrov

Abstract:

In modern telecommunications industry, demand & supply chain management (DSCM) needs reliable design and versatile tools to control the material flow. The objective for efficient DSCM is reducing inventory, lead times and related costs in order to assure reliable and on-time deliveries from manufacturing units towards customers. In this paper the multi-rate expert system based methodology for developing simulation tools that would enable optimal DSCM for multi region, high volume and high complexity manufacturing environment was proposed.

Keywords: Demand & supply chain management, expert systems, inventory control, multi-rate control, performance metrics.

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4329 An Expert System Designed to Be Used with MOEAs for Efficient Portfolio Selection

Authors: K. Metaxiotis, K. Liagkouras

Abstract:

This study presents an Expert System specially designed to be used with Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs) for the solution of the portfolio selection problem. The validation of the proposed hybrid System is done by using data sets from Hang Seng 31 in Hong Kong, DAX 100 in Germany and FTSE 100 in UK. The performance of the proposed system is assessed in comparison with the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGAII). The evaluation of the performance is based on different performance metrics that evaluate both the proximity of the solutions to the Pareto front and their dispersion on it. The results show that the proposed hybrid system is efficient for the solution of this kind of problems.

Keywords: Expert Systems, Multiobjective optimization, Evolutionary Algorithms, Portfolio Selection.

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4328 A Real Time Expert System for Decision Support in Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Andressa dos Santos Nicolau, João P. da S.C Algusto, Claudio Márcio do N. A. Pereira, Roberto Schirru

Abstract:

In case of abnormal situations, the nuclear power plant (NPP) operators must follow written procedures to check the condition of the plant and to classify the type of emergency. In this paper, we proposed a Real Time Expert System in order to improve operator’s performance in case of transient or accident with reactor shutdown. The expert system’s knowledge is based on the sequence of events (SoE) of known accident and two emergency procedures of the Brazilian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) NPP and uses two kinds of knowledge representation: rule and logic trees. The results show that the system was able to classify the response of the automatic protection systems, as well as to evaluate the conditions of the plant, diagnosing the type of occurrence, recovery procedure to be followed, indicating the shutdown root cause, and classifying the emergency level.

Keywords: Emergence procedure, expert system, operator support, PWR nuclear power plant.

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4327 Personal Health Assistance Service Expert System (PHASES)

Authors: Chakkrit Snae, Michael Brueckner

Abstract:

In this paper the authors present the framework of a system for assisting users through counseling on personal health, the Personal Health Assistance Service Expert System (PHASES). Personal health assistance systems need Personal Health Records (PHR), which support wellness activities, improve the understanding of personal health issues, enable access to data from providers of health services, strengthen health promotion, and in the end improve the health of the population. This is especially important in societies where the health costs increase at a higher rate than the overall economy. The most important elements of a healthy lifestyle are related to food (such as balanced nutrition and diets), activities for body fitness (such as walking, sports, fitness programs), and other medical treatments (such as massage, prescriptions of drugs). The PHASES framework uses an ontology of food, which includes nutritional facts, an expert system keeping track of personal health data that are matched with medical treatments, and a comprehensive data transfer between patients and the system.

Keywords: Personal health assistance service, expert system, ontologies, knowledge management, information technology.

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4326 Expert-Driving-Criteria Based on Fuzzy Logic Approach for Intelligent Driving Diagnosis

Authors: Andrés C. Cuervo Pinilla, Christian G. Quintero M., Chinthaka Premachandra

Abstract:

This paper considers people’s driving skills diagnosis under real driving conditions. In that sense, this research presents an approach that uses GPS signals which have a direct correlation with driving maneuvers. Besides, it is presented a novel expert-driving-criteria approximation using fuzzy logic which seeks to analyze GPS signals in order to issue an intelligent driving diagnosis. Based on above, this works presents in the first section the intelligent driving diagnosis system approach in terms of its own characteristics properties, explaining in detail significant considerations about how an expert-driving-criteria approximation must be developed. In the next section, the implementation of our developed system based on the proposed fuzzy logic approach is explained. Here, a proposed set of rules which corresponds to a quantitative abstraction of some traffics laws and driving secure techniques seeking to approach an expert-driving- criteria approximation is presented. Experimental testing has been performed in real driving conditions. The testing results show that the intelligent driving diagnosis system qualifies driver’s performance quantitatively with a high degree of reliability.

Keywords: Driver support systems, intelligent transportation systems, fuzzy logic, real time data processing.

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4325 On the Combination of Patient-Generated Data with Data from a Secure Clinical Network Environment – A Practical Example

Authors: Jeroen S. de Bruin, Karin Schindler, Christian Schuh

Abstract:

With increasingly more mobile health applications appearing due to the popularity of smartphones, the possibility arises that these data can be used to improve the medical diagnostic process, as well as the overall quality of healthcare, while at the same time lowering costs. However, as of yet there have been no reports of a successful combination of patient-generated data from smartphones with data from clinical routine. In this paper we describe how these two types of data can be combined in a secure way without modification to hospital information systems, and how they can together be used in a medical expert system for automatic nutritional classification and triage.

Keywords: Data integration, disease-related malnutrition, expert systems, mobile health.

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4324 Expert System for Chose Material used Gears

Authors: E.V. Butilă, F. Gîrbacia

Abstract:

In order to give high expertise the computer aided design of mechanical systems involves specific activities focused on processing two type of information: knowledge and data. Expert rule based knowledge is generally processing qualitative information and involves searching for proper solutions and their combination into synthetic variant. Data processing is based on computational models and it is supposed to be inter-related with reasoning in the knowledge processing. In this paper an Intelligent Integrated System is proposed, for the objective of choosing the adequate material. The software is developed in Prolog – Flex software and takes into account various constraints that appear in the accurate operation of gears.

Keywords: Expert System, computer aided design, gear boxdesign, chose material, Prolog, Flex

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4323 Semi-Automatic Method to Assist Expert for Association Rules Validation

Authors: Amdouni Hamida, Gammoudi Mohamed Mohsen

Abstract:

In order to help the expert to validate association rules extracted from data, some quality measures are proposed in the literature. We distinguish two categories: objective and subjective measures. The first one depends on a fixed threshold and on data quality from which the rules are extracted. The second one consists on providing to the expert some tools in the objective to explore and visualize rules during the evaluation step. However, the number of extracted rules to validate remains high. Thus, the manually mining rules task is very hard. To solve this problem, we propose, in this paper, a semi-automatic method to assist the expert during the association rule's validation. Our method uses rule-based classification as follow: (i) We transform association rules into classification rules (classifiers), (ii) We use the generated classifiers for data classification. (iii) We visualize association rules with their quality classification to give an idea to the expert and to assist him during validation process.

Keywords: Association rules, Rule-based classification, Classification quality, Validation.

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4322 A New Fuzzy DSS/ES for Stock Portfolio Selection using Technical and Fundamental Approaches in Parallel

Authors: H. Zarei, M. H. Fazel Zarandi, M. Karbasian

Abstract:

A Decision Support System/Expert System for stock portfolio selection presented where at first step, both technical and fundamental data used to estimate technical and fundamental return and risk (1st phase); Then, the estimated values are aggregated with the investor preferences (2nd phase) to produce convenient stock portfolio. In the 1st phase, there are two expert systems, each of which is responsible for technical or fundamental estimation. In the technical expert system, for each stock, twenty seven candidates are identified and with using rough sets-based clustering method (RC) the effective variables have been selected. Next, for each stock two fuzzy rulebases are developed with fuzzy C-Mean method and Takai-Sugeno- Kang (TSK) approach; one for return estimation and the other for risk. Thereafter, the parameters of the rule-bases are tuned with backpropagation method. In parallel, for fundamental expert systems, fuzzy rule-bases have been identified in the form of “IF-THEN" rules through brainstorming with the stock market experts and the input data have been derived from financial statements; as a result two fuzzy rule-bases have been generated for all the stocks, one for return and the other for risk. In the 2nd phase, user preferences represented by four criteria and are obtained by questionnaire. Using an expert system, four estimated values of return and risk have been aggregated with the respective values of user preference. At last, a fuzzy rule base having four rules, treats these values and produce a ranking score for each stock which will lead to a satisfactory portfolio for the user. The stocks of six manufacturing companies and the period of 2003-2006 selected for data gathering.

Keywords: Stock Portfolio Selection, Fuzzy Rule-Base ExpertSystems, Financial Decision Support Systems, Technical Analysis, Fundamental Analysis.

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4321 A Hybrid Technology for a Multiagent Consultation System in Obesity Domain

Authors: Rohana Mahmud, Hairul Aysa Abdul Halim Sithiq, Haryuna Mohd Taharim

Abstract:

In this paper, the authors present architecture of a multi agent consultation system for obesity related problems, which hybrid the technology of an expert system (ES) and an intelligent agent (IA). The strength of the ES which is capable of pulling the expert knowledge is consulted and presented to the end user via the autonomous and friendly pushing environment of the intelligent agent.

Keywords: Expert System, Hybrid Technology, Intelligent Agent, Medical Informatics, Multi Agent Consultation System.

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4320 Case-Based Reasoning: A Hybrid Classification Model Improved with an Expert's Knowledge for High-Dimensional Problems

Authors: Bruno Trstenjak, Dzenana Donko

Abstract:

Data mining and classification of objects is the process of data analysis, using various machine learning techniques, which is used today in various fields of research. This paper presents a concept of hybrid classification model improved with the expert knowledge. The hybrid model in its algorithm has integrated several machine learning techniques (Information Gain, K-means, and Case-Based Reasoning) and the expert’s knowledge into one. The knowledge of experts is used to determine the importance of features. The paper presents the model algorithm and the results of the case study in which the emphasis was put on achieving the maximum classification accuracy without reducing the number of features.

Keywords: Case based reasoning, classification, expert's knowledge, hybrid model.

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4319 Gaze Patterns of Skilled and Unskilled Sight Readers Focusing on the Cognitive Processes Involved in Reading Key and Time Signatures

Authors: J. F. Viljoen, Catherine Foxcroft

Abstract:

Expert sight readers rely on their ability to recognize patterns in scores, their inner hearing and prediction skills in order to perform complex sight reading exercises. They also have the ability to observe deviations from expected patterns in musical scores. This increases the “Eye-hand span” (reading ahead of the point of playing) in order to process the elements in the score. The study aims to investigate the gaze patterns of expert and non-expert sight readers focusing on key and time signatures. 20 musicians were tasked with playing 12 sight reading examples composed for one hand and five examples composed for two hands to be performed on a piano keyboard. These examples were composed in different keys and time signatures and included accidentals and changes of time signature to test this theory. Results showed that the experts fixate more and for longer on key and time signatures as well as deviations in examples for two hands than the non-expert group. The inverse was true for the examples for one hand, where expert sight readers showed fewer and shorter fixations on key and time signatures as well as deviations. This seems to suggest that experts focus more on the key and time signatures as well as deviations in complex scores to facilitate sight reading. The examples written for one appeared to be too easy for the expert sight readers, compromising gaze patterns.

Keywords: Cognition, eye tracking, musical notation, sight reading.

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4318 Computational Fluid Dynamics Expert System using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Gonzalo Rubio, Eusebio Valero, Sven Lanzan

Abstract:

The design of a modern aircraft is based on three pillars: theoretical results, experimental test and computational simulations. As a results of this, Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) solvers are widely used in the aeronautical field. These solvers require the correct selection of many parameters in order to obtain successful results. Besides, the computational time spent in the simulation depends on the proper choice of these parameters. In this paper we create an expert system capable of making an accurate prediction of the number of iterations and time required for the convergence of a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) solver. Artificial neural network (ANN) has been used to design the expert system. It is shown that the developed expert system is capable of making an accurate prediction the number of iterations and time required for the convergence of a CFD solver.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Optimization

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