Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 213

Search results for: Contextual games

213 Comparison between Approaches Used in Two WalkAbout Projects

Authors: Derek O Reilly, Piotr Milczarski, Shane Dowdall, Artur Hłobaż, Krzysztof Podlaski, Hiram Bollaert

Abstract:

Learning through creation of contextual games is a very promising approach when undertaking interdisciplinary and international group projects. During 2013 and 2014 the authors organized two intensive student projects. The two projects were in different countries and different conditions. Between them, the two projects involved 68 students and 12 mentors from five EU countries and from various academic disciplines. In this paper we share our experience of these two projects and we suggest approaches that can be utilized to strengthen the chances of succeeding in short (12-15 days long) intensive student projects.

Keywords: Contextual games, mobile games, GGULIVRR, WalkAbout, Erasmus Intensive Programme.

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212 The Framework for Adaptive Games for Mobile Application Using Neural Networks

Authors: Widodo Budiharto, Michael Yoseph Ricky, Ro'fah Nur Rachmawati

Abstract:

The rapid development of the BlackBerry games industry and its development goals were not just for entertainment, but also used for educational of students interactively. Unfortunately the development of adaptive educational games on BlackBerry in Indonesian language that interesting and entertaining for learning process is very limited. This paper shows the research of development of novel adaptive educational games for students who can adjust the difficulty level of games based on the ability of the user, so that it can motivate students to continue to play these games. We propose a method where these games can adjust the level of difficulty, based on the assessment of the results of previous problems using neural networks with three inputs in the form of percentage correct, the speed of answer and interest mode of games (animation / lessons) and 1 output. The experimental results are presented and show the adaptive games are running well on mobile devices based on BlackBerry platform

Keywords: Adaptive games, neural networks, mobile games, BlackBerry

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211 Game Skill Measure for Mixed Games

Authors: Roman V. Yampolskiy

Abstract:

Games can be classified as games of skill, games of chance or otherwise be classified as mixed. This paper deals with the topic of scientifically classifying mixed games as more reliant on elements of chance or elements of skill and ways to scientifically measure the amount of skill involved. This is predominantly useful for classification of games as legal or illegal in deferent jurisdictions based on the local gaming laws. We propose a novel measure of skill to chance ratio called the Game Skill Measure (GSM) and utilize it to calculate the skill component of a popular variant of Poker.

Keywords: Chance, Game, Skill, Luck.

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210 The Core and Shapley Function for Games on Augmenting Systems with a Coalition Structure

Authors: Fan-Yong Meng

Abstract:

In this paper, we first introduce the model of games on augmenting systems with a coalition structure, which can be seen as an extension of games on augmenting systems. The core of games on augmenting systems with a coalition structure is defined, and an equivalent form is discussed. Meantime, the Shapley function for this type of games is given, and two axiomatic systems of the given Shapley function are researched. When the given games are quasi convex, the relationship between the core and the Shapley function is discussed, which does coincide as in classical case. Finally, a numerical example is given.

Keywords: Cooperative game, augmenting system, Shapley function, core.

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209 Equal Sharing Solutions for Bicooperative Games

Authors: Fan-Yong Meng, Yan Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, we discuss the egalitarianism solution (ES) and center-of-gravity of the imputation-set value (CIV) for bicooperative games, which can be seen as the extensions of the solutions for traditional games given by Dutta and Ray [1] and Driessen and Funaki [2]. Furthermore, axiomatic systems for the given values are proposed. Finally, a numerical example is offered to illustrate the player ES and CTV.

Keywords: Bicooperative games, egalitarianism solution, center of- gravity of the imputation-set value.

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208 Why Do People Abandon Mobile Social Games? Using Candy Crush Saga as an Example

Authors: Pei-Shan Wei, Szu-Ying Lee, Hsi-Peng Lu, Jen-Chuen Tzou, Chien-I Weng

Abstract:

Mobile social games recently become extremely popular, spawning a whole new entertainment culture. However, mobile game players are fickle, quickly and easily picking up and abandoning games. This pilot study seeks to identify factors that influence users to discontinuing playing mobile social games. We identified three sacrifices which can prompt users to abandon games: monetary sacrifice, time sacrifice and privacy sacrifice. The results showed that monetary sacrifice has a greater impact than the other two factors in causing players to discontinue usage intention.

Keywords: Abandon, Mobile devices, Mobile social games, Perceived sacrifice.

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207 Educational Quiz Board Games for Adaptive E-Learning

Authors: Boyan Bontchev, Dessislava Vassileva

Abstract:

Internet computer games turn to be more and more attractive within the context of technology enhanced learning. Educational games as quizzes and quests have gained significant success in appealing and motivating learners to study in a different way and provoke steadily increasing interest in new methods of application. Board games are specific group of games where figures are manipulated in competitive play mode with race conditions on a surface according predefined rules. The article represents a new, formalized model of traditional quizzes, puzzles and quests shown as multimedia board games which facilitates the construction process of such games. Authors provide different examples of quizzes and their models in order to demonstrate the model is quite general and does support not only quizzes, mazes and quests but also any set of teaching activities. The execution process of such models is explained and, as well, how they can be useful for creation and delivery of adaptive e-learning courseware.

Keywords: Quiz, board game, e-learning, adaptive.

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206 Cities Simulation and Representation in Locative Games from the Perspective of Cultural Studies

Authors: B. A. A. Paixão, J. V. B. Gomide

Abstract:

This work aims to analyze the locative structure used by the locative games of the company Niantic. To fulfill this objective, a literature review on the representation and simulation of cities was developed; interviews with Ingress players and playing Ingress. Relating these data, it was possible to deepen the relationship between the virtual and the real to create the simulation of cities and their cultural objects in locative games. Cities representation associates geo-location provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS), with augmented reality and digital image, and provides a new paradigm in the city interaction with its parts and real and virtual world elements, homeomorphic to real world. Bibliographic review of papers related to the representation and simulation study and their application in locative games was carried out and is presented in the present paper. The cities representation and simulation concepts in locative games, and how this setting enables the flow and immersion in urban space, are analyzed. Some examples of games are discussed for this new setting development, which is a mix of real and virtual world. Finally, it was proposed a Locative Structure for electronic games using the concepts of heterotrophic representations and isotropic representations conjoined with immediacy and hypermediacy.

Keywords: Cities representation, city simulation, games simulation, locative games.

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205 Integrating Computer Games with Mathematics Instruction in Elementary School- An Analysis of Motivation, Achievement, and Pupil-Teacher Interactions

Authors: Kuo Hung Huang, Chong-Ji Ke

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore the impacts of computer games on the mathematics instruction. First, the research designed and implemented the web-based games according to the content of existing textbook. And the researcher collected and analyzed the information related to the mathematics instruction integrating the computer games. In this study, the researcher focused on the learning motivation of mathematics, mathematics achievement, and pupil-teacher interactions in classroom. The results showed that students under instruction integrating computer games significantly improved in motivation and achievement. The teacher tended to use less direct teaching and provide more time for student-s active learning.

Keywords: computer games, mathematics instruction, pupil-teacher interaction, technology-enhanced learning

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204 The Banzhaf-Owen Value for Fuzzy Games with a Coalition Structure

Authors: Fan-Yong Meng

Abstract:

In this paper, a generalized form of the Banzhaf-Owen value for cooperative fuzzy games with a coalition structure is proposed. Its axiomatic system is given by extending crisp case. In order to better understand the Banzhaf-Owen value for fuzzy games with a coalition structure, we briefly introduce the Banzhaf-Owen values for two special kinds of fuzzy games with a coalition structure, and give their explicit forms.

Keywords: Cooperative fuzzy game, Banzhaf-Owen value, multi linear extension, Choquet integral.

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203 The Role of Contextual Ontologies in Enterprise Modeling

Authors: Ahmed Arara

Abstract:

Information sharing and exchange, rather than information processing, is what characterizes information technology in the 21st century. Ontologies, as shared common understanding, gain increasing attention, as they appear as the most promising solution to enable information sharing both at a semantic level and in a machine-processable way. Domain Ontology-based modeling has been exploited to provide shareability and information exchange among diversified, heterogeneous applications of enterprises. Contextual ontologies are “an explicit specification of contextual conceptualization". That is: ontology is characterized by concepts that have multiple representations and they may exist in several contexts. Hence, contextual ontologies are a set of concepts and relationships, which are seen from different perspectives. Contextualization is to allow for ontologies to be partitioned according to their contexts. The need for contextual ontologies in enterprise modeling has become crucial due to the nature of today's competitive market. Information resources in enterprise is distributed and diversified and is in need to be shared and communicated locally through the intranet and globally though the internet. This paper discusses the roles that ontologies play in an enterprise modeling, and how ontologies assist in building a conceptual model in order to provide communicative and interoperable information systems. The issue of enterprise modeling based on contextual domain ontology is also investigated, and a framework is proposed for an enterprise model that consists of various applications.

Keywords: Contextual ontologies, Enterprise model, domainontology.

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202 Developing a Customizable Serious Game and Its Applicability in the Classroom

Authors: Anita Kéri

Abstract:

Recent developments in the field of education have led to a renewed interest in teaching methodologies and practices. Gamification is fast becoming a key instrument in the education of new generations and besides other methods, serious games have become the center of attention. Ready-built serious games are available for most higher education institutions to buy and implement. However, monetary restraints and the unalterable nature of the games might deter most higher education institutions from the application of these serious games. Therefore, there is a continuously growing need for a customizable serious game that has been developed based on a concrete need analysis and experts’ opinion. There has been little evidence so far of serious games that have been created based on relevant and current need analysis from higher education institution teachers, professional practitioners and students themselves. Therefore, the aim of this current paper is to analyze the needs of higher education institution educators with special emphasis on their needs, the applicability of serious games in their classrooms, and exploring options for the development of a customizable serious game framework. The paper undertakes to analyze workshop discussions on implementing serious games in education and propose a customizable serious game framework applicable in the education of the new generation. Research results show that the most important feature of a serious game is its customizability. The fact that practitioners are able to manage different scenarios and upload their own content to a game seems to be a key to the increasingly widespread application of serious games in the classroom.

Keywords: Education, gamification, game-based learning, serious games.

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201 Educating Students in Business Process Management with Simulation Games

Authors: Vesna Bosilj Vuksic, Mirjana Pejic Bach, Tomislav Hernaus

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present a framework for empirical investigation of the effectiveness of simulation games for student learning of BPM concept. A future research methodology is explained and a normative model that extends the standard TAM model by introducing latent and mediating variables into the relationship between independent variables and dependent variable is developed. Future research propositions are defined in order to examine the benefits that can be achieved through the use of BPM simulation games in ERP courses.

Keywords: Business process management, simulation games, education, technology acceptance model.

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200 Contextual Factors in the Decision Making of Industrialized Building System Technology

Authors: S. A. S. Zakaria, G. Brewer, T. Gajendran

Abstract:

Currently, the Malaysian construction industry is focusing on transforming construction processes from conventional building methods to the Industrialized Building System (IBS). Still, research on the decision making of IBS technology adoption with the influence of contextual factors is scarce. The purpose of this paper is to explore how contextual factors influence the IBS decision making in building projects which is perceived by those involved in construction industry namely construction stakeholders and IBS supply chain members. Theoretical background, theoretical frameworks and literatures which identify possible contextual factors that influence decision making towards IBS technology adoption are presented. This paper also discusses the importance of contextual factors in IBS decision making, highlighting some possible crossover benefits and making some suggestions as to how these can be utilized. Conclusions are drawn and recommendations are made with respect to the perception of socio-economic, IBS policy and IBS technology associated with building projects.

Keywords: decision making, technology adoptions, contextualfactors, Industrialized Building Systems

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199 User Acceptance of Educational Games: A Revised Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT)

Authors: Roslina Ibrahim, Azizah Jaafar

Abstract:

Educational games (EG) seem to have lots of potential due to digital games popularity and preferences of our younger generations of learners. However, most studies focus on game design and its effectiveness while little has been known about the factors that can affect users to accept or to reject EG for their learning. User acceptance research try to understand the determinants of information systems (IS) adoption among users by investigating both systems factors and users factors. Upon the lack of knowledge on acceptance factors for educational games, we seek to understand the issue. This study proposed a model of acceptance factors based on Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). We use original model (performance expectancy, effort expectancy and social influence) together with two new determinants (learning opportunities and enjoyment). We will also investigate the effect of gender and gaming experience that moderate the proposed factors.

Keywords: educational games, games acceptance, user acceptance model, UTAUT

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198 The Intensity of Load Experienced by Female Basketball Players during Competitive Games

Authors: Tomáš Vencúrik, Jiří Nykodým

Abstract:

This study compares the intensity of game load among player positions and between the 1st and the 2nd half of the games. Two guards, three forwards, and three centers (female basketball players) participated in this study. The heart rate (HR) and its development were monitored during two competitive games. Statistically insignificant differences in the intensity of game load were recorded between guards, forwards, and centers below and above 85% of the maximal heart rate (HRmax) and in the mean HR as % of HRmax (87.81±3.79%, 87.02±4.37%, and 88.76±3.54%, respectively). Moreover, when the 1st and the 2nd half of the games were compared in the mean HR (87.89±4.18% vs. 88.14±3.63% of HRmax), no statistical significance was recorded. This information can be useful for coaching staff, to manage and to precisely plan the training process.

Keywords: Game load, heart rate, player positions, the 1st and the 2nd half of the games.

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197 The Game of Synchronized Quadromineering

Authors: Alessandro Cincotti

Abstract:

In synchronized games players make their moves simultaneously rather than alternately. Synchronized Quadromineering is the synchronized version of Quadromineering, a variants of a classical two-player combinatorial game called Domineering. Experimental results for small m × n boards (with m + n < 15) and some theoretical results for general k × n boards (with k = 4, 5, 6) are presented. Moreover, some Synchronized Quadromineering variants are also investigated.

Keywords: Combinatorial games, Synchronized games, Quadromineering.

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196 Multimedia Games for Elementary/Primary School Education and Entertainment

Authors: Andrew Laghos

Abstract:

Computers are increasingly being used as educational tools in elementary/primary schools worldwide. A specific application of such computer use, is that of multimedia games, where the aim is to combine pedagogy and entertainment. This study reports on a case-study whereby an educational multimedia game has been developed for use by elementary school children. The stages of the application-s design, implementation and evaluation are presented. Strengths of the game are identified and discussed, and its weaknesses are identified, allowing for suggestions for future redesigns. The results show that the use of games can engage children in the learning process for longer periods of time with the added benefit of the entertainment factor.

Keywords: Education, entertainment, games, school

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195 The Game of Maundy Block

Authors: Alessandro Cincotti

Abstract:

The game of Maundy Block is the three-player variant of Maundy Cake, a classical combinatorial game. Even though to determine the solution of Maundy Cake is trivial, solving Maundy Block is challenging because of the identification of queer games, i.e., games where no player has a winning strategy.

Keywords: Combinatorial game, Maundy Cake, Three-player partizan games.

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194 A New Approach for Flexible Document Categorization

Authors: Jebari Chaker, Ounelli Habib

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a new approach for flexible document categorization according to the document type or genre instead of topic. Our approach implements two homogenous classifiers: contextual classifier and logical classifier. The contextual classifier is based on the document URL, whereas, the logical classifier use the logical structure of the document to perform the categorization. The final categorization is obtained by combining contextual and logical categorizations. In our approach, each document is assigned to all predefined categories with different membership degrees. Our experiments demonstrate that our approach is best than other genre categorization approaches.

Keywords: Categorization, combination, flexible, logicalstructure, genre, category, URL.

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193 The Game of Synchronized Triomineering and Synchronized Tridomineering

Authors: Alessandro Cincotti, Shigetaka Komori, Hiroyuki Iida

Abstract:

In synchronized games players make their moves simultaneously rather than alternately. Synchronized Triomineering and Synchronized Tridomineering are respectively the synchronized versions of Triomineering and Tridomineering, two variants of a classic two-player combinatorial game called Domineering. Experimental results for small m × n boards (with m + n ≤ 12 for Synchronized Triomineering and m + n ≤ 10 for Synchronized Tridomineering) and some theoretical results for general k×n boards (with k = 3, 4, 5 for Synchronized Triomineering and k = 3 for Synchronized Tridomineering) are presented. Future research is indicated.

Keywords: Combinatorial games, Synchronized games, Triomineering, Tridomineering.

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192 Grounded Theory of Consumer Loyalty, a Perspective through Video Game Addiction

Authors: Bassam Shaikh, R. S. A. Jumain

Abstract:

Game addiction has become an extremely important topic in psychology researchers, particularly in understanding and explaining why individuals become addicted (to video games). In previous studies, effect of online game addiction on social responsibilities, health problems, government action, and the behaviors of individuals to purchase and the causes of making individuals addicted on the video games has been discussed. Extending these concepts in marketing, it could be argued than the phenomenon could enlighten and extending our understanding on consumer loyalty. This study took the Grounded Theory approach, and found that motivation, satisfaction, fulfillments, exploration and achievements to be part of the important elements that builds consumer loyalty.

Keywords: Consumer Loyalty, Video Games Addiction, Video Games, Grounded Theory.

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191 Using Serious Games to Improve the Preparation of Pre-Service Teachers in Bulgaria

Authors: Rumyana Peytcheva-Forsyth, Blagovesna Yovkova

Abstract:

This paper presents the outcomes of a qualitative study which aims to investigate the pedagogical potentials of serious games in the preparation of future teachers. The authors discuss the existing problems and barriers associated with the organization of teaching practices in Bulgaria as part of the pre-service teacher training, as well as the attitudes and perceptions of the interviewed academics, teachers and trainees concerning the integration of serious games in the teaching practicum. The study outcomes strongly confirm the positive attitudes of the respondents to the introduction of virtual learning environments for the development of professional skills of future teachers as a supplement to the traditional forms of education. Through the inclusion of serious games it is expected to improve the quality of practical training of pre-service teachers as they overcome many of the problems identified in the existing teaching practices. The outcomes of the study will inform the design of the educational simulation software which is part of the project SimAula Tomorrow's Teachers Training.

Keywords: pre-service teacher training, serious games, virtual practicum, simulations

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190 Best Starting Pitcher of the Chinese Professional Baseball League in 2009

Authors: Chih-Cheng Chen, Meng-Lung Lin, Yung-Tan Lee, Tien-Tze Chen, Ching-Yu Tseng

Abstract:

Baseball is unique among other sports in Taiwan. Baseball has become a “symbol of the Taiwanese spirit and Taiwan-s national sport". Taiwan-s first professional sports league, the Chinese Professional Baseball League (CPBL), was established in 1989. Starters pitch many more innings over the course of a season and for a century teams have made all their best pitchers starters. In this study, we attempt to determine the on-field performance these pitchers and which won the most CPBL games in 2009. We utilize the discriminate analysis approach to solve the problem, examining winning pitchers and their statistics, to reliably find the best starting pitcher. The data employed in this paper include innings pitched (IP), earned runs allowed (ERA) and walks plus hits per inning pitched (WPHIP) provided by the official website of the CPBL. The results show that Aaron Rakers was the best starting pitcher of the CPBL. The top 10 CPBL starting pitchers won 14 games to 8 games in the 2009 season. Though Fisher Discriminant Analysis, predicted to top 10 CPBL starting pitchers probably won 20 games to 9 games, more 1 game to 7 games in actually counts in 2009 season.

Keywords: Chinese Professional Baseball League, startingpitcher, Fisher's Discriminate analysis

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189 Endogenous Fantasy – Based Serious Games: Intrinsic Motivation and Learning

Authors: Robert F. Kenny, Glenda A. Gunter

Abstract:

Current technological advances pale in comparison to the changes in social behaviors and 'sense of place' that is being empowered since the Internet made it on the scene. Today-s students view the Internet as both a source of entertainment and an educational tool. The development of virtual environments is a conceptual framework that needs to be addressed by educators and it is important that they become familiar with who these virtual learners are and how they are motivated to learn. Massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs), if well designed, could become the vehicle of choice to deliver learning content. We suggest that these games, in order to accomplish these goals, must begin with well-established instructional design principles that are co-aligned with established principles of video game design. And have the opportunity to provide an instructional model of significant prescriptive power. The authors believe that game designers need to take advantage of the natural motivation player-learners have for playing games by developing them in such a way so as to promote, intrinsic motivation, content learning, transfer of knowledge, and naturalization.

Keywords: serious games, endogenous fantasy, intrinsic motivation, online learning.

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188 A Game Design Framework for Vocational Education

Authors: Heide Lukosch, Roy Van Bussel, Sebastiaan Meijer

Abstract:

Serious games have proven to be a useful instrument to engage learners and increase motivation. Nevertheless, a broadly accepted, practical instructional design approach to serious games does not exist. In this paper, we introduce the use of an instructional design model that has not been applied to serious games yet, and has some advantages compared to other design approaches. We present the case of mechanics mechatronics education to illustrate the close match with timing and role of knowledge and information that the instructional design model prescribes and how this has been translated to a rigidly structured game design. The structured approach answers the learning needs of applicable knowledge within the target group. It combines advantages of simulations with strengths of entertainment games to foster learner-s motivation in the best possible way. A prototype of the game will be evaluated along a well-respected evaluation method within an advanced test setting including test and control group.

Keywords: Serious Gaming, Simulation, Complex Learning.

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187 Simulation Games in Business Process Management Education

Authors: Vesna Bosilj Vuksic, Mirjana Pejic Bach

Abstract:

Business process management (BPM) has become widely accepted within business community as a means for improving business performance. However, it is of the highest importance to incorporate BPM as part of the curriculum at the university level education in order to achieve the appropriate acceptance of the method. Goal of the paper is to determine the current state of education in business process management (BPM) at the Croatian universities and abroad. It investigates the applied forms of instruction and teaching methods and gives several proposals for BPM courses improvement. Since majority of undergraduate and postgraduate students have limited understanding of business processes and lack of any practical experience, there is a need for introducing new teaching approaches. Therefore, we offer some suggestions for further improvement, among which the introduction of simulation games environment in BPM education is strongly recommended.

Keywords: business process management, simulation games, education

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186 Contextual Enablers and Behaviour Outputs for Action of Knowledge Workers

Authors: Juan-Gabriel Cegarra-Navarro, Alexeis Garcia-Perez, Denise Bedford

Abstract:

This paper provides guidelines for what constitutes a knowledge worker. Many graduates from non-managerial domains adopt, at some point in their professional careers, management roles at different levels, ranging from team leaders through to executive leadership. This is particularly relevant for professionals from an engineering background. Moving from a technical to an executive-level requires an understanding of those behaviour management techniques that can motivate and support individuals and their performance. Further, the transition to management also demands a shift of contextual enablers from tangible to intangible resources, which allows individuals to create new capacities, competencies, and capabilities. In this dynamic process, the knowledge worker becomes that key individual who can help members of the management board to transform information into relevant knowledge. However, despite its relevance in shaping the future of the organization in its transition to the knowledge economy, the role of a knowledge worker has not yet been studied to an appropriate level in the current literature. In this study, the authors review both the contextual enablers and behaviour outputs related to the role of the knowledge worker and relate these to their ability to deal with everyday management issues such as knowledge heterogeneity, varying motivations, information overload, or outdated information. This study highlights that the aggregate of capacities, competences and capabilities (CCCs) can be defined as knowledge structures, the study proposes several contextual enablers and behaviour outputs that knowledge workers can use to work cooperatively, acquire, distribute and knowledge. Therefore, this study contributes to a better comprehension of how CCCs can be managed at different levels through their contextual enablers and behaviour outputs.

Keywords: Knowledge workers, capacities, competences, capabilities, knowledge structures.

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185 A Context-Sensitive Algorithm for Media Similarity Search

Authors: Guang-Ho Cha

Abstract:

This paper presents a context-sensitive media similarity search algorithm. One of the central problems regarding media search is the semantic gap between the low-level features computed automatically from media data and the human interpretation of them. This is because the notion of similarity is usually based on high-level abstraction but the low-level features do not sometimes reflect the human perception. Many media search algorithms have used the Minkowski metric to measure similarity between image pairs. However those functions cannot adequately capture the aspects of the characteristics of the human visual system as well as the nonlinear relationships in contextual information given by images in a collection. Our search algorithm tackles this problem by employing a similarity measure and a ranking strategy that reflect the nonlinearity of human perception and contextual information in a dataset. Similarity search in an image database based on this contextual information shows encouraging experimental results.

Keywords: Context-sensitive search, image search, media search, similarity ranking, similarity search.

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184 A Study on Multi-Agent Behavior in a Soccer Game Domain

Authors: S. R. Mohd Shukri, M. K. Mohd Shaukhi

Abstract:

There have been many games developing simulation of soccer games. Many of these games have been designed with highly realistic features to attract more users. Many have also incorporated better artificial intelligent (AI) similar to that in a real soccer game. One of the challenging issues in a soccer game is the cooperation, coordination and negotiation among distributed agents in a multi-agent system. This paper focuses on the incorporation of multi-agent technique in a soccer game domain. The better the cooperation of a multi-agent team, the more intelligent the game will be. Thus, past studies were done on the robotic soccer game because of the better multi-agent system implementation. From this study, a better approach and technique of multi-agent behavior could be select to improve the author-s 2D online soccer game.

Keywords: Multi-Agent, Robotic Intelligent, Role Assignment, Formation.

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