Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 193

Search results for: Directional smoothing

193 Despeckling of Synthetic Aperture Radar Images Using Inner Product Spaces in Undecimated Wavelet Domain

Authors: Syed Musharaf Ali, Muhammad Younus Javed, Naveed Sarfraz Khattak, Athar Mohsin, UmarFarooq

Abstract:

This paper introduces the effective speckle reduction of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images using inner product spaces in undecimated wavelet domain. There are two major areas in projection onto span algorithm where improvement can be made. First is the use of undecimated wavelet transformation instead of discrete wavelet transformation. And second area is the use of smoothing filter namely directional smoothing filter which is an additional step. Proposed method does not need any noise estimation and thresholding technique. More over proposed method gives good results on both single polarimetric and fully polarimetric SAR images.

Keywords: Directional Smoothing, Inner product, Length ofvector, Undecimated wavelet transformation.

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192 Microarrays Denoising via Smoothing of Coefficients in Wavelet Domain

Authors: Mario Mastriani, Alberto E. Giraldez

Abstract:

We describe a novel method for removing noise (in wavelet domain) of unknown variance from microarrays. The method is based on a smoothing of the coefficients of the highest subbands. Specifically, we decompose the noisy microarray into wavelet subbands, apply smoothing within each highest subband, and reconstruct a microarray from the modified wavelet coefficients. This process is applied a single time, and exclusively to the first level of decomposition, i.e., in most of the cases, it is not necessary a multirresoltuion analysis. Denoising results compare favorably to the most of methods in use at the moment.

Keywords: Directional smoothing, denoising, edge preservation, microarrays, thresholding, wavelets

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191 Peakwise Smoothing of Data Models using Wavelets

Authors: D Sudheer Reddy, N Gopal Reddy, P V Radhadevi, J Saibaba, Geeta Varadan

Abstract:

Smoothing or filtering of data is first preprocessing step for noise suppression in many applications involving data analysis. Moving average is the most popular method of smoothing the data, generalization of this led to the development of Savitzky-Golay filter. Many window smoothing methods were developed by convolving the data with different window functions for different applications; most widely used window functions are Gaussian or Kaiser. Function approximation of the data by polynomial regression or Fourier expansion or wavelet expansion also gives a smoothed data. Wavelets also smooth the data to great extent by thresholding the wavelet coefficients. Almost all smoothing methods destroys the peaks and flatten them when the support of the window is increased. In certain applications it is desirable to retain peaks while smoothing the data as much as possible. In this paper we present a methodology called as peak-wise smoothing that will smooth the data to any desired level without losing the major peak features.

Keywords: smoothing, moving average, peakwise smoothing, spatialdensity models, planar shape models, wavelets.

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190 Estimation of Train Operation Using an Exponential Smoothing Method

Authors: Taiyo Matsumura, Kuninori Takahashi, Takashi Ono

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to improve the convenience of waiting for trains at level crossings and stations and to prevent accidents resulting from forcible entry into level crossings, by providing level crossing users and passengers with information that tells them when the next train will pass through or arrive. For this paper, we proposed methods for estimating operation by means of an average value method, variable response smoothing method, and exponential smoothing method, on the basis of open data, which has low accuracy, but for which performance schedules are distributed in real time. We then examined the accuracy of the estimations. The results showed that the application of an exponential smoothing method is valid.

Keywords: Exponential smoothing method, open data, operation estimation, train schedule.

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189 A Comparison of the Nonparametric Regression Models using Smoothing Spline and Kernel Regression

Authors: Dursun Aydin

Abstract:

This paper study about using of nonparametric models for Gross National Product data in Turkey and Stanford heart transplant data. It is discussed two nonparametric techniques called smoothing spline and kernel regression. The main goal is to compare the techniques used for prediction of the nonparametric regression models. According to the results of numerical studies, it is concluded that smoothing spline regression estimators are better than those of the kernel regression.

Keywords: Kernel regression, Nonparametric models, Prediction, Smoothing spline.

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188 Using “Eckel” Model to Measure Income Smoothing Practices: The Case of French Companies

Authors: Feddaoui Amina

Abstract:

Income smoothing represents an attempt on the part of the company's management to reduce variations in earnings through the manipulation of the accounting principles. In this study, we aimed to measure income smoothing practices in a sample of 30 French joint stock companies during the period (2007-2009), we used Dummy variables method and “ECKEL” model to measure income smoothing practices and Binomial test accourding to SPSS program, to confirm or refute our hypothesis. This study concluded that there are no significant statistical indicators of income smoothing practices in the sample studied of French companies during the period (2007-2009), so the income series in the same sample studied of is characterized by stability and non-volatility without any intervention of management through accounting manipulation. However, this type of accounting manipulation should be taken into account and efforts should be made by control bodies to apply Eckel model and generalize its use at the global level.

Keywords: Income, smoothing, “Eckel”, French companies.

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187 Capacity Enhancement in Wireless Networks using Directional Antennas

Authors: Sedat Atmaca, Celal Ceken, Ismail Erturk

Abstract:

One of the biggest drawbacks of the wireless environment is the limited bandwidth. However, the users sharing this limited bandwidth have been increasing considerably. SDMA technique which entails using directional antennas allows to increase the capacity of a wireless network by separating users in the medium. In this paper, it has been presented how the capacity can be enhanced while the mean delay is reduced by using directional antennas in wireless networks employing TDMA/FDD MAC. Computer modeling and simulation of the wireless system studied are realized using OPNET Modeler. Preliminary simulation results are presented and the performance of the model using directional antennas is evaluated and compared consistently with the one using omnidirectional antennas.

Keywords: Directional Antenna, TDMA, SDMA,

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186 Exciting Voltage Control for Efficiency Maximization for 2-D Omni-Directional Wireless Power Transfer Systems

Authors: Masato Sasaki, Masayoshi Yamamoto

Abstract:

The majority of wireless power transfer (WPT) systems transfer power in a directional manner. This paper describes a discrete exciting voltage control technique for WPT via magnetic resonant coupling with two orthogonal transmitter coils (2D omni-directional WPT system) which can maximize the power transfer efficiency in response to the change of coupling status. The theory allows the equations of the efficiency of the system to be determined at all the rate of the mutual inductance. The calculated results are included to confirm the advantage to one directional WPT system and the validity of the theory and the equations.

Keywords: Wireless power transfer, orthogonal, omni-directional, efficiency.

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185 A Power-Controlled Scheduling Scheme Using a Directional Antenna in Smart Home

Authors: Yongsun Kim, Hoyong Kang

Abstract:

This paper proposes a power-controlled scheduling scheme for devices using a directional antenna in smart home. In the case of the home network using directional antenna, devices can concurrently transmit data in the same frequency band. Accordingly, the throughput increases compared to that of devices using omni-directional antenna in proportional to the number of concurrent transmissions. Also, the number of concurrent transmissions depends on the beamwidth of antenna, the number of devices operating in the network , transmission power, interference and so on. In particular, the less transmission power is used, the more concurrent transmissions occur due to small transmission range. In this paper, we considered sub-optimal scheduling scheme for throughput maximization and power consumption minimization. In the scheme, each device is equipped with a directional antenna. Various beamwidths, path loss components, and antenna radiation efficiencies are considered. Numerical results show that the proposed schemes outperform the scheduling scheme using directional antennas without power control.

Keywords: Mmwave WPANs, directional scheduling, power-controlled scheduling scheme, smart home.

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184 Discrete Polynomial Moments and Savitzky-Golay Smoothing

Authors: Paul O'Leary, Matthew Harker

Abstract:

This paper presents unified theory for local (Savitzky- Golay) and global polynomial smoothing. The algebraic framework can represent any polynomial approximation and is seamless from low degree local, to high degree global approximations. The representation of the smoothing operator as a projection onto orthonormal basis functions enables the computation of: the covariance matrix for noise propagation through the filter; the noise gain and; the frequency response of the polynomial filters. A virtually perfect Gram polynomial basis is synthesized, whereby polynomials of degree d = 1000 can be synthesized without significant errors. The perfect basis ensures that the filters are strictly polynomial preserving. Given n points and a support length ls = 2m + 1 then the smoothing operator is strictly linear phase for the points xi, i = m+1. . . n-m. The method is demonstrated on geometric surfaces data lying on an invariant 2D lattice.

Keywords: Gram polynomials, Savitzky-Golay Smoothing, Discrete Polynomial Moments

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183 Forecasting Unemployment Rate in Selected European Countries Using Smoothing Methods

Authors: Ksenija Dumičić, Anita Čeh Časni, Berislav Žmuk

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to select the most accurate forecasting method for predicting the future values of the unemployment rate in selected European countries. In order to do so, several forecasting techniques adequate for forecasting time series with trend component, were selected, namely: double exponential smoothing (also known as Holt`s method) and Holt-Winters` method which accounts for trend and seasonality. The results of the empirical analysis showed that the optimal model for forecasting unemployment rate in Greece was Holt-Winters` additive method. In the case of Spain, according to MAPE, the optimal model was double exponential smoothing model. Furthermore, for Croatia and Italy the best forecasting model for unemployment rate was Holt-Winters` multiplicative model, whereas in the case of Portugal the best model to forecast unemployment rate was Double exponential smoothing model. Our findings are in line with European Commission unemployment rate estimates.

Keywords: European Union countries, exponential smoothing methods, forecast accuracy unemployment rate.

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182 Efficient Broadcasting in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Min Kyung An, Hyuk Cho

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the Minimum Latency Broadcast Scheduling (MLBS) problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The main issue of the MLBS problem is to compute schedules with the minimum number of timeslots such that a base station can broadcast data to all other sensor nodes with no collisions. Unlike existing works that utilize the traditional omni-directional WSNs, we target the directional WSNs where nodes can collaboratively determine and orientate their antenna directions. We first develop a 7-approximation algorithm, adopting directional WSNs. Our ratio is currently the best, to the best of our knowledge. We then validate the performance of the proposed algorithm through simulation.

Keywords: Broadcast, collision-free, directional antenna, approximation, wireless sensor networks.

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181 Modeling Directional Thermal Radiance Anisotropy for Urban Canopy

Authors: Limin Zhao, Xingfa Gu, C. Tao Yu

Abstract:

one of the significant factors for improving the accuracy of Land Surface Temperature (LST) retrieval is the correct understanding of the directional anisotropy for thermal radiance. In this paper, the multiple scattering effect between heterogeneous non-isothermal surfaces is described rigorously according to the concept of configuration factor, based on which a directional thermal radiance model is built, and the directional radiant character for urban canopy is analyzed. The model is applied to a simple urban canopy with row structure to simulate the change of Directional Brightness Temperature (DBT). The results show that the DBT is aggrandized because of the multiple scattering effects, whereas the change range of DBT is smoothed. The temperature difference, spatial distribution, emissivity of the components can all lead to the change of DBT. The “hot spot" phenomenon occurs when the proportion of high temperature component in the vision field came to a head. On the other hand, the “cool spot" phenomena occur when low temperature proportion came to the head. The “spot" effect disappears only when the proportion of every component keeps invariability. The model built in this paper can be used for the study of directional effect on emissivity, the LST retrieval over urban areas and the adjacency effect of thermal remote sensing pixels.

Keywords: Directional thermal radiance, multiple scattering, configuration factor, urban canopy, hot spot effect

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180 A Finite Point Method Based on Directional Derivatives for Diffusion Equation

Authors: Guixia Lv, Longjun Shen

Abstract:

This paper presents a finite point method based on directional derivatives for diffusion equation on 2D scattered points. To discretize the diffusion operator at a given point, a six-point stencil is derived by employing explicit numerical formulae of directional derivatives, namely, for the point under consideration, only five neighbor points are involved, the number of which is the smallest for discretizing diffusion operator with first-order accuracy. A method for selecting neighbor point set is proposed, which satisfies the solvability condition of numerical derivatives. Some numerical examples are performed to show the good performance of the proposed method.

Keywords: Finite point method, directional derivatives, diffusionequation, method for selecting neighbor point set.

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179 Time Series Forecasting Using a Hybrid RBF Neural Network and AR Model Based On Binomial Smoothing

Authors: Fengxia Zheng, Shouming Zhong

Abstract:

ANNARIMA that combines both autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model and artificial neural network (ANN) model is a valuable tool for modeling and forecasting nonlinear time series, yet the over-fitting problem is more likely to occur in neural network models. This paper provides a hybrid methodology that combines both radial basis function (RBF) neural network and auto regression (AR) model based on binomial smoothing (BS) technique which is efficient in data processing, which is called BSRBFAR. This method is examined by using the data of Canadian Lynx data. Empirical results indicate that the over-fitting problem can be eased using RBF neural network based on binomial smoothing which is called BS-RBF, and the hybrid model–BS-RBFAR can be an effective way to improve forecasting accuracy achieved by BSRBF used separately.

Keywords: Binomial smoothing (BS), hybrid, Canadian Lynx data, forecasting accuracy.

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178 Proposal of Additional Fuzzy Membership Functions in Smoothing Transition Autoregressive Models

Authors: Ε. Giovanis

Abstract:

In this paper we present, propose and examine additional membership functions for the Smoothing Transition Autoregressive (STAR) models. More specifically, we present the tangent hyperbolic, Gaussian and Generalized bell functions. Because Smoothing Transition Autoregressive (STAR) models follow fuzzy logic approach, more fuzzy membership functions should be tested. Furthermore, fuzzy rules can be incorporated or other training or computational methods can be applied as the error backpropagation or genetic algorithm instead to nonlinear squares. We examine two macroeconomic variables of US economy, the inflation rate and the 6-monthly treasury bills interest rates.

Keywords: Forecast , Fuzzy membership functions, Smoothingtransition, Time-series

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177 Application of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System in Smoothing Transition Autoregressive Models

Authors: Ε. Giovanis

Abstract:

In this paper we propose and examine an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) in Smoothing Transition Autoregressive (STAR) modeling. Because STAR models follow fuzzy logic approach, in the non-linear part fuzzy rules can be incorporated or other training or computational methods can be applied as the error backpropagation algorithm instead to nonlinear squares. Furthermore, additional fuzzy membership functions can be examined, beside the logistic and exponential, like the triangle, Gaussian and Generalized Bell functions among others. We examine two macroeconomic variables of US economy, the inflation rate and the 6-monthly treasury bills interest rates.

Keywords: Forecasting, Neuro-Fuzzy, Smoothing transition, Time-series

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176 An Improved Illumination Normalization based on Anisotropic Smoothing for Face Recognition

Authors: Sanghoon Kim, Sun-Tae Chung, Souhwan Jung, Seongwon Cho

Abstract:

Robust face recognition under various illumination environments is very difficult and needs to be accomplished for successful commercialization. In this paper, we propose an improved illumination normalization method for face recognition. Illumination normalization algorithm based on anisotropic smoothing is well known to be effective among illumination normalization methods but deteriorates the intensity contrast of the original image, and incurs less sharp edges. The proposed method in this paper improves the previous anisotropic smoothing-based illumination normalization method so that it increases the intensity contrast and enhances the edges while diminishing the effect of illumination variations. Due to the result of these improvements, face images preprocessed by the proposed illumination normalization method becomes to have more distinctive feature vectors (Gabor feature vectors) for face recognition. Through experiments of face recognition based on Gabor feature vector similarity, the effectiveness of the proposed illumination normalization method is verified.

Keywords: Illumination Normalization, Face Recognition, Anisotropic smoothing, Gabor feature vector.

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175 Statistical and Land Planning Study of Tourist Arrivals in Greece during 2005-2016

Authors: Dimitra Alexiou

Abstract:

During the last 10 years, in spite of the economic crisis, the number of tourists arriving in Greece has increased, particularly during the tourist season from April to October. In this paper, the number of annual tourist arrivals is studied to explore their preferences with regard to the month of travel, the selected destinations, as well the amount of money spent. The collected data are processed with statistical methods, yielding numerical and graphical results. From the computation of statistical parameters and the forecasting with exponential smoothing, useful conclusions are arrived at that can be used by the Greek tourism authorities, as well as by tourist organizations, for planning purposes for the coming years. The results of this paper and the computed forecast can also be used for decision making by private tourist enterprises that are investing in Greece. With regard to the statistical methods, the method of Simple Exponential Smoothing of time series of data is employed. The search for a best forecast for 2017 and 2018 provides the value of the smoothing coefficient. For all statistical computations and graphics Microsoft Excel is used.

Keywords: Tourism, statistical methods, exponential smoothing, land spatial planning, economy, Microsoft Excel.

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174 Directional Drilling Optimization by Non-Rotating Stabilizer

Authors: Eisa Noveiri, Adel Taheri Nia

Abstract:

The Non-Rotating Adjustable Stabilizer / Directional Solution (NAS/DS) is the imitation of a mechanical process or an object by a directional drilling operation that causes a respond mathematically and graphically to data and decision to choose the best conditions compared to the previous mode. The NAS/DS Auto Guide rotary steerable tool is undergoing final field trials. The point-the-bit tool can use any bit, work at any rotating speed, work with any MWD/LWD system, and there is no pressure drop through the tool. It is a fully closed-loop system that automatically maintains a specified curvature rate. The Non–Rotating Adjustable stabilizer (NAS) can be controls curvature rate by exactly positioning and run with the optimum bit, use the most effective weight (WOB) and rotary speed (RPM) and apply all of the available hydraulic energy to the bit. The directional simulator allowed to specify the size of the curvature rate performance errors of the NAS tool and the magnitude of the random errors in the survey measurements called the Directional Solution (DS). The combination of these technologies (NAS/DS) will provide smoother bore holes, reduced drilling time, reduced drilling cost and incredible targeting precision. This simulator controls curvature rate by precisely adjusting the radial extension of stabilizer blades on a near bit Non-Rotating Stabilizer and control process corrects for the secondary effects caused by formation characteristics, bit and tool wear, and manufacturing tolerances.

Keywords: non-rotating, Adjustable stabilizer, simulator, Directional Drilling, optimization, Oil Well Drilling

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173 Novel GPU Approach in Predicting the Directional Trend of the S&P 500

Authors: A. J. Regan, F. J. Lidgey, M. Betteridge, P. Georgiou, C. Toumazou, K. Hayatleh, J. R. Dibble

Abstract:

Our goal is development of an algorithm capable of predicting the directional trend of the Standard and Poor’s 500 index (S&P 500). Extensive research has been published attempting to predict different financial markets using historical data testing on an in-sample and trend basis, with many authors employing excessively complex mathematical techniques. In reviewing and evaluating these in-sample methodologies, it became evident that this approach was unable to achieve sufficiently reliable prediction performance for commercial exploitation. For these reasons, we moved to an out-ofsample strategy based on linear regression analysis of an extensive set of financial data correlated with historical closing prices of the S&P 500. We are pleased to report a directional trend accuracy of greater than 55% for tomorrow (t+1) in predicting the S&P 500.

Keywords: Financial algorithm, GPU, S&P 500, stock market prediction.

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172 Automatic Fingerprint Classification Using Graph Theory

Authors: Mana Tarjoman, Shaghayegh Zarei

Abstract:

Using efficient classification methods is necessary for automatic fingerprint recognition system. This paper introduces a new structural approach to fingerprint classification by using the directional image of fingerprints to increase the number of subclasses. In this method, the directional image of fingerprints is segmented into regions consisting of pixels with the same direction. Afterwards the relational graph to the segmented image is constructed and according to it, the super graph including prominent information of this graph is formed. Ultimately we apply a matching technique to compare obtained graph with the model graphs in order to classify fingerprints by using cost function. Increasing the number of subclasses with acceptable accuracy in classification and faster processing in fingerprints recognition, makes this system superior.

Keywords: Classification, Directional image, Fingerprint, Graph, Super graph.

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171 Revealing Nonlinear Couplings between Oscillators from Time Series

Authors: B.P. Bezruchko, D.A. Smirnov

Abstract:

Quantitative characterization of nonlinear directional couplings between stochastic oscillators from data is considered. We suggest coupling characteristics readily interpreted from a physical viewpoint and their estimators. An expression for a statistical significance level is derived analytically that allows reliable coupling detection from a relatively short time series. Performance of the technique is demonstrated in numerical experiments.

Keywords: Nonlinear time series analysis, directional couplings, coupled oscillators.

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170 Design and Implementation a Fully Autonomous Soccer Player Robot

Authors: S. H. Mohades Kasaei, S. M. Mohades Kasaei, S. A. Mohades Kasaei, M. Taheri, M. Rahimi, H. Vahiddastgerdi, M. Saeidinezhad

Abstract:

Omni directional mobile robots have been popularly employed in several applications especially in soccer player robots considered in Robocup competitions. However, Omni directional navigation system, Omni-vision system and solenoid kicking mechanism in such mobile robots have not ever been combined. This situation brings the idea of a robot with no head direction into existence, a comprehensive Omni directional mobile robot. Such a robot can respond more quickly and it would be capable for more sophisticated behaviors with multi-sensor data fusion algorithm for global localization base on the data fusion. This paper has tried to focus on the research improvements in the mechanical, electrical and software design of the robots of team ADRO Iran. The main improvements are the world model, the new strategy framework, mechanical structure, Omni-vision sensor for object detection, robot path planning, active ball handling mechanism and the new kicker design, , and other subjects related to mobile robot

Keywords: Mobile robot, Machine vision, Omni directional movement, Autonomous Systems, Robot path planning, Object Localization.

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169 Solving Directional Overcurrent Relay Coordination Problem Using Artificial Bees Colony

Authors: M. H. Hussain, I. Musirin, A. F. Abidin, S. R. A. Rahim

Abstract:

This paper presents the implementation of Artificial Bees Colony (ABC) algorithm in solving Directional OverCurrent Relays (DOCRs) coordination problem for near-end faults occurring in fixed network topology. The coordination optimization of DOCRs is formulated as linear programming (LP) problem. The objective function is introduced to minimize the operating time of the associated relay which depends on the time multiplier setting. The proposed technique is to taken as a technique for comparison purpose in order to highlight its superiority. The proposed algorithms have been tested successfully on 8 bus test system. The simulation results demonstrated that the ABC algorithm which has been proved to have good search ability is capable in dealing with constraint optimization problems.

Keywords: Artificial bees colony, directional overcurrent relay coordination problem, relay settings, time multiplier setting.

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168 Wavelet-Based Despeckling of Synthetic Aperture Radar Images Using Adaptive and Mean Filters

Authors: Syed Musharaf Ali, Muhammad Younus Javed, Naveed Sarfraz Khattak

Abstract:

In this paper we introduced new wavelet based algorithm for speckle reduction of synthetic aperture radar images, which uses combination of undecimated wavelet transformation, wiener filter (which is an adaptive filter) and mean filter. Further more instead of using existing thresholding techniques such as sure shrinkage, Bayesian shrinkage, universal thresholding, normal thresholding, visu thresholding, soft and hard thresholding, we use brute force thresholding, which iteratively run the whole algorithm for each possible candidate value of threshold and saves each result in array and finally selects the value for threshold that gives best possible results. That is why it is slow as compared to existing thresholding techniques but gives best results under the given algorithm for speckle reduction.

Keywords: Brute force thresholding, directional smoothing, direction dependent mask, undecimated wavelet transformation.

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167 Fault and Theft Recognition Using Toro Dial Sensor in Programmable Current Relay for Feeder Security

Authors: R. Kamalakannan, N. Ravi Kumar

Abstract:

Feeder protection is important in transmission and distribution side because if any fault occurs in any feeder or transformer, man power is needed to identify the problem and it will take more time. In the existing system, directional overcurrent elements with load further secured by a load encroachment function can be used to provide necessary security and sensitivity for faults on remote points in a circuit. It is validated only in renewable plant collector circuit protection applications over a wide range of operating conditions. In this method, the directional overcurrent feeder protection is developed by using monitoring of feeder section through internet. In this web based monitoring, the fault and power theft are identified by using Toro dial sensor and its information is received by SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) and controlled by ARM microcontroller. This web based monitoring is also used to monitor the feeder management, directional current detection, demand side management, overload fault. This monitoring system is capable of monitoring the distribution feeder over a large area depending upon the cost. It is also used to reduce the power theft, time and man power. The simulation is done by MATLAB software.

Keywords: Current sensor, distribution feeder protection, directional overcurrent, power theft, protective relay.

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166 Intelligent Assistive Methods for Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis Using Histogram Smoothing and Feature Extraction of Bone Images

Authors: SP. Chokkalingam, K. Komathy

Abstract:

Advances in the field of image processing envision a new era of evaluation techniques and application of procedures in various different fields. One such field being considered is the biomedical field for prognosis as well as diagnosis of diseases. This plethora of methods though provides a wide range of options to select from, it also proves confusion in selecting the apt process and also in finding which one is more suitable. Our objective is to use a series of techniques on bone scans, so as to detect the occurrence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as accurately as possible. Amongst other techniques existing in the field our proposed system tends to be more effective as it depends on new methodologies that have been proved to be better and more consistent than others. Computer aided diagnosis will provide more accurate and infallible rate of consistency that will help to improve the efficiency of the system. The image first undergoes histogram smoothing and specification, morphing operation, boundary detection by edge following algorithm and finally image subtraction to determine the presence of rheumatoid arthritis in a more efficient and effective way. Using preprocessing noises are removed from images and using segmentation, region of interest is found and Histogram smoothing is applied for a specific portion of the images. Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features like Mean, Median, Energy, Correlation, Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and etc. After finding all the features it stores in the database. This dataset is trained with inflamed and noninflamed values and with the help of neural network all the new images are checked properly for their status and Rough set is implemented for further reduction.

Keywords: Computer Aided Diagnosis, Edge Detection, Histogram Smoothing, Rheumatoid Arthritis.

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165 Adaptive Anisotropic Diffusion for Ultrasonic Image Denoising and Edge Enhancement

Authors: Shujun Fu, Qiuqi Ruan, Wenqia Wang, Yu Li

Abstract:

Utilizing echoic intension and distribution from different organs and local details of human body, ultrasonic image can catch important medical pathological changes, which unfortunately may be affected by ultrasonic speckle noise. A feature preserving ultrasonic image denoising and edge enhancement scheme is put forth, which includes two terms: anisotropic diffusion and edge enhancement, controlled by the optimum smoothing time. In this scheme, the anisotropic diffusion is governed by the local coordinate transformation and the first and the second order normal derivatives of the image, while the edge enhancement is done by the hyperbolic tangent function. Experiments on real ultrasonic images indicate effective preservation of edges, local details and ultrasonic echoic bright strips on denoising by our scheme.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion, coordinate transformation, directional derivatives, edge enhancement, hyperbolic tangent function, image denoising.

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164 Hourly Electricity Load Forecasting: An Empirical Application to the Italian Railways

Authors: M. Centra

Abstract:

Due to the liberalization of countless electricity markets, load forecasting has become crucial to all public utilities for which electricity is a strategic variable. With the goal of contributing to the forecasting process inside public utilities, this paper addresses the issue of applying the Holt-Winters exponential smoothing technique and the time series analysis for forecasting the hourly electricity load curve of the Italian railways. The results of the analysis confirm the accuracy of the two models and therefore the relevance of forecasting inside public utilities.

Keywords: ARIMA models, Exponential smoothing, Electricity, Load forecasting, Rail transportation.

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