Cities Simulation and Representation in Locative Games from the Perspective of Cultural Studies
This work aims to analyze the locative structure used by the locative games of the company Niantic. To fulfill this objective, a literature review on the representation and simulation of cities was developed; interviews with Ingress players and playing Ingress. Relating these data, it was possible to deepen the relationship between the virtual and the real to create the simulation of cities and their cultural objects in locative games. Cities representation associates geo-location provided by the Global Positioning System (GPS), with augmented reality and digital image, and provides a new paradigm in the city interaction with its parts and real and virtual world elements, homeomorphic to real world. Bibliographic review of papers related to the representation and simulation study and their application in locative games was carried out and is presented in the present paper. The cities representation and simulation concepts in locative games, and how this setting enables the flow and immersion in urban space, are analyzed. Some examples of games are discussed for this new setting development, which is a mix of real and virtual world. Finally, it was proposed a Locative Structure for electronic games using the concepts of heterotrophic representations and isotropic representations conjoined with immediacy and hypermediacy.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1474355Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 222
 L. A. Andrade, Locative Games. Salvador: Edufba, 2016.
 P. B. Andersen. Pervasive Computing and Space. In: Proceedings of the IFIP TC8 / WG8.1 Working Conference on Organizational Semiotics: Evolving a Science of Information Systems. Montreal, Quebec Concordia University, Pp. 106-125, 2001.
 L. A. Andrade. Games And Geographic Space: use and appropriation of locative media in digital games. In: Revista Mídia e Cotidiano. Number 10, 2016.
 E. Aarseth. Genre Trouble: Narrativism and the Art of Simulation. In: First Person: New Media as Story, Performance and Game. Ed. Wardrip-Furin and Harrigan. MIT Press, 2004.
 R. T. Azuma. A Survey of Augmented Reality. In: Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 6, 4, 355-385, 1997. Available in
 R. Azuma, M. Billinghurst, G. Klinker. Special Section on Mobile Augmented Reality. In: Computers & Graphics 35, 2011. doi: 10.1016/j.cag.2011.05.002.
 J. D. Bolter, R. Grusin. Remediation: understanding new media. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 293p, 2000.
 R. Caillois. Man, Play, and Games. University of Illinois Press, 2001.
 T. Cresswell. Place. In: Elsevier Inc, 2009. Available in
 M. Cziksentmihalyi. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. Harper Perennial, New York, 1990.
 J. F. Craig. ManifestAR: an augmented reality manifesto. 2013. Available in
 A. Dekker. New Ways of Seeing: Artistic Usage of Locative Media. In: UC Irvine: Digital Arts and Culture Conference, 2009. Available in
 J. Dovey, H. W. Kennedy. Game cultures: Computer games as new media. Open University Press, New York, 2006.
 EA. SimCity™. Available in < http://www2.ea.com/sim-city>. Accessed on April 30, 2018.
 S. Fragoso. The spatial experience in games and other media: notes from a analytical theoretical modelo of spatial representations. In: Comunicação e Sociedade, vol. 27, 2015, pp. 195 – 212 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.17231/comsoc.27, 2015.
 GPS. Available in < http://www.gps.gov/systems/gps/>. Accessed on April 30, 2018.
 S. Hall. Thinking the Diáspora: Homc-Thoughts from Abroad. Small Axe, v. 6, p. 1-18, Sept., 1999. Indiana University Press. In: HALL, Stuart. Diaspora: Cultural Identities and Mediation. / Editor Liv Sovik – Editora UFMG, Belo Horizonte, 2013.
 R. R. Hill, D, Hodson. The art and science of live, virtual, and constructive simulation for test and analysis. In: Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation: Applications, Methodology, Technology, Vol. 11(2) 77–89, 2014. DOI: 0.1177/1548512913506620.
 C. Jesus, L. J. Silva, L. Oliveira. Potentialities of augmented reality mobile services applied to tourism. In: 8º Congresso LUSOCOM, 2009.
 J. Jenish. The Art of the Video Game. New York: Quirk Books, 2008.
 H. Jenkins. Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. NYU Press, 2011.
 P. Kiefer, S. Scheider. (Re-)Localization of Location-Based Games. In: Advances in Geographic Information Science, Utrecht University Repository, 2017, Available in < https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/342085> accessed in May 21, 2018.
 M. Majorek, M. Vall. Ingress. An Example of a New Dimension in Entertainment. In: Games and Culture, Sage Journals, Vol 11, Issue 7-8, 2015.
 P. Meggs. História do design gráfico. São Paulo: Cosac Naify, 2009.
 J. Nielsen. Ten Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design. In: Nielsen Norman Group. Evidence-Based User Experience Research, Training, and Consulting.California, 1 de janeiro de 1995. Available in < https://www.nngroup.com/articles/ten-usability-heuristics/ > accessed in May 21, 2018.
 B. Sarlo. Cenas da vida pós-moderna: intelectuais, arte e vídeo-cultura na Argentina. Editora UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, 1997.
 A. Leszczynski, J. Crampton. Introduction: Spatial Big Data and everyday life. In: Big Data & Society, Sage Jounal, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2053951716661366.
 F. J. Petani, J. Mengis. In search of lost space: The process of space planning through remembering and history. In: Organization, SAGE Journals. Vol 23, Issue 1, pp. 71 – 89, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1350508415605102.
 B. K. Walther. Notes on the Methodology of Pervasive Gaming. In: F. Kishino, Y. Kitamura, H. Kato, N. Nagata. (eds) Entertainment Computing - ICEC 2005. ICEC 2005. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 3711. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005.
 R. Ascott. The Architecture of Cybeperception. In: LEÃO, Lúcia. Interlab: labyrinth of contemporary thinking São Paulo: Editora Iluminuras, 2002.
 A. Wood. Recursive Space: Play and Creating Space. In: Games and Culture. SAGE journals, 2012. DOI: 10.1177/1555412012440310.
 D. Nicklas, Ch. Pfisterer, B. Mitschang. Towards Location-based Games. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Applications and Development of Computer Games in the 21st Century: ADCOG 21. Hongkong Special Administrative Region, China, pp. 61-67, 2001.
 Niantic Inc, Available in < https://www.nianticlabs.com/> Accessed on May 24, 2018.
 Field Trip, 2015, Available in
 Google Play, Available in < https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nianticproject.scout> Accessed on May 24, 2018.
 Google Paly, Available in < https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nianticproject.scout> Accessed on May 24, 2018.
 T. Hatfield. Ingress. The game that reveals Google's secret war to control London. In: Games Week, Thr Guardian, 2014. Available in < https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/jun/04/ingress-the-game-that-reveals-googles-secret-war-to-control-london> Accessed on May 24, 2018.
 M. Cziksentmihalyi. Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention. HarperCollins, 2009.
 Ingress Help Center, Available in < https://support.ingress.com/hc/pt-br> Accessed on May 24, 2018.
 H. E. Cooley, N. Verhoeff, H. Zwicker. Urban Cartographies. Mapping Mobility and Presence. In: Television & New Media. Sage Journals. Vol 18, Issue 1, pp. 93 – 99, 2016. DOI: 10.1177/1527476416670012.
 N. Avouris, N. Yiannoutsou. A Review of Mobile Location-based Games for Learning across Physical and Virtual Spaces. In: Journal of Universal Computer Science, vol. 18, no. 15, 2012.
 M. Chang, E. Goodman. Asphalt Games: Enacting Place Through Locative Media. Leonardo Electronic Almanac. 14, 3/4, 4, June 2006. ISSN: 10714391.
 J. Preece, Y. Rogers, H. Sharp. Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction. Wiley, 2015.