Search results for: Deep excavation
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 433

Search results for: Deep excavation

433 Numerical Investigation on the Effects of Deep Excavation on Adjacent Pile Groups Subjected to Inclined Loading

Authors: Ashkan Shafee, Ahmad Fahimifar

Abstract:

There is a growing demand for construction of high-rise buildings and infrastructures in large cities, which sometimes require deep excavations in the vicinity of pile foundations. In this study, a two-dimensional finite element analysis is used to gain insight into the response of pile groups adjacent to deep excavations in sand. The numerical code was verified by available experimental works, and a parametric study was performed on different working load combinations, excavation depth and supporting system. The results show that the simple two-dimensional plane strain model can accurately simulate the excavation induced changes on adjacent pile groups. It was found that further excavation than pile toe level and also inclined loading on adjacent pile group can severely affect the serviceability of the foundation.

Keywords: Deep excavation, pile group, inclined loading, lateral deformation.

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432 Numerical Modeling of Various Support Systems to Stabilize Deep Excavations

Authors: M. Abdallah

Abstract:

Urban development requires deep excavations near buildings and other structures. Deep excavation has become more a necessity for better utilization of space as the population of the world has dramatically increased. In Lebanon, some urban areas are very crowded and lack spaces for new buildings and underground projects, which makes the usage of underground space indispensable. In this paper, a numerical modeling is performed using the finite element method to study the deep excavation-diaphragm wall soil-structure interaction in the case of nonlinear soil behavior. The study is focused on a comparison of the results obtained using different support systems. Furthermore, a parametric study is performed according to the remoteness of the structure.

Keywords: Deep excavation, ground anchors, interaction, struts.

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431 A Case Study on the Numerical-Probability Approach for Deep Excavation Analysis

Authors: Komeil Valipourian

Abstract:

Urban advances and the growing need for developing infrastructures has increased the importance of deep excavations. In this study, after the introducing probability analysis as an important issue, an attempt has been made to apply it for the deep excavation project of Bangkok’s Metro as a case study. For this, the numerical probability model has been developed based on the Finite Difference Method and Monte Carlo sampling approach. The results indicate that disregarding the issue of probability in this project will result in an inappropriate design of the retaining structure. Therefore, probabilistic redesign of the support is proposed and carried out as one of the applications of probability analysis. A 50% reduction in the flexural strength of the structure increases the failure probability just by 8% in the allowable range and helps improve economic conditions, while maintaining mechanical efficiency. With regard to the lack of efficient design in most deep excavations, by considering geometrical and geotechnical variability, an attempt was made to develop an optimum practical design standard for deep excavations based on failure probability. On this basis, a practical relationship is presented for estimating the maximum allowable horizontal displacement, which can help improve design conditions without developing the probability analysis.

Keywords: Numerical probability modeling, deep excavation, allowable maximum displacement, finite difference method, FDM.

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430 Numerical Simulation for a Shallow Braced Excavation of Campus Building

Authors: Sao-Jeng Chao, Wen-Cheng Chen, Wei-Humg Lu

Abstract:

In order to prevent encountering unpredictable factors, geotechnical engineers always conduct numerical analysis for braced excavation design. Simulation work in advance can predict the response of subsequent excavation and thus will be designed to increase the security coefficient of construction. The parameters that are considered include geological conditions, soil properties, soil distributions, loading types, and the analysis and design methods. National Ilan University is located on the LanYang plain, mainly deposited by clayey soil and loose sand, and thus is vulnerable to external influence displacement. National Ilan University experienced a construction of braced excavation with a complete program of monitoring excavation. This study takes advantage of a one-dimensional finite element method RIDO to simulate the excavation process. The predicted results from numerical simulation analysis are compared with the monitored results of construction to explore the differences between them. Numerical simulation analysis of the excavation process can be used to analyze retaining structures for the purpose of understanding the relationship between the displacement and supporting system. The resulting deformation and stress distribution from the braced excavation cab then be understand in advance. The problems can be prevented prior to the construction process, and thus acquire all the affected important factors during design and construction.

Keywords: Excavation, numerical simulation, rido, retaining structure.

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429 Investigating the Nail Walls Performance in Jointed Rock Medium

Authors: Ibrahim Naeimifar, Omid Naeemifar

Abstract:

Evaluation of the excavation-induced ground movements is an important design aspect of support systems in urban areas. Geological and geotechnical conditions of an excavation area have significant effects on excavation-induced ground movements and the related damage. This paper is aimed at studying the performance of excavation walls supported by nails in jointed rock medium. The performance of nailed walls is investigated based on evaluating the excavation-induced ground movements. For this purpose, a set of calibrated 2D finite element models are developed by taking into account the nail-rock-structure interactions, the anisotropic properties of jointed rock, and the staged construction process. The results of this paper highlight effects of different parameters such as joint inclinations, anisotropy of rocks and nail inclinations on deformation parameters of excavation wall supported by nails.

Keywords: Finite element, jointed rock, nailing, performance.

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428 A Resource Survey of Lateritic Soils and Impact Evaluation toward Community Members Living Nearby the Excavation Pits

Authors: Ratchasak Suvannatsiri

Abstract:

The objectives of the research are to find the basic engineering properties of lateritic soil and to predict the impact on community members who live nearby the excavation pits in the area of Amphur Pak Thor, Ratchaburi Province in the western area of Thailand. The research was conducted by collecting soil samples from four excavation pits for basic engineering properties, testing and collecting questionnaire data from 120 community members who live nearby the excavation pits, and applying statistical analysis. The results found that the basic engineering properties of lateritic soil can be classified into silt soil type which is cohesionless as the loess or collapsible soil which is not suitable to be used for a pavement structure for commuting highway because it could lead to structural and functional failure in the long run. In terms of opinion from community members toward the impact, the highest impact was on the dust from excavation activities. The prediction from the logistic regression in terms of impact on community members was at 84.32 which can be adapted and applied onto other areas with the same context as a guideline for risk prevention and risk communication since it could impact the infrastructures and also impact the health of community members.

Keywords: Lateritic soil, excavation pits, engineering properties, impact on community members

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427 Study of Bored Pile Retaining Wall Using Physical Modeling

Authors: Amin Eslami, Jafar Bolouri Bazaz

Abstract:

Excavation and retaining walls are of challenging issues in civil engineering. In this study, the behavior of one important type of supporting systems called Contiguous Bored Pile (CBP) retaining wall is investigated using a physical model. Besides, a comparison is made between two modes of free end piles (soft bed) and fixed end piles (stiff bed). Also a back calculation of effective length (the real free length of pile) is done by measuring lateral deflection of piles in different stages of excavation in both aforementioned cases. Based on observed results, for the fixed end mode, the effective length to free length ratio (Leff/L0) is equal to unity in initial stages of excavation and less than 1 in its final stages in a decreasing manner. While this ratio for free end mode, remains constant during all stages of excavation and is always less than unity.

Keywords: Contiguous Bored Pile Wall, Effective Length, Fixed End, Free End, Free Length.

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426 2D Numerical Analysis of Sao Paulo Tunnel

Authors: A.H. Akhaveissy

Abstract:

Nonlinear finite element method and Serendipity eight nodes element are used for determining of ground surface settlement due to tunneling. Linear element with elastic behavior is used for modeling of lining. Modified Generalized plasticity model with nonassociated flow rule is applied for analysis of a tunnel in Sao Paulo – Brazil. The tunnel had analyzed by Lades- model with 16 parameters. In this work modified Generalized Plasticity is used with 10 parameters, also Mohr-Coulomb model is used to analysis the tunnel. The results show good agreement with observed results of field data by modified Generalized Plasticity model than other models. The obtained result by Mohr-Coulomb model shows less settlement than other model due to excavation.

Keywords: Non-associated flow rule, Generalized plasticity, tunnel excavation, Excavation method.

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425 Two Lessons Learnt in Defining Intersections and Interfaces in Numerical Modeling with Plaxis

Authors: Mahdi Sadeghian, Somaye Sadeghian, Reza Dinarvand

Abstract:

This paper is going to discuss two issues encountered in using PLAXIS. Both issues were monitored during application of PLAXIS to estimate the excavation-induced displacement. Column Soil Mixing (CSM) was applied to stabilise the excavation. It was understood that the estimated excavation induced deformation at the top of the CSM blocks highly depends on the material type defining pavement material adjacent to the CSM blocks. Cohesive material for pavement will result in the unrealistic connection between pavement and CSM even by defining an interface element. To find the most realistic approach, the interface defined in three different manners (1) no interface elements were applied (2) a non-cohesive soil layer was defined between pavement and CSM block to represent the friction between these materials (3) built-in interface elements in PLAXIS was used to define the boundary between the pavement and the CSM block. The result showed that the option 2 would result in more realistic results. The second issue was in the modelling of the contact line between the CSM block and an inclined layer underneath. The analysis result showed that the excavation-induced deformation highly depends on how the PLAXIS user defines the contact area. It was understood that if the contact area had defined as a point in which CSM block had intersected the layer underneath the estimated lateral displacement of CSM block would be unrealistically lower than the model in which the contact area was defined as a line.

Keywords: PLAXIS, FEM, CSM, excavation-induced deformation.

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424 Deep iCrawl: An Intelligent Vision-Based Deep Web Crawler

Authors: R.Anita, V.Ganga Bharani, N.Nityanandam, Pradeep Kumar Sahoo

Abstract:

The explosive growth of World Wide Web has posed a challenging problem in extracting relevant data. Traditional web crawlers focus only on the surface web while the deep web keeps expanding behind the scene. Deep web pages are created dynamically as a result of queries posed to specific web databases. The structure of the deep web pages makes it impossible for traditional web crawlers to access deep web contents. This paper, Deep iCrawl, gives a novel and vision-based approach for extracting data from the deep web. Deep iCrawl splits the process into two phases. The first phase includes Query analysis and Query translation and the second covers vision-based extraction of data from the dynamically created deep web pages. There are several established approaches for the extraction of deep web pages but the proposed method aims at overcoming the inherent limitations of the former. This paper also aims at comparing the data items and presenting them in the required order.

Keywords: Crawler, Deep web, Web Database

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423 Influence of Wall Stiffness and Embedment Depth on Excavations Supported by Cantilever Walls

Authors: Muhammad Naseem Baig, Abdul Qudoos Khan, Jamal Ali

Abstract:

Ground deformations in deep excavations are affected by wall stiffness and pile embedment ratio. This paper presents the findings of a parametric study of a 64-ft deep excavation in mixed stiff soil conditions supported by cantilever pile wall. A series of finite element analysis has been carried out in Plaxis 2D by varying the pile embedment ratio and wall stiffness. It has been observed that maximum wall deflections decrease by increasing the embedment ratio up to 1.50; however, any further increase in pile length does not improve the performance of the wall. Similarly, increasing wall stiffness reduces the wall deformations and affects the deflection patterns of the wall. The finite element analysis results are compared with the field data of 25 case studies of cantilever walls. Analysis results fall within the range of normalized wall deflections of the 25 case studies. It has been concluded that deep excavations can be supported by cantilever walls provided the system stiffness is increased significantly.

Keywords: Excavations, support systems, wall stiffness, cantilever walls.

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422 Investigation on Behavior of Fixed-Ended Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams

Authors: Y. Heyrani Birak, R. Hizaji, J. Shahkarami

Abstract:

Reinforced Concrete (RC) deep beams are special structural elements because of their geometry and behavior under loads. For example, assumption of strain- stress distribution is not linear in the cross section. These types of beams may have simple supports or fixed supports. A lot of research works have been conducted on simply supported deep beams, but little study has been done in the fixed-end RC deep beams behavior. Recently, using of fixed-ended deep beams has been widely increased in structures. In this study, the behavior of fixed-ended deep beams is investigated, and the important parameters in capacity of this type of beams are mentioned.

Keywords: Deep beam, capacity, reinforced concrete, fixed-ended.

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421 Failure Mechanism in Fixed-Ended Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams under Cyclic Load

Authors: A. Aarabzadeh, R. Hizaji

Abstract:

Reinforced Concrete (RC) deep beams are a special type of beams due to their geometry, boundary conditions, and behavior compared to ordinary shallow beams. For example, assumption of a linear strain-stress distribution in the cross section is not valid. Little study has been dedicated to fixed-end RC deep beams. Also, most experimental studies are carried out on simply supported deep beams. Regarding recent tendency for application of deep beams, possibility of using fixed-ended deep beams has been widely increased in structures. Therefore, it seems necessary to investigate the aforementioned structural element in more details. In addition to experimental investigation of a concrete deep beam under cyclic load, different failure mechanisms of fixed-ended deep beams under this type of loading have been evaluated in the present study. The results show that failure mechanisms of deep beams under cyclic loads are quite different from monotonic loads.

Keywords: Deep beam, cyclic load, reinforced concrete, fixed-ended.

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420 Cantilever Shoring Piles with Prestressing Strands: An Experimental Approach

Authors: Hani Mekdash, Lina Jaber, Yehia Temsah

Abstract:

Underground space is becoming a necessity nowadays, especially in highly congested urban areas. Retaining underground excavations using shoring systems is essential in order to protect adjoining structures from potential damage or collapse. Reinforced Concrete Piles (RCP) supported by multiple rows of tie-back anchors are commonly used type of shoring systems in deep excavations. However, executing anchors can sometimes be challenging because they might illegally trespass neighboring properties or get obstructed by infrastructure and other underground facilities. A technique is proposed in this paper, and it involves the addition of eccentric high-strength steel strands to the RCP section through ducts without providing the pile with lateral supports. The strands are then vertically stressed externally on the pile cap using a hydraulic jack, creating a compressive strengthening force in the concrete section. An experimental study about the behavior of the shoring wall by pre-stressed piles is presented during the execution of an open excavation in an urban area (Beirut city) followed by numerical analysis using finite element software. Based on the experimental results, this technique is proven to be cost-effective and provides flexible and sustainable construction of shoring works.

Keywords: Excavation, inclinometer, prestressing, shoring system.

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419 Classification Based on Deep Neural Cellular Automata Model

Authors: Yasser F. Hassan

Abstract:

Deep learning structure is a branch of machine learning science and greet achievement in research and applications. Cellular neural networks are regarded as array of nonlinear analog processors called cells connected in a way allowing parallel computations. The paper discusses how to use deep learning structure for representing neural cellular automata model. The proposed learning technique in cellular automata model will be examined from structure of deep learning. A deep automata neural cellular system modifies each neuron based on the behavior of the individual and its decision as a result of multi-level deep structure learning. The paper will present the architecture of the model and the results of simulation of approach are given. Results from the implementation enrich deep neural cellular automata system and shed a light on concept formulation of the model and the learning in it.

Keywords: Cellular automata, neural cellular automata, deep learning, classification.

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418 Dynamics of Mini Hydraulic Backhoe Excavator: A Lagrange-Euler (L-E) Approach

Authors: Bhaveshkumar P. Patel, J. M. Prajapati

Abstract:

Excavators are high power machines used in the mining, agricultural and construction industry whose principal functions are digging (material removing), ground leveling and material transport operations. During the digging task there are certain unknown forces exerted by the bucket on the soil and the digging operation is repetitive in nature. Automation of the digging task can be performed by an automatically controlled excavator system, which is not only control the forces but also follow the planned digging trajectories. To develop such a controller for automated excavation, it is required to develop a dynamic model to describe the behavior of the control system during digging operation and motion of excavator with time. The presented work described a dynamic model needed for controller design and which is derived by applying Lagrange-Euler approach. The developed dynamic model is intended for further development of an automated excavation control system for light duty construction work and can be applied for heavy duty or all types of backhoe excavators.

Keywords: Backhoe excavator, controller, digging, excavation, trajectory.

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417 Hydrogeological Risk and Mining Tunnels: the Fontane-Rodoretto Mine Turin (Italy)

Authors: Paola Gattinoni, Laura Scesi, Elena Cerino Adbin, Daniele Cremonesi

Abstract:

The interaction of tunneling or mining with groundwater has become a very relevant problem not only due to the need to guarantee the safety of workers and to assure the efficiency of the tunnel drainage systems, but also to safeguard water resources from impoverishment and pollution risk. Therefore it is very important to forecast the drainage processes (i.e., the evaluation of drained discharge and drawdown caused by the excavation). The aim of this study was to know better the system and to quantify the flow drained from the Fontane mines, located in Val Germanasca (Turin, Italy). This allowed to understand the hydrogeological local changes in time. The work has therefore been structured as follows: the reconstruction of the conceptual model with the geological, hydrogeological and geological-structural study; the calculation of the tunnel inflows (through the use of structural methods) and the comparison with the measured flow rates; the water balance at the basin scale. In this way it was possible to understand what are the relationships between rainfall, groundwater level variations and the effect of the presence of tunnels as a means of draining water. Subsequently, it the effects produced by the excavation of the mining tunnels was quantified, through numerical modeling. In particular, the modeling made it possible to observe the drawdown variation as a function of number, excavation depth and different mines linings.

Keywords: Groundwater, Italy, numerical model, tunneling.

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416 Effect of Different Oils on Quality of Deep-fried Dough Stick

Authors: Nuntaporn Aukkanit

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oils on chemical, physical, and sensory properties of deep-fried dough stick. Five kinds of vegetable oil which were used for addition and frying consist of: palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, rice bran oil, and canola oil. The results of this study showed that using different kinds of oil made significant difference in the quality of deep-fried dough stick. Deep-fried dough stick fried with the rice bran oil had the lowest moisture loss and oil absorption (p≤0.05), but it had some unsatisfactory physical properties (color, specific volume, density, and texture) and sensory characteristics. Nonetheless, deep-fried dough stick fried with the sunflower oil had moisture loss and oil absorption slightly more than the rice bran oil, but it had almost higher physical and sensory properties. Deep-fried dough sticks together with the sunflower oil did not have different sensory score from the palm oil, commonly used for production of deep-fried dough stick. These results indicated that addition and frying with the sunflower oil are appropriate for the production of deep-fried dough stick.

Keywords: Deep-fried dough stick, palm oil, sunflower oil, rice bran oil.

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415 Effects of Opening Shape and Location on the Structural Strength of R.C. Deep Beams with Openings

Authors: Haider M. Alsaeq

Abstract:

This research investigates the effects of the opening shape and location on the structural behavior of reinforced concrete deep beam with openings, while keeping the opening size unchanged. The software ANSYS 12.1 is used to handle the nonlinear finite element analysis. The ultimate strength of reinforced concrete deep beam with opening obtained by ANSYS 12.1 shows fair agreement with the experimental results, with a difference of no more than 20%. The present work concludes that the opening location has much more effect on the structural strength than the opening shape. It was concluded that placing the openings near the upper corners of the deep beam may double the strength, and the use of a rectangular narrow opening, with the long sides in the horizontal direction, can save up to 40% of structural strength of the deep beam.

Keywords: Deep Beams, Finite Element, Opening, Reinforced Concrete.

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414 Risk Quantification for Tunnel Excavation Process

Authors: J. Šejnoha, D. Jarušková, O. Špačková, E. Novotná

Abstract:

Construction of tunnels is connected with high uncertainty in the field of costs, construction period, safety and impact on surroundings. Risk management became therefore a common part of tunnel projects, especially after a set of fatal collapses occurred in 1990's. Such collapses are caused usually by combination of factors that can be divided into three main groups, i.e. unfavourable geological conditions, failures in the design and planning or failures in the execution. This paper suggests a procedure enabling quantification of the excavation risk related to extraordinary accidents using FTA and ETA tools. It will elaborate on a common process of risk analysis and enable the transfer of information and experience between particular tunnel construction projects. Further, it gives a guide for designers, management and other participants, how to deal with risk of such accidents and how to make qualified decisions based on a probabilistic approach.

Keywords: risk quantification, tunnel collapse, ETA, FTA, geotechnical risk

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413 Construction Procedures Evaluation of Three Adjacent Tunnels and Excavation Step Effects

Authors: M. Mahdi, N. Shariatmadari

Abstract:

Since, both the relative position of tunnels and the construction procedure affect the soil movement and internal forces in the lining, it is of major concern to study the influence of these factors on the tunnel design. Construction procedures of tunnels have considerable effects on the magnitude of surface movements and lining stresses. This paper describes numerical analysis of construction procedure of a three adjacent shallow tunnels at high groundwater levels using the commercial finite difference software (FLAC-3D). The aim of this study is to determinate the most suitable construction procedure for the three tunnels and the optimum excavation step in Tehran Metro tunnels in order to optimize the surface settlements and lining stresses.

Keywords: Shallow tunnel, multiple tunnels, construction procedure, surface movement, numerical modeling.

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412 Performance Evaluation of Distributed Deep Learning Frameworks in Cloud Environment

Authors: Shuen-Tai Wang, Fang-An Kuo, Chau-Yi Chou, Yu-Bin Fang

Abstract:

2016 has become the year of the Artificial Intelligence explosion. AI technologies are getting more and more matured that most world well-known tech giants are making large investment to increase the capabilities in AI. Machine learning is the science of getting computers to act without being explicitly programmed, and deep learning is a subset of machine learning that uses deep neural network to train a machine to learn  features directly from data. Deep learning realizes many machine learning applications which expand the field of AI. At the present time, deep learning frameworks have been widely deployed on servers for deep learning applications in both academia and industry. In training deep neural networks, there are many standard processes or algorithms, but the performance of different frameworks might be different. In this paper we evaluate the running performance of two state-of-the-art distributed deep learning frameworks that are running training calculation in parallel over multi GPU and multi nodes in our cloud environment. We evaluate the training performance of the frameworks with ResNet-50 convolutional neural network, and we analyze what factors that result in the performance among both distributed frameworks as well. Through the experimental analysis, we identify the overheads which could be further optimized. The main contribution is that the evaluation results provide further optimization directions in both performance tuning and algorithmic design.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, machine learning, deep learning, convolutional neural networks.

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411 Analytical and Finite Element Analysis of Hydroforming Deep Drawing Process

Authors: Maziar Ramezani, Thomas Neitzert

Abstract:

This paper gives an overview of a deep drawing process by pressurized liquid medium separated from the sheet by a rubber diaphragm. Hydroforming deep drawing processing of sheet metal parts provides a number of advantages over conventional techniques. It generally increases the depth to diameter ratio possible in cup drawing and minimizes the thickness variation of the drawn cup. To explore the deformation mechanism, analytical and numerical simulations are used for analyzing the drawing process of an AA6061-T4 blank. The effects of key process parameters such as coefficient of friction, initial thickness of the blank and radius between cup wall and flange are investigated analytically and numerically. The simulated results were in good agreement with the results of the analytical model. According to finite element simulations, the hydroforming deep drawing method provides a more uniform thickness distribution compared to conventional deep drawing and decreases the risk of tearing during the process.

Keywords: Deep drawing, Hydroforming, Rubber diaphragm

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410 A Low Cost Knowledge Base System Framework for Design of Deep Drawing Die

Authors: Vishal Naranje, S. Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper a low cost knowledge base system (KBS) framework is proposed for design of deep drawing die and procedure for developing system modules. The task of building the system is structured into different modules for major activities of design of deep drawing die. A manufacturability assessment module of the proposed framework is developed to check the manufacturability of deep drawn parts. The technological knowledge is represented by using IF- THEN rules and it is coded in AutoLISP language. The module is designed to be loaded into the prompt area of AutoCAD. The cost of implementation of proposed system makes it affordable for small and medium scale sheet metal industries.

Keywords: Knowledge base system, Deep drawing die, Manufacturability, Sheet metal.

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409 Shear Behaviour of RC Deep Beams with Openings Strengthened with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer

Authors: Mannal Tariq

Abstract:

Construction industry is making progress at a high pace. The trend of the world is getting more biased towards the high rise buildings. Deep beams are one of the most common elements in modern construction having small span to depth ratio. Deep beams are mostly used as transfer girders. This experimental study consists of 16 reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams. These beams were divided into two groups; A and B. Groups A and B consist of eight beams each, having 381 mm (15 in) and 457 mm (18 in) depth respectively. Each group was further subdivided into four sub groups each consisting of two identical beams. Each subgroup was comprised of solid/control beam (without opening), opening above neutral axis (NA), at NA and below NA. Except for control beams, all beams with openings were strengthened with carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) vertical strips. These eight groups differ from each other based on depth and location of openings. For testing sake, all beams have been loaded with two symmetrical point loads. All beams have been designed based on strut and tie model concept. The outcome of experimental investigation elaborates the difference in the shear behaviour of deep beams based on depth and location of circular openings variation. 457 mm (18 in) deep beam with openings above NA show the highest strength and 381 mm (15 in) deep beam with openings below NA show the least strength. CFRP sheets played a vital role in increasing the shear capacity of beams.

Keywords: CFRP, deep beams, openings in deep beams, strut and tie model, shear behaviour.

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408 A Survey of Sentiment Analysis Based on Deep Learning

Authors: Pingping Lin, Xudong Luo, Yifan Fan

Abstract:

Sentiment analysis is a very active research topic. Every day, Facebook, Twitter, Weibo, and other social media, as well as significant e-commerce websites, generate a massive amount of comments, which can be used to analyse peoples opinions or emotions. The existing methods for sentiment analysis are based mainly on sentiment dictionaries, machine learning, and deep learning. The first two kinds of methods rely on heavily sentiment dictionaries or large amounts of labelled data. The third one overcomes these two problems. So, in this paper, we focus on the third one. Specifically, we survey various sentiment analysis methods based on convolutional neural network, recurrent neural network, long short-term memory, deep neural network, deep belief network, and memory network. We compare their futures, advantages, and disadvantages. Also, we point out the main problems of these methods, which may be worthy of careful studies in the future. Finally, we also examine the application of deep learning in multimodal sentiment analysis and aspect-level sentiment analysis.

Keywords: Natural language processing, sentiment analysis, document analysis, multimodal sentiment analysis, deep learning.

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407 Surface Water Quality in Orchard Area, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: Sisuwan Kaseamsawat, Sivapan Choo-In

Abstract:

This study aimed to evaluated the surface water quality for agriculture and consumption in the Amphawa District. The surface water quality parameters in this study included water temperature, turbidity, conductivity, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, BOD, nitrate, suspended solids, phosphorus, total dissolved solids (TDS), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). The water samples were collected from small excavation, Lychee, Pomelo and Coconut orchards for 3 seasons from January to December 2011.

The surface water quality from small excavation, Lychee, pomelo and coconut orchards were met the type III of surface water quality standard. The concentration of heavy metal and did not differ significantly at 0.05 level, except dissolved oxygen.

The surface water was suitable for consumption by the usual sterile and generally improving water quality through the process before and was suitable for agriculture.

Keywords: Water Quality, Surface Water Quality.

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406 Adaptive Few-Shot Deep Metric Learning

Authors: Wentian Shi, Daming Shi, Maysam Orouskhani, Feng Tian

Abstract:

Currently the most prevalent deep learning methods require a large amount of data for training, whereas few-shot learning tries to learn a model from limited data without extensive retraining. In this paper, we present a loss function based on triplet loss for solving few-shot problem using metric based learning. Instead of setting the margin distance in triplet loss as a constant number empirically, we propose an adaptive margin distance strategy to obtain the appropriate margin distance automatically. We implement the strategy in the deep siamese network for deep metric embedding, by utilizing an optimization approach by penalizing the worst case and rewarding the best. Our experiments on image recognition and co-segmentation model demonstrate that using our proposed triplet loss with adaptive margin distance can significantly improve the performance.

Keywords: Few-shot learning, triplet network, adaptive margin, deep learning.

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405 Inventory and Characterization of Selected Deep Sea Fish Species as an Alternative Food Source from Southern Java Ocean and Western Sumatra Ocean, Indonesia

Authors: S.H. Suseno, T.A.Yang, W.N. Abdullah , N.A. Febrianto, W.N. Asti, B. Bahtiar, Hamidah, A. Suman, Desniar, A. Hartoyo

Abstract:

Sixteen selected deep-sea fish obtained from Southern Java Ocean and Western Sumatra Ocean was analyzed to determine its proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition. The moisture content was ranged from 64.38 to 86.04 %, ash from 0.17 to 0.69 %, the fat content was 1.54 – 13.30 % while the protein content varied from 15.84 to 23.60%. Among the fatty acids, oleic acid and palmitic acid was the dominant MUFA and SFA. Linoleic acid was the highest PUFA found at the selected deep-sea fish. Phospor was the highest macroelement concentration on selected deep-sea fish, followed by K, Ca, Mg and Iod, Fe and Zn among microelement. The trace concentration was found at Se microelement.

Keywords: deep-sea fish, fatty acid, microelement, macroelement, monounsaturated fatty acid, proximate, polyunsaturated fatty acids.

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404 Critical Heights of Sloped Unsupported Trenches in Unsaturated Sand

Authors: Won Taek Oh, Adin Richard

Abstract:

Workers are often required to enter unsupported trenches during the construction process, which may present serious risks. Trench failures can result in death or damage to adjacent properties, therefore trenches should be excavated with extreme precaution. Excavation work is often done in unsaturated soils, where the critical height (i.e. maximum depth that can be excavated without failure) of unsupported trenches can be more reliably estimated by considering the influence of matric suction. In this study, coupled stress/pore-water pressure analyses are conducted to investigate the critical height of sloped unsupported trenches considering the influence of pore-water pressure redistribution caused by excavating. Four different wall slopes (1.5V:1H, 2V:1H, 3V:1H, and 90°) and a vertical trench with the top 0.3 m sloped 1:1 were considered in the analyses with multiple depths of the ground water table in a sand. For comparison, the critical heights were also estimated using the limit equilibrium method for the same excavation scenarios used in the coupled analyses.

Keywords: Critical height, matric suction, unsaturated soil, unsupported trench.

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