Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 340

# Search results for: line heating

##### 340 Line Heating Forming: Methodology and Application Using Kriging and Fifth Order Spline Formulations

Abstract:

In this article, a method is presented to effectively estimate the deformed shape of a thick plate due to line heating. The method uses a fifth order spline interpolation, with up to C3 continuity at specific points to compute the shape of the deformed geometry. First and second order derivatives over a surface are the resulting parameters of a given heating line on a plate. These parameters are determined through experiments and/or finite element simulations. Very accurate kriging models are fitted to real or virtual surfaces to build-up a database of maps. Maps of first and second order derivatives are then applied on numerical plate models to evaluate their evolving shapes through a sequence of heating lines. Adding an optimization process to this approach would allow determining the trajectories of heating lines needed to shape complex geometries, such as Francis turbine blades.
##### 339 Performance Comparison of Two Assembly Line Concepts: Conveyor Line and Box Assembly Line

Abstract:

As there has been a recognizable transition in automotive industry from mass production to mass customization, automobile manufacturers and their suppliers have been seeking ways for more flexible and efficient processes. Eventually, modular production is currently being applied to manage the changing orders of the industry. In this paper, two different modular assembly line concepts were studied: conveyor line and box assembly line. Mathematical model for two assembly line concepts were developed and their production line efficiency were compared as a performance measure to improve their assembly line balancing.
##### 338 A Novel Method to Evaluate Line Loadability for Distribution Systems with Realistic Loads

Authors: K. Nagaraju, S. Sivanagaraju, T. Ramana, V. Ganesh

Abstract:

This paper presents a simple method for estimation of additional load as a factor of the existing load that may be drawn before reaching the point of line maximum loadability of radial distribution system (RDS) with different realistic load models at different substation voltages. The proposed method involves a simple line loadability index (LLI) that gives a measure of the proximity of the present state of a line in the distribution system. The LLI can use to assess voltage instability and the line loading margin. The proposed method also compares with the existing method of maximum loadability index [10]. The simulation results show that the LLI can identify not only the weakest line/branch causing system instability but also the system voltage collapse point when it is near one. This feature enables us to set an index threshold to monitor and predict system stability on-line so that a proper action can be taken to prevent the system from collapse. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm, computer simulations are carried out on two bus and 69 bus RDS.
##### 337 Framework Study on Single Assembly Line to Improve Productivity with Six Sigma and Line Balancing Approach

Abstract:

Six sigma is a framework that is used to identify inefficiency so that the cause of inefficiency will be known and right improvement to overcome cause of inefficiency can be conducted. This paper presents result of implementing six sigma to improve piston assembly line in Manufacturing Laboratory, Universitas Indonesia. Six sigma framework will be used to analyze the significant factor of inefficiency that needs to be improved which causes bottleneck in assembly line. After analysis based on six sigma framework conducted, line balancing method was chosen for improvement to overcome causative factor of inefficiency which is differences time between workstation that causes bottleneck in assembly line. Then after line balancing conducted in piston assembly line, the result is increase in efficiency. Efficiency is shown in the decreasing of Defects per Million Opportunities (DPMO) from 900,000 to 700,000, the increasing of level of labor productivity from 0.0041 to 0.00742, the decreasing of idle time from 121.3 seconds to 12.1 seconds, and the increasing of output, which is from 1 piston in 5 minutes become 3 pistons in 5 minutes.

##### 336 Parallel Computation in Hypersonic Aerodynamic Heating Problem

Authors: Ding Guo-hao, Li Hua, Wang Wen-long

Abstract:

A parallel computational fluid dynamics code has been developed for the study of aerodynamic heating problem in hypersonic flows. The code employs the 3D Navier-Stokes equations as the basic governing equations to simulate the laminar hypersonic flow. The cell centered finite volume method based on structured grid is applied for spatial discretization. The AUSMPW+ scheme is used for the inviscid fluxes, and the MUSCL approach is used for higher order spatial accuracy. The implicit LU-SGS scheme is applied for time integration to accelerate the convergence of computations in steady flows. A parallel programming method based on MPI is employed to shorten the computing time. The validity of the code is demonstrated by comparing the numerical calculation result with the experimental data of a hypersonic flow field around a blunt body.

Keywords: Aerodynamic Heating, AUSMPW+, MPI, ParallelComputation

##### 335 An Experimental Investigation of Heating in Induction Motors

Authors: R. Khaldi, N. Benamrouche, M. Bouheraoua

Abstract:

The ability to predict an accurate temperature distribution requires the knowledge of the losses, the thermal characteristics of the materials, and the cooling conditions, all of which are very difficult to quantify. In this paper, the impact of the effects of iron and copper losses are investigated separately and their effects on the heating in various points of the stator of an induction motor, is highlighted by using two simple tests. In addition, the effect of a defect, such as an open circuit in a phase of the stator, on the heating is also obtained by a no-load test. The squirrel cage induction motor is rated at 2.2 kW; 380 V; 5.2 A; Δ connected; 50 Hz; 1420 rpm and the class of insulation F, has been thermally tested under several load conditions. Several thermocouples were placed in strategic points of the stator.

Keywords: induction motor, temperature, heating, losses

##### 334 Prediction Heating Values of Lignocellulosics from Biomass Characteristics

Abstract:

The paper provides biomasses characteristics by proximate analysis (volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash) and ultimate analysis (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen) for the prediction of the heating value equations. The heating value estimation of various biomasses can be used as an energy evaluation. Thirteen types of biomass were studied. Proximate analysis was investigated by mass loss method and infrared moisture analyzer. Ultimate analysis was analyzed by CHNO analyzer. The heating values varied from 15 to 22.4MJ kg-1. Correlations of the calculated heating value with proximate and ultimate analyses were undertaken using multiple regression analysis and summarized into three and two equations, respectively. Correlations based on proximate analysis illustrated that deviation of calculated heating values from experimental heating values was higher than the correlations based on ultimate analysis.

##### 333 On-line Recognition of Isolated Gestures of Flight Deck Officers (FDO)

Authors: Deniz T. Sodiri, Venkat V S S Sastry

Abstract:

The paper presents an on-line recognition machine (RM) for continuous/isolated, dynamic and static gestures that arise in Flight Deck Officer (FDO) training. RM is based on generic pattern recognition framework. Gestures are represented as templates using summary statistics. The proposed recognition algorithm exploits temporal and spatial characteristics of gestures via dynamic programming and Markovian process. The algorithm predicts corresponding index of incremental input data in the templates in an on-line mode. Accumulated consistency in the sequence of prediction provides a similarity measurement (Score) between input data and the templates. The algorithm provides an intuitive mechanism for automatic detection of start/end frames of continuous gestures. In the present paper, we consider isolated gestures. The performance of RM is evaluated using four datasets - artificial (W TTest), hand motion (Yang) and FDO (tracker, vision-based ). RM achieves comparable results which are in agreement with other on-line and off-line algorithms such as hidden Markov model (HMM) and dynamic time warping (DTW). The proposed algorithm has the additional advantage of providing timely feedback for training purposes.
##### 332 Recognition Machine (RM) for On-line and Isolated Flight Deck Officer (FDO) Gestures

Authors: Deniz T. Sodiri, Venkat V S S Sastry

Abstract:

The paper presents an on-line recognition machine (RM) for continuous/isolated, dynamic and static gestures that arise in Flight Deck Officer (FDO) training. RM is based on generic pattern recognition framework. Gestures are represented as templates using summary statistics. The proposed recognition algorithm exploits temporal and spatial characteristics of gestures via dynamic programming and Markovian process. The algorithm predicts corresponding index of incremental input data in the templates in an on-line mode. Accumulated consistency in the sequence of prediction provides a similarity measurement (Score) between input data and the templates. The algorithm provides an intuitive mechanism for automatic detection of start/end frames of continuous gestures. In the present paper, we consider isolated gestures. The performance of RM is evaluated using four datasets - artificial (W TTest), hand motion (Yang) and FDO (tracker, vision-based ). RM achieves comparable results which are in agreement with other on-line and off-line algorithms such as hidden Markov model (HMM) and dynamic time warping (DTW). The proposed algorithm has the additional advantage of providing timely feedback for training purposes.
##### 331 Energy Consumptions of Different Building Heating Systems for Various Meteorological Regions of Iran: A Comparison Study

Abstract:

To simulate heating systems in buildings, a research oriented computer code has been developed in Sharif University of Technology in Iran where the climate, existing heating equipment in buildings, consumer behavior and their interactions are considered for simulating energy consumption in conventional systems such as heaters, radiators and fan-coils. In order to validate the computer code, the available data of five buildings was used and the computed consumed energy was compared with the estimated energy extracted from monthly bills. The initial heating system was replaced by the alternative system and the effect of this change was observed on the energy consumption. As a result, the effect of changing heating equipment on energy consumption was investigated in different climates. Changing heater to radiator renders energy conservation up to 50% in all climates and changing radiator to fan-coil decreases energy consumption in climates with cold and dry winter.

##### 330 Energy Consumptions of Different Building Heating Systems for Various Meteorological Regions of Iran: A Comparison Study

Abstract:

To simulate heating systems in buildings, a research oriented computer code has been developed in Sharif University of Technology in Iran where the climate, existing heating equipment in buildings, consumer behavior and their interactions are considered for simulating energy consumption in conventional systems such as heaters, radiators and fan-coils. In order to validate the computer code, the available data of five buildings was used and the computed consumed energy was compared with the estimated energy extracted from monthly bills. The initial heating system was replaced by the alternative system and the effect of this change was observed on the energy consumption. As a result, the effect of changing heating equipment on energy consumption was investigated in different climates. Changing heater to radiator renders energy conservation up to 50% in all climates and changing radiator to fan-coil decreases energy consumption in climates with cold and dry winter.

##### 329 Comparative Study of Line Voltage Stability Indices for Voltage Collapse Forecasting in Power Transmission System

Abstract:

At present, the evaluation of voltage stability assessment experiences sizeable anxiety in the safe operation of power systems. This is due to the complications of a strain power system. With the snowballing of power demand by the consumers and also the restricted amount of power sources, therefore, the system has to perform at its maximum proficiency. Consequently, the noteworthy to discover the maximum ability boundary prior to voltage collapse should be undertaken. A preliminary warning can be perceived to evade the interruption of power system’s capacity. The effectiveness of line voltage stability indices (LVSI) is differentiated in this paper. The main purpose of the indices used is to predict the proximity of voltage instability of the electric power system. On the other hand, the indices are also able to decide the weakest load buses which are close to voltage collapse in the power system. The line stability indices are assessed using the IEEE 14 bus test system to validate its practicability. Results demonstrated that the implemented indices are practically relevant in predicting the manifestation of voltage collapse in the system. Therefore, essential actions can be taken to dodge the incident from arising.

##### 328 An Enhance of the Energy Effectiveness of the Convectors Used for Heating or Cooling

Authors: K. Fraňa, M. Müller, F. Lemfeld

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to present a research study of the convectors that are used for heating or cooling of the living room or industrial halls. The key points are experimental measurement and comprehensive numerical simulation of the flow coming throughout the part of the convector such as heat exchanger, input from the fan etc.. From the obtained results, the components of the convector are optimized in sense to increase thermal power efficiency due to improvement of heat convection or reduction of air drag friction. Both optimized aspects are leading to the more effective service conditions and to energy saving. The significant part of the convector research is a design of the unique measurement laboratory and adopting measure techniques. The new laboratory provides possibility to measure thermal power efficiency and other relevant parameters under specific service conditions of the convectors.
##### 327 Heating and Cooling Scenario of Blended Concrete Subjected to 780 Degrees Celsius

Authors: J. E. Oti, J. M. Kinuthia, R. Robinson, P. Davies

Abstract:

In this study, the Compressive strength of concretes made with Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (GGBS), Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Waste Glass Powder (WGP) after they were exposed 7800C (exposure duration of around 60 minutes) and then allowed to cool down gradually in the furnace for about 280 minutes at water binder ratio of 0.50 was investigated. GGBS, PFA, RHA and WGP were used to replace up to 20% Portland cement in the control concrete. Test for the determination of workability, compressive strength and tensile splitting strength of the concretes were carried out and the results were compared with control concrete. The test results showed that the compressive strength decreased by an average of around 30% after the concretes were exposed to the heating and cooling scenario.

##### 326 Development of Transmission Line Sleeve Inspection Robot

Authors: Jae-Kyung Lee, Nam-Joon Jung, Byung-Hak Cho

Abstract:

The line sleeves on power transmission line connects two conductors while the transmission line is constructing. However, the line sleeves sometimes cause transmission line break down, because the line sleeves are deteriorated and decayed by acid rain. When the transmission line is broken, the economical loss is huge. Therefore the line sleeves on power transmission lines should be inspected periodically to prevent power failure. In this paper, Korea Electric Power Research Institute reviewed several robots to inspect line status and proposes a robot to inspect line sleeve by measuring magnetic field on line sleeve. The developed inspection tool can reliable to move along transmission line and overcome several obstacles on transmission line. The developed system is also applied on power transmission line and verified the efficiency of the robot.
##### 325 Exergetic and Sustainability Evaluation of a Building Heating System in Izmir, Turkey

Authors: Nurdan Yildirim, Arif Hepbasli

Abstract:

Heating, cooling and lighting appliances in buildings account for more than one third of the world’s primary energy demand. Therefore, main components of the building heating systems play an essential role in terms of energy consumption. In this context, efficient energy and exergy utilization in HVAC-R systems has been very essential, especially in developing energy policies towards increasing efficiencies. The main objective of the present study is to assess the performance of a family house with a volume of 326.7 m3 and a net floor area of 121 m2, located in the city of Izmir, Turkey in terms of energetic, exergetic and sustainability aspects. The indoor and exterior air temperatures are taken as 20°C and 1°C, respectively. In the analysis and assessment, various metrics (indices or indicators) such as exergetic efficiency, exergy flexibility ratio and sustainability index are utilized. Two heating options (Case 1: condensing boiler and Case 2: air heat pump) are considered for comparison purposes. The total heat loss rate of the family house is determined to be 3770.72 W. The overall energy efficiencies of the studied cases are calculated to be 49.4% for Case 1 and 54.7% for Case 2. The overall exergy efficiencies, the flexibility factor and the sustainability index of Cases 1 and 2 are computed to be around 3.3%, 0.17 and 1.034, respectively.

##### 324 Investigation of Artificial Neural Networks Performance to Predict Net Heating Value of Crude Oil by Its Properties

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to use artificial neural networks computing technology for estimating the net heating value (NHV) of crude oil by its Properties. The approach is based on training the neural network simulator uses back-propagation as the learning algorithm for a predefined range of analytically generated well test response. The network with 8 neurons in one hidden layer was selected and prediction of this network has been good agreement with experimental data.

##### 323 Reliable Line-of-Sight and Non-Line-of-Sight Propagation Channel Identification in Ultra-Wideband Wireless Networks

Abstract:

The paper addresses the problem of line-of-sight (LOS) vs. non-line-of-sight (NLOS) propagation link identification in ultra-wideband (UWB) wireless networks, which is necessary for improving the accuracy of radiolocation and positioning applications. A LOS/NLOS likelihood hypothesis testing approach is applied based on exploiting distinctive statistical features of the channel impulse response (CIR) using parameters related to the “skewness” of the CIR and its root mean square (RMS) delay spread. A log-normal fit is presented for the probability densities of the CIR parameters. Simulation results show that different environments (residential, office, outdoor, etc.) have measurable differences in their CIR parameters’ statistics, which is then exploited in determining the nature of the propagation channels. Correct LOS/NLOS channel identification rates exceeding 90% are shown to be achievable for most types of environments. Additional improvement is also obtained by combining both CIR skewness and RMS delay statistics.

##### 322 A Model for Analysis the Induced Voltage of 115 kV On-Line Acting on Neighboring 22 kV Off-Line

Authors: S. Woothipatanapan, S. Prakobkit

Abstract:

This paper presents a model for analysis the induced voltage of transmission lines (energized) acting on neighboring distribution lines (de-energized). From environmental restrictions, 22 kV distribution lines need to be installed under 115 kV transmission lines. With the installation of the two parallel circuits like this, they make the induced voltage which can cause harm to operators. This work was performed with the ATP-EMTP modeling to analyze such phenomenon before field testing. Simulation results are used to find solutions to prevent danger to operators who are on the pole.

##### 321 A Two-Way Wilkinson Power Divider Realized Using One Eighth Wave Transmission Line for GSM Application

Abstract:

In this paper, a modified Wilkinson power divider for GSM application is presented. The quarter–wavelength microstrip lines in the conventional Wilkinson power divider (WPD) are replaced by one-eighth wavelength transmission line. Wilkinson power divider is designed using λ/4 and λ/8 transmission line. It has the operating frequency of 915 MHz which is used in the GSM standard. The proposed Wilkinson Power Divider is designed using the simulation tool Advanced Design System. The results of λ/8 transmission line are very close to the results of λ/4 transmission line. The isolation loss of λ/8 transmission line is improved by introducing a capacitor between the output ports. The proposed Wilkinson power divider has the best return loss of greater than -10 dB and isolation loss of -15.25 dB. The λ/8 transmission line Wilkinson power divider has the reduced size of 53.9 percentages than λ/4 transmission line WPD. The proposed design has simple structure, better isolation loss and good insertion loss.
##### 320 High Efficiency Solar Thermal Collectors Utilization in Process Heat: A Case Study of Textile Finishing Industry

Abstract:

Solar energy, since it is available every day, is seen as one of the most valuable renewable energy resources. Thus, the energy of sun should be efficiently used in various applications. The most known applications that use solar energy are heating water and spaces. High efficiency solar collectors need appropriate selective surfaces to absorb the heat. Selective surfaces (Selektif-Sera) used in this study are applied to flat collectors, which are produced by a roll to roll cost effective coating of nano nickel layers, developed in Selektif Teknoloji Co. Inc. Efficiency of flat collectors using Selektif-Sera absorbers are calculated in collaboration with Institute for Solar Technik Rapperswil, Switzerland. The main cause of high energy consumption in industry is mostly caused from low temperature level processes. There is considerable effort in research to minimize the energy use by renewable energy sources such as solar energy. A feasibility study will be presented to obtain the potential of solar thermal energy utilization in the textile industry using these solar collectors. For the feasibility calculations presented in this study, textile dyeing and finishing factory located at Kahramanmaras is selected since the geographic location was an important factor. Kahramanmaras is located in the south east part of Turkey thus has a great potential to have solar illumination much longer. It was observed that, the collector area is limited by the available area in the factory, thus a hybrid heating generating system (lignite/solar thermal) was preferred in the calculations of this study to be more realistic. During the feasibility work, the calculations took into account the preheating process, where well waters heated from 15 °C to 30-40 °C by using the hot waters in heat exchangers. Then the preheated water was heated again by high efficiency solar collectors. Economic comparison between the lignite use and solar thermal collector use was provided to determine the optimal system that can be used efficiently. The optimum design of solar thermal systems was studied depending on the optimum collector area. It was found that the solar thermal system is more economic and efficient than the merely lignite use. Return on investment time is calculated as 5.15 years.

Keywords: Solar energy, heating, solar heating.

##### 319 The Effect of Electric Field Distributions on Grains and Insect for Dielectric Heating Applications

Abstract:

This paper presents the effect of electric field distribution which is an electric field intensity analysis. Consideration of the dielectric heating of grains and insects, the rice and rice weevils are utilized for dielectric heating analysis. Furthermore, this analysis compares the effect of electric field distribution in rice and rice weevil. In this simulation, two copper plates are used to generate the electric field for dielectric heating system and put the rice materials between the copper plates. The simulation is classified in two cases, which are case I one rice weevil is placed in the rice and case II two rice weevils are placed at different position in the rice. Moreover, the probes are located in various different positions on plate. The power feeding on this plate is optimized by using CST EM studio program of 1000 watt electrical power at 39 MHz resonance frequency. The results of two cases are indicated that the most electric field distribution and intensity are occurred on the rice and rice weevils at the near point of the probes. Moreover, the heat is directed to the rice weevils more than the rice. When the temperature of rice and rice weevils are calculated and compared, the rice weevils has the temperature more than rice is about 41.62 Celsius degrees. These results can be applied for the dielectric heating applications to eliminate insect.

##### 318 Fin Spacing Effect of the Tube Fin Heat Exchanger at the Floor Heating Convector

Authors: F. Lemfeld, K. Frana

Abstract:

This article deals with numerical simulation of the floor heating convector in 3D. Numerical simulation is focused on cooling mode of the floor heating convector. Geometrical model represents section of the heat exchanger – two fins with the gap between, pipes are not involved. Two types of fin are examined – sinusoidal and angular shape with different fin spacing. Results of fin spacing in case of constant Reynolds number are presented. For the numerical simulation was used commercial software Ansys Fluent.
##### 317 Numerical and Experimental Studies of Joule Heating Effects around Crack and Notch Tips

Abstract:

This paper investigates the thermo-electric effects around the crack and notch tips under the electric current load. The research methods include the finite element analysis and thermal imaging experiment. The finite element solutions show that the electric current density field concentrates at the crack tip. Due to the Joule heating, this electric concentration causes the hot spot at the tip zone. From numerical and experimental results, this hot spot is identified. The temperature of the hot spot is affected by the electric load, operation time and geometry of the sample.

Keywords: Thermo-electric, Joule heating, crack tip, notch tip.

##### 316 Viability Analysis of the Use of Solar Energy for Water Heating in Brazil

Abstract:

The sun is an inexhaustible source and harness its potential both for heating and power generation is one of the most promising and necessary alternatives, mainly due to environmental issues. However, it should be noted that this has always been present in the generation of energy on earth, only indirectly, since it is responsible for virtually all other energy sources, such as generating source of evaporation of the water cycle, allowing the impoundment and the consequent generation of electricity (hydroelectric power); winds are caused by atmospheric induction caused by large scale solar radiation; petroleum, coal and natural gas were generated from waste plants and animals that originally derived energy required for their development of solar radiation. This paper presents a study on the feasibility of using solar energy for water heating in homes. A simplified methodology developed for formulation of solar heating operation model of water in alternative systems of solar energy in Brazil, and compared it to that in the international market. Across this research, it was possible to create new paradigms for alternative applications to the use of solar energy.

Keywords: Solar energy, solar heating, solar project.

##### 315 Modeling of Dielectric Heating in Radio- Frequency Applicator Optimized for Uniform Temperature by Means of Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Camelia Petrescu, Lavinia Ferariu

Abstract:

The paper presents an optimization study based on genetic algorithms (GA-s) for a radio-frequency applicator used in heating dielectric band products. The weakly coupled electro-thermal problem is analyzed using 2D-FEM. The design variables in the optimization process are: the voltage of a supplementary “guard" electrode and six geometric parameters of the applicator. Two objective functions are used: temperature uniformity and total active power absorbed by the dielectric. Both mono-objective and multiobjective formulations are implemented in GA optimization.
##### 314 Performance Analysis of Modified Solar Water Heating System for Climatic Condition of Allahabad, India

Authors: Kirti Tewari, Rahul Dev

Abstract:

Solar water heating is a thermodynamic process of heating water using sunlight with the help of solar water heater. Thus, solar water heater is a device used to harness solar energy. In this paper, a modified solar water heating system (MSWHS) has been proposed over flat plate collector (FPC) and Evacuated tube collector (ETC). The modifications include selection of materials other than glass, and glass wool which are conventionally used for fabricating FPC and ETC. Some modifications in design have also been proposed. Its collector is made of double layer of semi-cylindrical acrylic tubes and fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) insulation base. Water tank is made of double layer of acrylic sheet except base and north wall. FRP is used in base and north wall of the water tank. A concept of equivalent thickness has been utilised for calculating the dimensions of collector plate, acrylic tube and tank. A thermal model for the proposed design of MSWHS is developed and simulation is carried out on MATLAB for the capacity of 200L MSWHS having collector area of 1.6 m2, length of acrylic tubes of 2m at an inclination angle 25° which is taken nearly equal to the latitude of the given location. Latitude of Allahabad is 24.45° N. The results show that the maximum temperature of water in tank and tube has been found to be 71.2°C and 73.3°C at 17:00hr and 16:00hr respectively in March for the climatic data of Allahabad. Theoretical performance analysis has been carried out by varying number of tubes of collector, the tank capacity and climatic data for given months of winter and summer.
##### 313 An Approximate Engineering Method for Aerodynamic Heating Solution around Blunt Body Nose

Abstract:

This paper is devoted to predict laminar and turbulent heating rates around blunt re-entry spacecraft at hypersonic conditions. Heating calculation of a hypersonic body is normally performed during the critical part of its flight trajectory. The procedure is of an inverse method, where a shock wave is assumed, and the body shape that supports this shock, as well as the flowfield between the shock and body, are calculated. For simplicity the normal momentum equation is replaced with a second order pressure relation; this simplification significantly reduces computation time. The geometries specified in this research, are parabola and ellipsoids which may have conical after bodies. An excellent agreement is observed between the results obtained in this paper and those calculated by others- research. Since this method is much faster than Navier-Stokes solutions, it can be used in preliminary design, parametric study of hypersonic vehicles.
##### 312 Technical Analysis of Combined Solar Water Heating Systems for Cold Climate Regions

Abstract:

Renewable energy resources, which can supplement space and water heating for residential buildings, can have a noticeable impact on natural gas consumption and air pollution. This study considers a technical analysis of a combined solar water heating system with evacuated tube solar collectors for different solar coverage, ranging from 20% to 100% of the total roof area of a typical residential building located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The alternative heating systems were conventional (non-condensing) and condensing tankless water heaters and condensing boilers that were coupled to solar water heating systems. The performance of the alternative heating systems was compared to a traditional heating system, consisting of a conventional boiler, applied to houses of various gross floor areas. A comparison among the annual natural gas consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation, and emissions for the various house sizes indicated that the combined solar heating system can reduce the natural gas consumption and CO2 emissions, and increase CO2 mitigation for all the systems that were studied. The results suggest that solar water heating systems are potentially beneficial for residential heating system applications in terms of energy savings and CO2 mitigation.

##### 311 Evaluation of the Heating Capability and in vitro Hemolysis of Nanosized MgxMn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.3 and 0.4) Ferrites Prepared by Sol-gel Method

Abstract:

Among the different cancer treatments that are currently used, hyperthermia has a promising potential due to the multiple benefits that are obtained by this technique. In general terms, hyperthermia is a method that takes advantage of the sensitivity of cancer cells to heat, in order to damage or destroy them. Within the different ways of supplying heat to cancer cells and achieve their destruction or damage, the use of magnetic nanoparticles has attracted attention due to the capability of these particles to generate heat under the influence of an external magnetic field. In addition, these nanoparticles have a high surface area and sizes similar or even lower than biological entities, which allow their approaching and interaction with a specific region of interest. The most used magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia treatment are those based on iron oxides, mainly magnetite and maghemite, due to their biocompatibility, good magnetic properties and chemical stability. However, in order to fulfill more efficiently the requirements that demand the treatment of magnetic hyperthermia, there have been investigations using ferrites that incorporate different metallic ions, such as Mg, Mn, Co, Ca, Ni, Cu, Li, Gd, etc., in their structure. This paper reports the synthesis of nanosized MgxMn1-xFe2O4 (x = 0.3 and 0.4) ferrites by sol-gel method and their evaluation in terms of heating capability and in vitro hemolysis to determine the potential use of these nanoparticles as thermoseeds for the treatment of cancer by magnetic hyperthermia. It was possible to obtain ferrites with nanometric sizes, a single crystalline phase with an inverse spinel structure and a behavior near to that of superparamagnetic materials. Additionally, at concentrations of 10 mg of magnetic material per mL of water, it was possible to reach a temperature of approximately 45°C, which is within the range of temperatures used for the treatment of hyperthermia. The results of the in vitro hemolysis assay showed that, at the concentrations tested, these nanoparticles are non-hemolytic, as their percentage of hemolysis is close to zero. Therefore, these materials can be used as thermoseeds for the treatment of cancer by magnetic hyperthermia.