Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 630

Search results for: Spectral decomposition

630 Thin Bed Reservoir Delineation Using Spectral Decomposition and Instantaneous Seismic Attributes, Pohokura Field, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand

Authors: P. Sophon, M. Kruachanta, S. Chaisri, G. Leaungvongpaisan, P. Wongpornchai

Abstract:

The thick bed hydrocarbon reservoirs are primarily interested because of the more prolific production. When the amount of petroleum in the thick bed starts decreasing, the thin bed reservoirs are the alternative targets to maintain the reserves. The conventional interpretation of seismic data cannot delineate the thin bed having thickness less than the vertical seismic resolution. Therefore, spectral decomposition and instantaneous seismic attributes were used to delineate the thin bed in this study. Short Window Discrete Fourier Transform (SWDFT) spectral decomposition and instantaneous frequency attributes were used to reveal the thin bed reservoir, while Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) spectral decomposition and envelope (instantaneous amplitude) attributes were used to indicate hydrocarbon bearing zone. The study area is located in the Pohokura Field, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand. The thin bed target is the uppermost part of Mangahewa Formation, the most productive in the gas-condensate production in the Pohokura Field. According to the time-frequency analysis, SWDFT spectral decomposition can reveal the thin bed using a 72 Hz SWDFT isofrequency section and map, and that is confirmed by the instantaneous frequency attribute. The envelope attribute showing the high anomaly indicates the hydrocarbon accumulation area at the thin bed target. Moreover, the CWT spectral decomposition shows the low-frequency shadow zone and abnormal seismic attenuation in the higher isofrequencies below the thin bed confirms that the thin bed can be a prospective hydrocarbon zone.

Keywords: Hydrocarbon indication, instantaneous seismic attribute, spectral decomposition, thin bed delineation.

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629 A Spectral Decomposition Method for Ordinary Differential Equation Systems with Constant or Linear Right Hand Sides

Authors: R. B. Ogunrinde, C. C. Jibunoh

Abstract:

In this paper, a spectral decomposition method is developed for the direct integration of stiff and nonstiff homogeneous linear (ODE) systems with linear, constant, or zero right hand sides (RHSs). The method does not require iteration but obtains solutions at any random points of t, by direct evaluation, in the interval of integration. All the numerical solutions obtained for the class of systems coincide with the exact theoretical solutions. In particular, solutions of homogeneous linear systems, i.e. with zero RHS, conform to the exact analytical solutions of the systems in terms of t.

Keywords: Spectral decomposition, eigenvalues of the Jacobian, linear RHS, homogeneous linear systems.

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628 Empirical Mode Decomposition Based Multiscale Analysis of Physiological Signal

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

We present a refined multiscale Shannon entropy for analyzing electroencephalogram (EEG), which reflects the underlying dynamics of EEG over multiple scales. The rationale behind this method is that neurological signals such as EEG possess distinct dynamics over different spectral modes. To deal with the nonlinear and nonstationary nature of EEG, the recently developed empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is incorporated, allowing a decomposition of EEG into its inherent spectral components, referred to as intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). By calculating the Shannon entropy of IMFs in a time-dependent manner and summing them over adaptive multiple scales, it results in an adaptive subscale entropy measure of EEG. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed entropy properly reveals the dynamical changes over multiple scales.

Keywords: EEG, subscale entropy, Empirical mode decomposition, Intrinsic mode function.

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627 Decomposition of Graphs into Induced Paths and Cycles

Authors: I. Sahul Hamid, Abraham V. M.

Abstract:

A decomposition of a graph G is a collection ψ of subgraphs H1,H2, . . . , Hr of G such that every edge of G belongs to exactly one Hi. If each Hi is either an induced path or an induced cycle in G, then ψ is called an induced path decomposition of G. The minimum cardinality of an induced path decomposition of G is called the induced path decomposition number of G and is denoted by πi(G). In this paper we initiate a study of this parameter.

Keywords: Path decomposition, Induced path decomposition, Induced path decomposition number.

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626 Comparison of Detrending Methods in Spectral Analysis of Heart Rate Variability

Authors: Liping Li, Changchun Liu, Ke Li, Chengyu Liu

Abstract:

Non-stationary trend in R-R interval series is considered as a main factor that could highly influence the evaluation of spectral analysis. It is suggested to remove trends in order to obtain reliable results. In this study, three detrending methods, the smoothness prior approach, the wavelet and the empirical mode decomposition, were compared on artificial R-R interval series with four types of simulated trends. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram was used for spectral analysis of R-R interval series. Results indicated that the wavelet method showed a better overall performance than the other two methods, and more time-saving, too. Therefore it was selected for spectral analysis of real R-R interval series of thirty-seven healthy subjects. Significant decreases (19.94±5.87% in the low frequency band and 18.97±5.78% in the ratio (p<0.001)) were found. Thus the wavelet method is recommended as an optimal choice for use.

Keywords: empirical mode decomposition, heart rate variability, signal detrending, smoothness priors, wavelet

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625 Enhancement of Pulsed Eddy Current Response Based on Power Spectral Density after Continuous Wavelet Transform Decomposition

Authors: A. Benyahia, M. Zergoug, M. Amir, M. Fodil

Abstract:

The main objective of this work is to enhance the Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) response from the aluminum structure using signal processing. Cracks and metal loss in different structures cause changes in PEC response measurements. In this paper, time-frequency analysis is used to represent PEC response, which generates a large quantity of data and reduce the noise due to measurement. Power Spectral Density (PSD) after Wavelet Decomposition (PSD-WD) is proposed for defect detection. The experimental results demonstrate that the cracks in the surface can be extracted satisfactorily by the proposed methods. The validity of the proposed method is discussed.

Keywords: NDT, pulsed eddy current, continuous wavelet transform, Mexican hat wavelet mother, defect detection, power spectral density.

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624 Induced Acyclic Path Decomposition in Graphs

Authors: Abraham V. M., I. Sahul Hamid

Abstract:

A decomposition of a graph G is a collection ψ of graphs H1,H2, . . . , Hr of G such that every edge of G belongs to exactly one Hi. If each Hi is either an induced path in G, then ψ is called an induced acyclic path decomposition of G and if each Hi is a (induced) cycle in G then ψ is called a (induced) cycle decomposition of G. The minimum cardinality of an induced acyclic path decomposition of G is called the induced acyclic path decomposition number of G and is denoted by ¤Çia(G). Similarly the cyclic decomposition number ¤Çc(G) is defined. In this paper we begin an investigation of these parameters.

Keywords: Cycle decomposition, Induced acyclic path decomposition, Induced acyclic path decomposition number.

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623 The Ratios between the Spectral Norm, the Numerical Radius and the Spectral Radius

Authors: Kui Du

Abstract:

Recently, Uhlig [Numer. Algorithms, 52(3):335-353, 2009] proposed open questions about the ratios between the spectral norm, the numerical radius and the spectral radius of a square matrix. In this note, we provide some observations to answer these questions.

Keywords: Spectral norm, Numerical radius, Spectral radius, Ratios

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622 Encryption Image via Mutual Singular Value Decomposition

Authors: Adil Al-Rammahi

Abstract:

Image or document encryption is needed through egovernment data base. Really in this paper we introduce two matrices images, one is the public, and the second is the secret (original). The analyses of each matrix is achieved using the transformation of singular values decomposition. So each matrix is transformed or analyzed to three matrices say row orthogonal basis, column orthogonal basis, and spectral diagonal basis. Product of the two row basis is calculated. Similarly the product of the two column basis is achieved. Finally we transform or save the files of public, row product and column product. In decryption stage, the original image is deduced by mutual method of the three public files.

Keywords: Image cryptography, Singular values decomposition.

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621 Blind Channel Estimation Based on URV Decomposition Technique for Uplink of MC-CDMA

Authors: Pradya Pornnimitkul, Suwich Kunaruttanapruk, Bamrung Tau Sieskul, Somchai Jitapunkul

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate a blind channel estimation method for Multi-carrier CDMA systems that use a subspace decomposition technique. This technique exploits the orthogonality property between the noise subspace and the received user codes to obtain channel of each user. In the past we used Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) technique but SVD have most computational complexity so in this paper use a new algorithm called URV Decomposition, which serve as an intermediary between the QR decomposition and SVD, replaced in SVD technique to track the noise space of the received data. Because of the URV decomposition has almost the same estimation performance as the SVD, but has less computational complexity.

Keywords: Channel estimation, MC-CDMA, SVD, URV.

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620 Generalized Morphological 3D Shape Decomposition Grayscale Interframe Interpolation Method

Authors: Dragos Nicolae VIZIREANU

Abstract:

One of the main image representations in Mathematical Morphology is the 3D Shape Decomposition Representation, useful for Image Compression and Representation,and Pattern Recognition. The 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition representation can be generalized a number of times,to extend the scope of its algebraic characteristics as much as possible. With these generalizations, the Morphological Shape Decomposition 's role to serve as an efficient image decomposition tool is extended to grayscale images.This work follows the above line, and further develops it. Anew evolutionary branch is added to the 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition's development, by the introduction of a 3D Multi Structuring Element Morphological Shape Decomposition, which permits 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition of 3D binary images (grayscale images) into "multiparameter" families of elements. At the beginning, 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition representations are based only on "1 parameter" families of elements for image decomposition.This paper addresses the gray scale inter frame interpolation by means of mathematical morphology. The new interframe interpolation method is based on generalized morphological 3D Shape Decomposition. This article will present the theoretical background of the morphological interframe interpolation, deduce the new representation and show some application examples.Computer simulations could illustrate results.

Keywords: 3D shape decomposition representation, mathematical morphology, gray scale interframe interpolation

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619 N-Sun Decomposition of Complete Graphs and Complete Bipartite Graphs

Authors: R. Anitha, R. S. Lekshmi

Abstract:

Graph decompositions are vital in the study of combinatorial design theory. Given two graphs G and H, an H-decomposition of G is a partition of the edge set of G into disjoint isomorphic copies of H. An n-sun is a cycle Cn with an edge terminating in a vertex of degree one attached to each vertex. In this paper we have proved that the complete graph of order 2n, K2n can be decomposed into n-2 n-suns, a Hamilton cycle and a perfect matching, when n is even and for odd case, the decomposition is n-1 n-suns and a perfect matching. For an odd order complete graph K2n+1, delete the star subgraph K1, 2n and the resultant graph K2n is decomposed as in the case of even order. The method of building n-suns uses Walecki's construction for the Hamilton decomposition of complete graphs. A spanning tree decomposition of even order complete graphs is also discussed using the labeling scheme of n-sun decomposition. A complete bipartite graph Kn, n can be decomposed into n/2 n-suns when n/2 is even. When n/2 is odd, Kn, n can be decomposed into (n-2)/2 n-suns and a Hamilton cycle.

Keywords: Hamilton cycle, n-sun decomposition, perfectmatching, spanning tree.

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618 New Approach to Spectral Analysis of High Bit Rate PCM Signals

Authors: J. P. Dubois

Abstract:

Pulse code modulation is a widespread technique in digital communication with significant impact on existing modern and proposed future communication technologies. Its widespread utilization is due to its simplicity and attractive spectral characteristics. In this paper, we present a new approach to the spectral analysis of PCM signals using Riemann-Stieltjes integrals, which is very accurate for high bit rates. This approach can serve as a model for similar spectral analysis of other competing modulation schemes.

Keywords: Coding, discrete Fourier, power spectral density, pulse code modulation, Riemann-Stieltjes integrals.

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617 Analysis of Catalytic Properties of Ni3Al Thin Foils for the Methanol and Hexane Decomposition

Authors: M. Michalska-Domańska, P. Jóźwik, Z. Bojar

Abstract:

Intermetallic Ni3Al – based alloys belong to a group of advanced materials characterized by good chemical and physical properties (such as structural stability, corrosion resistance) which offer advenced technological applications. The paper presents the study of catalytic properties of Ni3Al foils (thickness approximately 50 &m) in the methanol and hexane decomposition. The egzamined material posses microcrystalline structure without any additional catalysts on the surface. The better catalytic activity of Ni3Al foils with respect to quartz plates in both methanol and hexane decomposition was confirmed. On thin Ni3Al foils the methanol conversion reaches approximately 100% above 480 oC while the hexane conversion reaches approximately 100% (98,5%) at 500 oC. Deposit formed during the methanol decomposition is built up of carbon nanofibers decorated with metal-like nanoparticles.

Keywords: hexane decomposition, methanol decomposition, Ni3Al thin foils, Ni nanoparticles

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616 The Wavelet-Based DFT: A New Interpretation, Extensions and Applications

Authors: Abdulnasir Hossen, Ulrich Heute

Abstract:

In 1990 [1] the subband-DFT (SB-DFT) technique was proposed. This technique used the Hadamard filters in the decomposition step to split the input sequence into low- and highpass sequences. In the next step, either two DFTs are needed on both bands to compute the full-band DFT or one DFT on one of the two bands to compute an approximate DFT. A combination network with correction factors was to be applied after the DFTs. Another approach was proposed in 1997 [2] for using a special discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to compute the discrete Fourier transform (DFT). In the first step of the algorithm, the input sequence is decomposed in a similar manner to the SB-DFT into two sequences using wavelet decomposition with Haar filters. The second step is to perform DFTs on both bands to obtain the full-band DFT or to obtain a fast approximate DFT by implementing pruning at both input and output sides. In this paper, the wavelet-based DFT (W-DFT) with Haar filters is interpreted as SB-DFT with Hadamard filters. The only difference is in a constant factor in the combination network. This result is very important to complete the analysis of the W-DFT, since all the results concerning the accuracy and approximation errors in the SB-DFT are applicable. An application example in spectral analysis is given for both SB-DFT and W-DFT (with different filters). The adaptive capability of the SB-DFT is included in the W-DFT algorithm to select the band of most energy as the band to be computed. Finally, the W-DFT is extended to the two-dimensional case. An application in image transformation is given using two different types of wavelet filters.

Keywords: Image Transform, Spectral Analysis, Sub-Band DFT, Wavelet DFT.

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615 Optimizing Approach for Sifting Process to Solve a Common Type of Empirical Mode Decomposition Mode Mixing

Authors: Saad Al-Baddai, Karema Al-Subari, Elmar Lang, Bernd Ludwig

Abstract:

Empirical mode decomposition (EMD), a new data-driven of time-series decomposition, has the advantage of supposing that a time series is non-linear or non-stationary, as is implicitly achieved in Fourier decomposition. However, the EMD suffers of mode mixing problem in some cases. The aim of this paper is to present a solution for a common type of signals causing of EMD mode mixing problem, in case a signal suffers of an intermittency. By an artificial example, the solution shows superior performance in terms of cope EMD mode mixing problem comparing with the conventional EMD and Ensemble Empirical Mode decomposition (EEMD). Furthermore, the over-sifting problem is also completely avoided; and computation load is reduced roughly six times compared with EEMD, an ensemble number of 50.

Keywords: Empirical mode decomposition, mode mixing, sifting process, over-sifting.

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614 N-Sun Decomposition of Complete, Complete Bipartite and Some Harary Graphs

Authors: R. Anitha, R. S. Lekshmi

Abstract:

Graph decompositions are vital in the study of combinatorial design theory. A decomposition of a graph G is a partition of its edge set. An n-sun graph is a cycle Cn with an edge terminating in a vertex of degree one attached to each vertex. In this paper, we define n-sun decomposition of some even order graphs with a perfect matching. We have proved that the complete graph K2n, complete bipartite graph K2n, 2n and the Harary graph H4, 2n have n-sun decompositions. A labeling scheme is used to construct the n-suns.

Keywords: Decomposition, Hamilton cycle, n-sun graph, perfect matching, spanning tree.

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613 Enhanced Spectral Envelope Coding Based On NLMS for G.729.1

Authors: Keunseok Cho, Sangbae Jeong, Hyungwook Chang, Minsoo Hahn

Abstract:

In this paper, a new encoding algorithm of spectral envelope based on NLMS in G.729.1 for VoIP is proposed. In the TDAC part of G.729.1, the spectral envelope and MDCT coefficients extracted in the weighted CELP coding error (lower-band) and the higher-band input signal are encoded. In order to reduce allocation bits for spectral envelope coding, a new quantization algorithm based on NLMS is proposed. Also, reduced bits are used to enhance sound quality. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by sound quality and bit reduction rates in clean and frame loss conditions.

Keywords: G.729.1, MDCT coefficient, NLMS, spectral envelope.

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612 Enhancement of m-FISH Images using Spectral Unmixing

Authors: Martin De Biasio, Raimund Leitner, Franz G. Wuertz, Sergey Verzakov, Pierre J. Elbischger

Abstract:

Breast carcinoma is the most common form of cancer in women. Multicolour fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (m-FISH) is a common method for staging breast carcinoma. The interpretation of m-FISH images is complicated due to two effects: (i) Spectral overlap in the emission spectra of fluorochrome marked DNA probes and (ii) tissue autofluorescence. In this paper hyper-spectral images of m-FISH samples are used and spectral unmixing is applied to produce false colour images with higher contrast and better information content than standard RGB images. The spectral unmixing is realised by combinations of: Orthogonal Projection Analysis (OPA), Alterating Least Squares (ALS), Simple-to-use Interactive Self-Modeling Mixture Analysis (SIMPLISMA) and VARIMAX. These are applied on the data to reduce tissue autofluorescence and resolve the spectral overlap in the emission spectra. The results show that spectral unmixing methods reduce the intensity caused by tissue autofluorescence by up to 78% and enhance image contrast by algorithmically reducing the overlap of the emission spectra.

Keywords: breast carcinoma, hyperspectral imaging, m-FISH, spectral unmixing

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611 A New Approach to ECG Biometric Systems: A Comparitive Study between LPC and WPD Systems

Authors: Justin Leo Cheang Loong, Khazaimatol S Subari, Rosli Besar, Muhammad Kamil Abdullah

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel method for a biometric system based on the ECG signal is proposed, using spectral coefficients computed through linear predictive coding (LPC). ECG biometric systems have traditionally incorporated characteristics of fiducial points of the ECG signal as the feature set. These systems have been shown to contain loopholes and thus a non-fiducial system allows for tighter security. In the proposed system, incorporating non-fiducial features from the LPC spectrum produced a segment and subject recognition rate of 99.52% and 100% respectively. The recognition rates outperformed the biometric system that is based on the wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) algorithm in terms of recognition rates and computation time. This allows for LPC to be used in a practical ECG biometric system that requires fast, stringent and accurate recognition.

Keywords: biometric, ecg, linear predictive coding, wavelet packet decomposition

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610 New Subband Adaptive IIR Filter Based On Polyphase Decomposition

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

We present a subband adaptive infinite-impulse response (IIR) filtering method, which is based on a polyphase decomposition of IIR filter. Motivated by the fact that the polyphase structure has benefits in terms of convergence rate and stability, we introduce the polyphase decomposition to subband IIR filtering, i.e., in each subband high order IIR filter is decomposed into polyphase IIR filters with lower order. Computer simulations demonstrate that the proposed method has improved convergence rate over conventional IIR filters.

Keywords: Subband adaptive filter, IIR filtering. Polyphase decomposition.

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609 Matrix Valued Difference Equations with Spectral Singularities

Authors: Serifenur Cebesoy, Yelda Aygar, Elgiz Bairamov

Abstract:

In this study, we examine some spectral properties of non-selfadjoint matrix-valued difference equations consisting of a polynomial-type Jost solution. The aim of this study is to investigate the eigenvalues and spectral singularities of the difference operator L which is expressed by the above-mentioned difference equation. Firstly, thanks to the representation of polynomial type Jost solution of this equation, we obtain asymptotics and some analytical properties. Then, using the uniqueness theorems of analytic functions, we guarantee that the operator L has a finite number of eigenvalues and spectral singularities.

Keywords: Difference Equations, Jost Functions, Asymptotics, Eigenvalues, Continuous Spectrum, Spectral Singularities.

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608 A Novel Instantaneous Frequency Computation Approach for Empirical Mode Decomposition

Authors: Liming Zhang

Abstract:

This paper introduces a new instantaneous frequency computation approach  -Counting Instantaneous Frequency for a general class of signals called simple waves. The classsimple wave contains a wide range of continuous signals for which the concept instantaneous frequency has a perfect physical sense. The concept of  -Counting Instantaneous Frequency also applies to all the discrete data. For all the simple wave signals and the discrete data, -Counting instantaneous frequency can be computed directly without signal decomposition process. The intrinsic mode functions obtained through empirical mode decomposition belongs to simple wave. So  -Counting instantaneous frequency can be used together with empirical mode decomposition.

Keywords: Instantaneous frequency, empirical mode decomposition, intrinsic mode function.

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607 Adaptive Fourier Decomposition Based Signal Instantaneous Frequency Computation Approach

Authors: Liming Zhang

Abstract:

There have been different approaches to compute the analytic instantaneous frequency with a variety of background reasoning and applicability in practice, as well as restrictions. This paper presents an adaptive Fourier decomposition and (α-counting) based instantaneous frequency computation approach. The adaptive Fourier decomposition is a recently proposed new signal decomposition approach. The instantaneous frequency can be computed through the so called mono-components decomposed by it. Due to the fast energy convergency, the highest frequency of the signal will be discarded by the adaptive Fourier decomposition, which represents the noise of the signal in most of the situation. A new instantaneous frequency definition for a large class of so-called simple waves is also proposed in this paper. Simple wave contains a wide range of signals for which the concept instantaneous frequency has a perfect physical sense. The α-counting instantaneous frequency can be used to compute the highest frequency for a signal. Combination of these two approaches one can obtain the IFs of the whole signal. An experiment is demonstrated the computation procedure with promising results.

Keywords: Adaptive Fourier decomposition, Fourier series, signal processing, instantaneous frequency

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606 Blind Identification and Equalization of CDMA Signals Using the Levenvberg-Marquardt Algorithm

Authors: Mohammed Boutalline, Imad Badi, Belaid Bouikhalene, Said Safi

Abstract:

In this paper we describe the Levenvberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm for identification and equalization of CDMA signals received by an antenna array in communication channels. The synthesis explains the digital separation and equalization of signals after propagation through multipath generating intersymbol interference (ISI). Exploiting discrete data transmitted and three diversities induced at the reception, the problem can be composed by the Block Component Decomposition (BCD) of a tensor of order 3 which is a new tensor decomposition generalizing the PARAFAC decomposition. We optimize the BCD decomposition by Levenvberg-Marquardt method gives encouraging results compared to classical alternating least squares algorithm (ALS). In the equalization part, we use the Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) to perform the presented method. The simulation results using the LM algorithm are important.

Keywords: Identification and equalization, communication channel, Levenvberg-Marquardt, tensor decomposition

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605 A Reconfigurable Processing Element for Cholesky Decomposition and Matrix Inversion

Authors: Aki Happonen, Adrian Burian, Erwin Hemming

Abstract:

Fixed-point simulation results are used for the performance measure of inverting matrices by Cholesky decomposition. The fixed-point Cholesky decomposition algorithm is implemented using a fixed-point reconfigurable processing element. The reconfigurable processing element provides all mathematical operations required by Cholesky decomposition. The fixed-point word length analysis is based on simulations using different condition numbers and different matrix sizes. Simulation results show that 16 bits word length gives sufficient performance for small matrices with low condition number. Larger matrices and higher condition numbers require more dynamic range for a fixedpoint implementation.

Keywords: Cholesky Decomposition, Fixed-point, Matrix inversion, Reconfigurable processing.

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604 A Novel Spectral Index for Automatic Shadow Detection in Urban Mapping Based On WorldView-2 Satellite Imagery

Authors: Kaveh Shahi, Helmi Z. M. Shafri, Ebrahim Taherzadeh

Abstract:

In remote sensing, shadow causes problems in many applications such as change detection and classification. It is caused by objects which are elevated, thus can directly affect the accuracy of information. For these reasons, it is very important to detect shadows particularly in urban high spatial resolution imagery which created a significant problem. This paper focuses on automatic shadow detection based on a new spectral index for multispectral imagery known as Shadow Detection Index (SDI). The new spectral index was tested on different areas of WorldView-2 images and the results demonstrated that the new spectral index has a massive potential to extract shadows with accuracy of 94% effectively and automatically. Furthermore, the new shadow detection index improved road extraction from 82% to 93%.

Keywords: Spectral index, shadow detection, remote sensing images, WorldView-2.

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603 A Decomposition Method for the Bipartite Separability of Bell Diagonal States

Authors: Wei-Chih Su, Kuan-Peng Chen, Ming-Chung Tsai, Zheng-Yao Su

Abstract:

A new decomposition form is introduced in this report to establish a criterion for the bi-partite separability of Bell diagonal states. A such criterion takes a quadratic inequality of the coefficients of a given Bell diagonal states and can be derived via a simple algorithmic calculation of its invariants. In addition, the criterion can be extended to a quantum system of higher dimension.

Keywords: decomposition, bipartite separability, Bell diagonal states.

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602 Algebraic Riccati Matrix Equation for Eigen- Decomposition of Special Structured Matrices; Applications in Structural Mechanics

Authors: Mahdi Nouri

Abstract:

In this paper Algebraic Riccati matrix equation is used for Eigen-decomposition of special structured matrices. This is achieved by similarity transformation and then using algebraic riccati matrix equation to triangulation of matrices. The process is decomposition of matrices into small and specially structured submatrices with low dimensions for fast and easy finding of Eigenpairs. Numerical and structural examples included showing the efficiency of present method.

Keywords: Riccati, matrix equation, eigenvalue problem, symmetric, bisymmetric, persymmetric, decomposition, canonical forms, Graphs theory, adjacency and Laplacian matrices.

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601 Laplace Adomian Decomposition Method Applied to a Two-Dimensional Viscous Flow with Shrinking Sheet

Authors: M. A. Koroma, S. Widatalla, A. F. Kamara, C. Zhang

Abstract:

Our aim in this piece of work is to demonstrate the power of the Laplace Adomian decomposition method (LADM) in approximating the solutions of nonlinear differential equations governing the two-dimensional viscous flow induced by a shrinking sheet.

Keywords: Adomian polynomials, Laplace Adomian decomposition method, Padé Approximant, Shrinking sheet.

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