Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 430

Search results for: Super graph.

430 Automatic Fingerprint Classification Using Graph Theory

Authors: Mana Tarjoman, Shaghayegh Zarei

Abstract:

Using efficient classification methods is necessary for automatic fingerprint recognition system. This paper introduces a new structural approach to fingerprint classification by using the directional image of fingerprints to increase the number of subclasses. In this method, the directional image of fingerprints is segmented into regions consisting of pixels with the same direction. Afterwards the relational graph to the segmented image is constructed and according to it, the super graph including prominent information of this graph is formed. Ultimately we apply a matching technique to compare obtained graph with the model graphs in order to classify fingerprints by using cost function. Increasing the number of subclasses with acceptable accuracy in classification and faster processing in fingerprints recognition, makes this system superior.

Keywords: Classification, Directional image, Fingerprint, Graph, Super graph.

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429 Efficient Filtering of Graph Based Data Using Graph Partitioning

Authors: Nileshkumar Vaishnav, Aditya Tatu

Abstract:

An algebraic framework for processing graph signals axiomatically designates the graph adjacency matrix as the shift operator. In this setup, we often encounter a problem wherein we know the filtered output and the filter coefficients, and need to find out the input graph signal. Solution to this problem using direct approach requires O(N3) operations, where N is the number of vertices in graph. In this paper, we adapt the spectral graph partitioning method for partitioning of graphs and use it to reduce the computational cost of the filtering problem. We use the example of denoising of the temperature data to illustrate the efficacy of the approach.

Keywords: Graph signal processing, graph partitioning, inverse filtering on graphs, algebraic signal processing.

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428 Using Spectral Vectors and M-Tree for Graph Clustering and Searching in Graph Databases of Protein Structures

Authors: Do Phuc, Nguyen Thi Kim Phung

Abstract:

In this paper, we represent protein structure by using graph. A protein structure database will become a graph database. Each graph is represented by a spectral vector. We use Jacobi rotation algorithm to calculate the eigenvalues of the normalized Laplacian representation of adjacency matrix of graph. To measure the similarity between two graphs, we calculate the Euclidean distance between two graph spectral vectors. To cluster the graphs, we use M-tree with the Euclidean distance to cluster spectral vectors. Besides, M-tree can be used for graph searching in graph database. Our proposal method was tested with graph database of 100 graphs representing 100 protein structures downloaded from Protein Data Bank (PDB) and we compare the result with the SCOP hierarchical structure.

Keywords: Eigenvalues, m-tree, graph database, protein structure, spectra graph theory.

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427 A Neighborhood Condition for Fractional k-deleted Graphs

Authors: Sizhong Zhou, Hongxia Liu

Abstract:

Abstract–Let k ≥ 3 be an integer, and let G be a graph of order n with n ≥ 9k +3- 42(k - 1)2 + 2. Then a spanning subgraph F of G is called a k-factor if dF (x) = k for each x ∈ V (G). A fractional k-factor is a way of assigning weights to the edges of a graph G (with all weights between 0 and 1) such that for each vertex the sum of the weights of the edges incident with that vertex is k. A graph G is a fractional k-deleted graph if there exists a fractional k-factor after deleting any edge of G. In this paper, it is proved that G is a fractional k-deleted graph if G satisfies δ(G) ≥ k + 1 and |NG(x) ∪ NG(y)| ≥ 1 2 (n + k - 2) for each pair of nonadjacent vertices x, y of G.

Keywords: Graph, minimum degree, neighborhood union, fractional k-factor, fractional k-deleted graph.

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426 The Extremal Graph with the Largest Merrifield-Simmons Index of (n, n + 2)-graphs

Authors: M. S. Haghighat, A. Dolati, M. Tabari, E. Mohseni

Abstract:

The Merrifield-Simmons index of a graph G is defined as the total number of its independent sets. A (n, n + 2)-graph is a connected simple graph with n vertices and n + 2 edges. In this paper we characterize the (n, n+2)-graph with the largest Merrifield- Simmons index. We show that its Merrifield-Simmons index i.e. the upper bound of the Merrifield-Simmons index of the (n, n+2)-graphs is 9 × 2n-5 +1 for n ≥ 5.

Keywords: Merrifield-Simmons index, (n, n+2)-graph.

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425 N-Sun Decomposition of Complete, Complete Bipartite and Some Harary Graphs

Authors: R. Anitha, R. S. Lekshmi

Abstract:

Graph decompositions are vital in the study of combinatorial design theory. A decomposition of a graph G is a partition of its edge set. An n-sun graph is a cycle Cn with an edge terminating in a vertex of degree one attached to each vertex. In this paper, we define n-sun decomposition of some even order graphs with a perfect matching. We have proved that the complete graph K2n, complete bipartite graph K2n, 2n and the Harary graph H4, 2n have n-sun decompositions. A labeling scheme is used to construct the n-suns.

Keywords: Decomposition, Hamilton cycle, n-sun graph, perfect matching, spanning tree.

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424 The Diameter of an Interval Graph is Twice of its Radius

Authors: Tarasankar Pramanik, Sukumar Mondal, Madhumangal Pal

Abstract:

In an interval graph G = (V,E) the distance between two vertices u, v is de£ned as the smallest number of edges in a path joining u and v. The eccentricity of a vertex v is the maximum among distances from all other vertices of V . The diameter (δ) and radius (ρ) of the graph G is respectively the maximum and minimum among all the eccentricities of G. The center of the graph G is the set C(G) of vertices with eccentricity ρ. In this context our aim is to establish the relation ρ = δ 2  for an interval graph and to determine the center of it.

Keywords: Interval graph, interval tree, radius, center.

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423 Completion Number of a Graph

Authors: Sudhakar G

Abstract:

In this paper a new concept of partial complement of a graph G is introduced and using the same a new graph parameter, called completion number of a graph G, denoted by c(G) is defined. Some basic properties of graph parameter, completion number, are studied and upperbounds for completion number of classes of graphs are obtained , the paper includes the characterization also.

Keywords: Completion Number, Maximum Independent subset, Partial complements, Partial self complementary

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422 On Fractional (k,m)-Deleted Graphs with Constrains Conditions

Authors: Sizhong Zhou, Hongxia Liu

Abstract:

Let G be a graph of order n, and let k  2 and m  0 be two integers. Let h : E(G)  [0, 1] be a function. If e∋x h(e) = k holds for each x  V (G), then we call G[Fh] a fractional k-factor of G with indicator function h where Fh = {e  E(G) : h(e) > 0}. A graph G is called a fractional (k,m)-deleted graph if there exists a fractional k-factor G[Fh] of G with indicator function h such that h(e) = 0 for any e  E(H), where H is any subgraph of G with m edges. In this paper, it is proved that G is a fractional (k,m)-deleted graph if (G)  k + m + m k+1 , n  4k2 + 2k − 6 + (4k 2 +6k−2)m−2 k−1 and max{dG(x), dG(y)}  n 2 for any vertices x and y of G with dG(x, y) = 2. Furthermore, it is shown that the result in this paper is best possible in some sense.

Keywords: Graph, degree condition, fractional k-factor, fractional (k, m)-deleted graph.

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421 Metric Dimension on Line Graph of Honeycomb Networks

Authors: M. Hussain, Aqsa Farooq

Abstract:

Let G = (V,E) be a connected graph and distance between any two vertices a and b in G is a−b geodesic and is denoted by d(a, b). A set of vertices W resolves a graph G if each vertex is uniquely determined by its vector of distances to the vertices in W. A metric dimension of G is the minimum cardinality of a resolving set of G. In this paper line graph of honeycomb network has been derived and then we calculated the metric dimension on line graph of honeycomb network.

Keywords: Resolving set, metric dimension, honeycomb network, line graph.

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420 Comparison of Full Graph Methods of Switched Circuits Solution

Authors: Zdeňka Dostálová, David Matoušek, Bohumil Brtnik

Abstract:

As there are also graph methods of circuit analysis in addition to algebraic methods, it is, in theory, clearly possible to carry out an analysis of a whole switched circuit in two-phase switching exclusively by the graph method as well. This article deals with two methods of full-graph solving of switched circuits: by transformation graphs and by two-graphs. It deals with the circuit switched capacitors and the switched current, too. All methods are presented in an equally detailed steps to be able to compare.

Keywords: Switched capacitors of two phases, switched currents of two phases, transformation graph, two-graph, Mason's formula, voltage transfer, summary graph.

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419 Speedup Breadth-First Search by Graph Ordering

Authors: Qiuyi Lyu, Bin Gong

Abstract:

Breadth-First Search (BFS) is a core graph algorithm that is widely used for graph analysis. As it is frequently used in many graph applications, improving the BFS performance is essential. In this paper, we present a graph ordering method that could reorder the graph nodes to achieve better data locality, thus, improving the BFS performance. Our method is based on an observation that the sibling relationships will dominate the cache access pattern during the BFS traversal. Therefore, we propose a frequency-based model to construct the graph order. First, we optimize the graph order according to the nodes’ visit frequency. Nodes with high visit frequency will be processed in priority. Second, we try to maximize the child nodes’ overlap layer by layer. As it is proved to be NP-hard, we propose a heuristic method that could greatly reduce the preprocessing overheads.We conduct extensive experiments on 16 real-world datasets. The result shows that our method could achieve comparable performance with the state-of-the-art methods while the graph ordering overheads are only about 1/15.

Keywords: Breadth-first search, BFS, graph ordering, graph algorithm.

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418 On Detour Spectra of Some Graphs

Authors: S.K.Ayyaswamy, S.Balachandran

Abstract:

The Detour matrix (DD) of a graph has for its ( i , j) entry the length of the longest path between vertices i and j. The DD-eigenvalues of a connected graph G are the eigenvalues for its detour matrix, and they form the DD-spectrum of G. The DD-energy EDD of the graph G is the sum of the absolute values of its DDeigenvalues. Two connected graphs are said to be DD- equienergetic if they have equal DD-energies. In this paper, the DD- spectra of a variety of graphs and their DD-energies are calculated.

Keywords: Detour eigenvalue (of a graph), detour spectrum(of a graph), detour energy(of a graph), detour - equienergetic graphs.

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417 Analysis of Electrical Networks Using Phasors: A Bond Graph Approach

Authors: Israel Núñez-Hernández, Peter C. Breedveld, Paul B. T. Weustink, Gilberto Gonzalez-A

Abstract:

This paper proposes a phasor representation of electrical networks by using bond graph methodology. A so-called phasor bond graph is built up by means of two-dimensional bonds, which represent the complex plane. Impedances or admittances are used instead of the standard bond graph elements. A procedure to obtain the steady-state values from a phasor bond graph model is presented. Besides the presentation of a phasor bond graph library in SIDOPS code, also an application example is discussed.

Keywords: Bond graphs, phasor theory, steady-state, complex power, electrical networks.

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416 Topological Queries on Graph-structured XML Data: Models and Implementations

Authors: Hongzhi Wang, Jianzhong Li, Jizhou Luo

Abstract:

In many applications, data is in graph structure, which can be naturally represented as graph-structured XML. Existing queries defined on tree-structured and graph-structured XML data mainly focus on subgraph matching, which can not cover all the requirements of querying on graph. In this paper, a new kind of queries, topological query on graph-structured XML is presented. This kind of queries consider not only the structure of subgraph but also the topological relationship between subgraphs. With existing subgraph query processing algorithms, efficient algorithms for topological query processing are designed. Experimental results show the efficiency of implementation algorithms.

Keywords: XML, Graph Structure, Topological query.

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415 An Efficient Graph Query Algorithm Based on Important Vertices and Decision Features

Authors: Xiantong Li, Jianzhong Li

Abstract:

Graph has become increasingly important in modeling complicated structures and schemaless data such as proteins, chemical compounds, and XML documents. Given a graph query, it is desirable to retrieve graphs quickly from a large database via graph-based indices. Different from the existing methods, our approach, called VFM (Vertex to Frequent Feature Mapping), makes use of vertices and decision features as the basic indexing feature. VFM constructs two mappings between vertices and frequent features to answer graph queries. The VFM approach not only provides an elegant solution to the graph indexing problem, but also demonstrates how database indexing and query processing can benefit from data mining, especially frequent pattern mining. The results show that the proposed method not only avoids the enumeration method of getting subgraphs of query graph, but also effectively reduces the subgraph isomorphism tests between the query graph and graphs in candidate answer set in verification stage.

Keywords: Decision Feature, Frequent Feature, Graph Dataset, Graph Query

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414 An Implicit Representation of Spherical Product for Increasing the Shape Variety of Super-quadrics in Implicit Surface Modeling

Authors: Pi-Chung Hsu

Abstract:

Super-quadrics can represent a set of implicit surfaces, which can be used furthermore as primitive surfaces to construct a complex object via Boolean set operations in implicit surface modeling. In fact, super-quadrics were developed to create a parametric surface by performing spherical product on two parametric curves and some of the resulting parametric surfaces were also represented as implicit surfaces. However, because not every parametric curve can be redefined implicitly, this causes only implicit super-elliptic and super-hyperbolic curves are applied to perform spherical product and so only implicit super-ellipsoids and hyperboloids are developed in super-quadrics. To create implicit surfaces with more diverse shapes than super-quadrics, this paper proposes an implicit representation of spherical product, which performs spherical product on two implicit curves like super-quadrics do. By means of the implicit representation, many new implicit curves such as polygonal, star-shaped and rose-shaped curves can be used to develop new implicit surfaces with a greater variety of shapes than super-quadrics, such as polyhedrons, hyper-ellipsoids, superhyperboloids and hyper-toroids containing star-shaped and roseshaped major and minor circles. Besides, the newly developed implicit surfaces can also be used to define new primitive implicit surfaces for constructing a more complex implicit surface in implicit surface modeling.

Keywords: Implicit surfaces, Soft objects, Super-quadrics.

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413 Notes on Fractional k-Covered Graphs

Authors: Sizhong Zhou, Yang Xu

Abstract:

A graph G is fractional k-covered if for each edge e of G, there exists a fractional k-factor h, such that h(e) = 1. If k = 2, then a fractional k-covered graph is called a fractional 2-covered graph. The binding number bind(G) is defined as follows, bind(G) = min{|NG(X)| |X| : ├ÿ = X Ôèå V (G),NG(X) = V (G)}. In this paper, it is proved that G is fractional 2-covered if δ(G) ≥ 4 and bind(G) > 5 3 .

Keywords: graph, binding number, fractional k-factor, fractional k-covered graph.

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412 Subjective Assessment about Super Resolution Image Resolution

Authors: Seiichi Gohshi, Hiroyuki Sekiguchi, Yoshiyasu Shimizu, Takeshi Ikenaga

Abstract:

Super resolution (SR) technologies are now being applied to video to improve resolution. Some TV sets are now equipped with SR functions. However, it is not known if super resolution image reconstruction (SRR) for TV really works or not. Super resolution with non-linear signal processing (SRNL) has recently been proposed. SRR and SRNL are the only methods for processing video signals in real time. The results from subjective assessments of SSR and SRNL are described in this paper. SRR video was produced in simulations with quarter precision motion vectors and 100 iterations. These are ideal conditions for SRR. We found that the image quality of SRNL is better than that of SRR even though SRR was processed under ideal conditions.

Keywords: Super Resolution Image Reconstruction, Super Resolution with Non-Linear Signal Processing, Subjective Assessment, Image Quality

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411 Syntactic Recognition of Distorted Patterns

Authors: Marek Skomorowski

Abstract:

In syntactic pattern recognition a pattern can be represented by a graph. Given an unknown pattern represented by a graph g, the problem of recognition is to determine if the graph g belongs to a language L(G) generated by a graph grammar G. The so-called IE graphs have been defined in [1] for a description of patterns. The IE graphs are generated by so-called ETPL(k) graph grammars defined in [1]. An efficient, parsing algorithm for ETPL(k) graph grammars for syntactic recognition of patterns represented by IE graphs has been presented in [1]. In practice, structural descriptions may contain pattern distortions, so that the assignment of a graph g, representing an unknown pattern, to a graph language L(G) generated by an ETPL(k) graph grammar G is rejected by the ETPL(k) type parsing. Therefore, there is a need for constructing effective parsing algorithms for recognition of distorted patterns. The purpose of this paper is to present a new approach to syntactic recognition of distorted patterns. To take into account all variations of a distorted pattern under study, a probabilistic description of the pattern is needed. A random IE graph approach is proposed here for such a description ([2]).

Keywords: Syntactic pattern recognition, Distorted patterns, Random graphs, Graph grammars.

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410 Graphs with Metric Dimension Two-A Characterization

Authors: Sudhakara G, Hemanth Kumar A.R

Abstract:

In this paper, we define distance partition of vertex set of a graph G with reference to a vertex in it and with the help of the same, a graph with metric dimension two (i.e. β (G) = 2 ) is characterized. In the process, we develop a polynomial time algorithm that verifies if the metric dimension of a given graph G is two. The same algorithm explores all metric bases of graph G whenever β (G) = 2 . We also find a bound for cardinality of any distance partite set with reference to a given vertex, when ever β (G) = 2 . Also, in a graph G with β (G) = 2 , a bound for cardinality of any distance partite set as well as a bound for number of vertices in any sub graph H of G is obtained in terms of diam H .

Keywords: Metric basis, Distance partition, Metric dimension.

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409 Image Segmentation Using Suprathreshold Stochastic Resonance

Authors: Rajib Kumar Jha, P.K.Biswas, B.N.Chatterji

Abstract:

In this paper a new concept of partial complement of a graph G is introduced and using the same a new graph parameter, called completion number of a graph G, denoted by c(G) is defined. Some basic properties of graph parameter, completion number, are studied and upperbounds for completion number of classes of graphs are obtained , the paper includes the characterization also.

Keywords: Completion Number, Maximum Independent subset, Partial complements, Partial self complementary.

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408 Analysis of a Singular Perturbed Synchronous Generator with a Bond Graph Approach

Authors: Gilberto Gonzalez-A, Noe Barrera-G

Abstract:

An analysis of a synchronous generator in a bond graph approach is proposed. This bond graph allows to determine the simplified models of the system by using singular perturbations. Firstly, the nonlinear bond graph of the generator is linearized. Then, the slow and fast state equations by applying singular perturbations are obtained. Also, a bond graph to get the quasi-steady state of the slow dynamic is proposed. In order to verify the effectiveness of the singularly perturbed models, simulation results of the complete system and reduced models are shown.

Keywords: Bond graph modelling, synchronous generator, singular perturbations

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407 Connected Vertex Cover in 2-Connected Planar Graph with Maximum Degree 4 is NP-complete

Authors: Priyadarsini P. L. K, Hemalatha T.

Abstract:

This paper proves that the problem of finding connected vertex cover in a 2-connected planar graph ( CVC-2 ) with maximum degree 4 is NP-complete. The motivation for proving this result is to give a shorter and simpler proof of NP-Completeness of TRA-MLC (the Top Right Access point Minimum-Length Corridor) problem [1], by finding the reduction from CVC-2. TRA-MLC has many applications in laying optical fibre cables for data communication and electrical wiring in floor plans.The problem of finding connected vertex cover in any planar graph ( CVC ) with maximum degree 4 is NP-complete [2]. We first show that CVC-2 belongs to NP and then we find a polynomial reduction from CVC to CVC-2. Let a graph G0 and an integer K form an instance of CVC, where G0 is a planar graph and K is an upper bound on the size of the connected vertex cover in G0. We construct a 2-connected planar graph, say G, by identifying the blocks and cut vertices of G0, and then finding the planar representation of all the blocks of G0, leading to a plane graph G1. We replace the cut vertices with cycles in such a way that the resultant graph G is a 2-connected planar graph with maximum degree 4. We consider L = K -2t+3 t i=1 di where t is the number of cut vertices in G1 and di is the number of blocks for which ith cut vertex is common. We prove that G will have a connected vertex cover with size less than or equal to L if and only if G0 has a connected vertex cover of size less than or equal to K.

Keywords: NP-complete, 2-Connected planar graph, block, cut vertex

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406 An Output Oriented Super-Efficiency Model for Considering Time Lag Effect

Authors: Yanshuang Zhang, Byungho Jeong

Abstract:

There exists some time lag between the consumption of inputs and the production of outputs. This time lag effect should be considered in calculating efficiency of decision making units (DMU). Recently, a couple of DEA models were developed for considering time lag effect in efficiency evaluation of research activities. However, these models can’t discriminate efficient DMUs because of the nature of basic DEA model in which efficiency scores are limited to ‘1’. This problem can be resolved a super-efficiency model. However, a super efficiency model sometimes causes infeasibility problem. This paper suggests an output oriented super-efficiency model for efficiency evaluation under the consideration of time lag effect. A case example using a long term research project is given to compare the suggested model with the MpO model.

Keywords: DEA, Super-efficiency, Time Lag.

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405 Protein Graph Partitioning by Mutually Maximization of cycle-distributions

Authors: Frank Emmert Streib

Abstract:

The classification of the protein structure is commonly not performed for the whole protein but for structural domains, i.e., compact functional units preserved during evolution. Hence, a first step to a protein structure classification is the separation of the protein into its domains. We approach the problem of protein domain identification by proposing a novel graph theoretical algorithm. We represent the protein structure as an undirected, unweighted and unlabeled graph which nodes correspond the secondary structure elements of the protein. This graph is call the protein graph. The domains are then identified as partitions of the graph corresponding to vertices sets obtained by the maximization of an objective function, which mutually maximizes the cycle distributions found in the partitions of the graph. Our algorithm does not utilize any other kind of information besides the cycle-distribution to find the partitions. If a partition is found, the algorithm is iteratively applied to each of the resulting subgraphs. As stop criterion, we calculate numerically a significance level which indicates the stability of the predicted partition against a random rewiring of the protein graph. Hence, our algorithm terminates automatically its iterative application. We present results for one and two domain proteins and compare our results with the manually assigned domains by the SCOP database and differences are discussed.

Keywords: Graph partitioning, unweighted graph, protein domains.

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404 Eccentric Connectivity Index, First and Second Zagreb Indices of Corona Graph

Authors: A. Kulandai Therese

Abstract:

The eccentric connectivity index based on degree and eccentricity of the vertices of a graph is a widely used graph invariant in mathematics. In this paper, we present the explicit eccentric connectivity index, first and second Zagreb indices for a Corona graph and sub divisionrelated corona graphs.

Keywords: Corona graph, Degree, Eccentricity, Eccentric Connectivity Index, First Zagreb index, Second Zagreb index and Subdivision graphs.

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403 Analysis of a Hydroelectric Plant connected to Electrical Power System in the Physical Domain

Authors: Gilberto Gonzalez-A, Octavio Barriga

Abstract:

A bond graph model of a hydroelectric plant is proposed. In order to analyze the system some structural properties of a bond graph are used. The structural controllability of the hydroelctric plant is described. Also, the steady state of the state variables applying the bond graph in a derivative causality assignment is obtained. Finally, simulation results of the system are shown.

Keywords: Bond graph, hydraulic plant, steady state.

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402 Image Segmentation Based on Graph Theoretical Approach to Improve the Quality of Image Segmentation

Authors: Deepthi Narayan, Srikanta Murthy K., G. Hemantha Kumar

Abstract:

Graph based image segmentation techniques are considered to be one of the most efficient segmentation techniques which are mainly used as time & space efficient methods for real time applications. How ever, there is need to focus on improving the quality of segmented images obtained from the earlier graph based methods. This paper proposes an improvement to the graph based image segmentation methods already described in the literature. We contribute to the existing method by proposing the use of a weighted Euclidean distance to calculate the edge weight which is the key element in building the graph. We also propose a slight modification of the segmentation method already described in the literature, which results in selection of more prominent edges in the graph. The experimental results show the improvement in the segmentation quality as compared to the methods that already exist, with a slight compromise in efficiency.

Keywords: Graph based image segmentation, threshold, Weighted Euclidean distance.

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401 2D Structured Non-Cyclic Fuzzy Graphs

Authors: T. Pathinathan, M. Peter

Abstract:

Fuzzy graphs incorporate concepts from graph theory with fuzzy principles. In this paper, we make a study on the properties of fuzzy graphs which are non-cyclic and are of two-dimensional in structure. In particular, this paper presents 2D structure or the structure of double layer for a non-cyclic fuzzy graph whose underlying crisp graph is non-cyclic. In any graph structure, introducing 2D structure may lead to an inherent cycle. We propose relevant conditions for 2D structured non-cyclic fuzzy graphs. These conditions are extended even to fuzzy graphs of the 3D structure. General theoretical properties that are studied for any fuzzy graph are verified to 2D structured or double layered fuzzy graphs. Concepts like Order, Degree, Strong and Size for a fuzzy graph are studied for 2D structured or double layered non-cyclic fuzzy graphs. Using different types of fuzzy graphs, the proposed concepts relating to 2D structured fuzzy graphs are verified.

Keywords: Double layered fuzzy graph, double layered non-cyclic fuzzy graph, strong, order, degree and size.

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